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Various Spellings: Winnebago, Winebago, Winnebaygo, Wennebago
Ancestrial Homeland: near the Door Penisula, near Green Bay on
Lake Michigan- East Wisconsin and South of Green Bay
Clans: Thunderbird, Eagle, Pigeon, Hawk, Wolf, Bear, Water Spirit, Elk, Deer, Buffalo, Fish,and Snake
Tribal Leaders:Red Bird, White Cloud,
Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska
P.O. Box 687
Winnebago, NE 68071
- Winnebago Indian Official Website
- 1634: French Jesuit priest, Jean Nicolet
- 1689-1763: French and Indian War fought with the French
- 1775-83: Revolutionary War - fought with the British
- 1809-11: Tecumseh's Rebellion fought against the British
- 1827: Uprising lead to forced removal west of the Mississippi
- 1832: Black Hawk War
- 1832: ceded land in Wisconsin for land in Iowa.
- 1836: smallpox epidemic killed many
- 1840-1863: forced relocation: 700 tribal members died; after the Black Hawk War forced to relocate west of the Mississippi,
- 1840: Iowa
- 1846: Minnesota
- 1848: to Long Prairie Reservation,
- 1857: Blue Earth River Reservation
- 1862: Crow Creek Reservation, South Dakota
- and on to Nebraska
- 1865: settle on Omaha Reservation,Nebraska
- December 1873 - January 1874: removal of 1,000 Winnebago Indians from Wisconsin to Nebraska.
- 1934: became federally recognized under the Indian Reorganization Act.
Additional References to the History of the Tribe
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Winnebago tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America and in David Bushnell's Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi.
Hymen Lubman. A History of the Nebraska Winnebago Indians. 1962. FHL book 970.3 W73q
A reservation is a tract of land set aside for occupation and use use by American Indians.
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America, the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America, and other sources. There are no current federally-recognized reservations in Illinois.
Long Prairie Reservation
Blue Earth River Reservation
Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Illinois has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs..., Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians, and others. I
Correspondence and Census
|Tribe||Agency||Locality of Original Records||
M 234 RG 75 Rolls 962
M595 RG 75 Rolls 693
|Winnebago||Wind River Agency, 1898-1955||Denver||-||-||Rolls 663-71||FHL 583122-583129|
|Winnebago||Prairie du Chien Agency, 1824-42||Washington D.C.||Rolls 696-702||-||-||-|
|Winnebago||Turkey River Subagency, 1842-46||Washington D.C.||Rolls 862-64||-||-||-|
Grand Rapids - 1916-17, 1919-25 FHL 576857
Great Lakes - 1936-40 FHL 576859-576860
Tomah - 1911-1916, 1927-1936 FHL 583029-583031
- 1816 June 3, at St. Louis
- 1825 August 19, at Prairie du Chien with the Sioux, Etc.,
- 1827 August 11, at Butte des Morts, with the Chippewa
- 1828 August 25, at Green Bay
- 1829 August 1, at Prairie du Chien
- 1832 September 15,
- 1837 November 1, at Washington
- 1846 October 13, at Washington
- 1855 February 27, at Washington
- 1859 April 15, at Washington
- 1865 March 8, at Washington
The Winnebago Indians were under the jurisdiction of the Prairie du Chien Agency 1824-42, Winnebago Agency 1826-76, Nebraska Agency 1876-80, Turkey River Subagency 1842-46, Green Bay Agency and Great Nemaha Agency.
The Winnebago Indians were under the jurisdiction of the following superintendencies: Michigan Superintendency, St. Louis Superintendency, Wisconsin Superintendency, Iowa Superintendency, Minnesota Superintendency, Northern Superintendency, and Dakota Superintendency.
Important Web Sites
- Constitution and By-Laws of the Winnebag Tribe Winnebago Reservation in the State of Nebraska. Approved April 3, 1936.
- Winnebago Indian Official Website
- Winnebago Reservation Wikipedia
- National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
- Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book 973 E5)
- Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
- Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
- Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
- Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
- Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
- Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
- Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published