Difference between revisions of "WikiProject -- Tribal Prototype"

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''[[Indians of Montana|Indians of Montana]] > Blackfeet Indians''  
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''[[Indians of Montana|Indians of Montana]] > Salish Indians'' [[Indians of Montana|[[Image:North American Indians2.png|border|right|123x186px|North American Indians2.png]]]]
  
 
{{infobox ethnic group
 
{{infobox ethnic group
|group = Blackfeet
+
|group = Salish
|image = [[Image:Blackfeet_IndiansThree_chiefs_Piegan.jpg|232x231px]]
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|image = [[Image:|232x231px]]
 
|poptime =  
 
|poptime =  
 
<table style="background: none; width: 100%;" rules="rows">
 
<table style="background: none; width: 100%;" rules="rows">
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>1909</td>
+
<td>???</td>
<td style="text-align: right;">4,635</td><td style="width: 2px;">{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}<ref>Frederick Webb Hodge. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'']. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.</ref></td>
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<td style="text-align: right;">???</td><td style="width: 2px;">{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}<ref>Frederick Webb Hodge. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'']. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.</ref></td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>1858</td>
+
<td>???</td>
<td style="text-align: right;">abt. 7,000</td><td>{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}<ref>Frederick Webb Hodge. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'']. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.</ref></td>
+
<td style="text-align: right;">???</td><td>{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>1790</td>
+
<td>???</td>
<td style="text-align: right;">abt. 9,000</td><td>{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}<ref>Frederick Webb Hodge. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'']. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.</ref></td>
+
<td style="text-align: right;">???</td><td>{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
 
</table>
 
</table>
 
<small></small>
 
<small></small>
|popplace = '''Ancestral Homelands''': Along the Saskatchewan River in Canada and the upper Missouri River in the United States<br>  
+
|popplace = '''Ancestral Homelands''': <br>  
 
'''Descendants''':<br>
 
'''Descendants''':<br>
 
[[Blackfeet Indian Reservation (Montana)|Blackfeet Reservation]] in Montana.<br>
 
[[Blackfeet Indian Reservation (Montana)|Blackfeet Reservation]] in Montana.<br>
Portions of the tribe also reside on three reserves in the Province of Alberta in Canada.
 
 
|status = Federally recognized
 
|status = Federally recognized
|linguistic = Algonquian
+
|linguistic = not yet researched
|cultural =  
+
|cultural = not yet researched
|related-c = Siksika or North Blackfeet; Kainah or Bloods; Piegan
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|related-c = other tribes
}}  
+
}}&nbsp;
  
'''Alternate Names and Spellings:''' Blackfeet<ref>The official tribal name is Blackfeet, as recognized by the U.S. Government and as used by the tribe itself on their official website.</ref>, Blackfoot and Blackfoot Nation<ref>Used by the federal government in the Treaty of 1855.</ref>; Pecunnie, Pikuni<ref>State Office of Indian Affairs website for the [http://www.tribalnations.mt.gov/blackfeet.asp Blackfeet Indians]</ref>
+
'''Alternate Names and Spellings:'''  
  
=== History ===
+
=== Tribal Headquarters ===
  
Originally the Blackfeet lived in the Saskatchewan River Valley of Saskatchewan, Canada, and the upper plains of the United States. By 1850 the tribe had moved to the Rocky Mountains and Missouri River areas.
+
address, phone number and web site
  
Smallpox epidemics depopulated the tribe through the 1800's, especially during the years of 1837, 1845, 1857, 1869 and 1870 when the disease was most virulent. In the 1837 epidemic, approximately 6,000 members of the tribe were killed by the disease<ref>[http://www.blackfeetnation.com/about-the-blackfeet/our-history.html Our History], from the Tribal website of the Blackfeet Nation.</ref>.<br>
+
=== History ===
 
 
Intertribal conflicts occurred somewhat frequently when the Blackfeet raided neighboring tribes to acquire horses.
 
 
 
In the 1855 Treaty, also known as Lame Bull's Treaty, much of the Blackfeet territory became a common hunting grounds for Piegans, Gros Ventres, Blackfeet, Nez Perces, Flathead, and Bloods.&nbsp;
 
 
 
A treaty between the United States government and the Blackfeet Band of Sioux (often mistaken as the Blackfeet Tribe) was signed in 1865. This treaty did not include the Blackfeet Indians of Montana.<br>
 
 
 
Advancement by settlers to the west created conflict and&nbsp;military actions were taken. One such action occurred in 1870&nbsp;when a military unit under the direction of Colonel E. M. Baker attacked the winter camp of the Blackfeet on the Marias River, killing 170 men, women, and children and&nbsp;taking 140 prisoners.
 
 
 
With efforts begun as early as 1880, the Jesuits formally dedicated the [http://nwda-db.wsulibs.wsu.edu/nwda-search/fstyle.aspx?doc=WUGJopaMH04.xml&t=k&q=#historicalID Holy Family Mission] on the Blackfeet Reservation in 1890. They also established a mission school on the reservation in 1895. The Mission was closed in 1941. An inventory of the records of this mission is available through the Northwest Digital Archives<ref>[http://nwda.wsulibs.wsu.edu/about.shtml Northwest Digital Archives] (NWDA) provides access to archival and manuscript collections in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Alaska, and Washington</ref>.
 
 
 
In 1888 the Blackfeet were gathered to the Blackfeet Reservation with headquarters at the present town of Browning, Montana. In the years 1907 to 1911, land on this reservation was allotted to individual members of the tribe.
 
  
Under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the Blackfeet Indians became a federally-recognized tribe, with their own Constitution and By-Laws, approved and ratified in the fall of 1935.
+
-- Brief History of the Tribe --  
  
 
==== Brief Timeline  ====
 
==== Brief Timeline  ====
  
*'''1700s and 1800s:''' Living in Canada
+
<br>  
*'''1837, 1845, 1857, 1869-70:''' Smallpox epidemics
 
*'''Prior to 1850:''' moved west and south to the Rocky Mountains and the Missouri River areas
 
*:They raided the camps of the Crow, Assiniboin, Cree, Kutenai, Kalispel (or Pend d'Oreille) and Flathead in search of horses
 
*'''1855:''' Treaty (Lame Bull's Treaty)<br>  
 
*'''1865:''' Treaty at Fort Sully involving the Blackfeet Band of Sioux, often mistaken for the Blackfeet Tribe<br>
 
*'''1870:''' Colonel E. M. Baker attacked the Blackfeet winter camp on the Marias River in Montana, killing 173 men, women and children and taking more that 140 prisoners.
 
*'''1877:''' ceded land in Canada
 
*'''1880s:''' settled on reservations in the United States and Canada
 
*'''1886:''' ceded land
 
*'''1888:''' gathered to Blackfeet Reservation
 
*'''1895:''' ceded land
 
*'''1907-1911''': land on the Blackfeet Reservation was allotted to individual members of the tribe
 
*'''1935:''' Adopted Constitution and By-Laws
 
  
 
==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe  ====
 
==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe  ====
  
*Frederick Webb Hodge, in his ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'', gave a more [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/blackfeet/blackfeetindiantribe.htm complete history of the Blackfeet tribe], with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods.
+
<br>  
*For additional history of the tribe, [http://www.neokistomi.com/blackfeet.html read more....]
 
*For a history of the Blackfeet, told from their own perspective, see their [http://www.blackfeetnation.com/about-the-blackfeet/our-history.html history from the tribal website].
 
 
 
=== Tribal Headquarters  ===
 
 
 
Blackfeet Nation<br>1 Agency Square<br>Browning, MT 59417<br>Phone: 406.338.7521<br>Fax: 406.338.7530
 
  
 
=== Records  ===
 
=== Records  ===
Line 86: Line 54:
 
The following [[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs]] had jurisdiction over the Blackfeet for the time periods indicated. BIA agencies were responsible to keep such records as census rolls, allotment (land) records, annuity rolls, school records, correspondence, and other records of individual Indians under their jurisdiction. For details, see the page for the respective agency.  
 
The following [[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs]] had jurisdiction over the Blackfeet for the time periods indicated. BIA agencies were responsible to keep such records as census rolls, allotment (land) records, annuity rolls, school records, correspondence, and other records of individual Indians under their jurisdiction. For details, see the page for the respective agency.  
  
The agencies which had jurisdiction over a major portion of the Blackfeet in the United States were:  
+
The agencies which had jurisdiction over a major portion of the Salish in the United States were:  
 
 
:[[Blackfeet Indian Agency (Montana)|Blackfeet Agency]], 1890-
 
:Blood Agency, 1890-1896, 1907-1913
 
:Piegan Agency, 1890-1913
 
:[[Rocky Boy's Indian Agency (Montana)|Rocky Boy's Agency]], 1907-1913
 
  
 
==== Census (a specific type of record kept by the BIA Agencies)  ====
 
==== Census (a specific type of record kept by the BIA Agencies)  ====
Line 97: Line 60:
 
The Bureau of Indian Affairs compiled annual Indian Census Rolls on many of the reservations from 1885 to 1940. They list the names of individuals, their age, and other details about each person enumerated. For more information about these records, [[American Indian Census Rolls|click here]].  
 
The Bureau of Indian Affairs compiled annual Indian Census Rolls on many of the reservations from 1885 to 1940. They list the names of individuals, their age, and other details about each person enumerated. For more information about these records, [[American Indian Census Rolls|click here]].  
  
The following table lists the census rolls for the Blackfeet Indians:  
+
The following table lists the census rolls for the Salish Indians: <br>  
 
 
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
 
|-
 
! scope="col" | Agency
 
! scope="col" | Location of Original Records
 
! scope="col" |
 
Post- 1885 Census<br>M595 RG 75<br>693 Rolls<br>Roll Number
 
 
 
! scope="col" |
 
FHL<br> Film Number
 
 
 
|-
 
| Blackfeet Agency, 1890-1939
 
| &nbsp;National Archives in Washington D.C.
 
| Rolls 3-11
 
| 573849-573857
 
|}
 
 
 
<br>  
 
  
 
==== Correspondence  ====
 
==== Correspondence  ====
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There are several sets of correspondence between the supervising offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the local offices -- agencies, subagencies, etc. The correspondence is often historical in nature, including reports of the conditions among local groups of Indians, hostilities, plans for building facilities, activities of traders or missionaries, etc. Occasionally, there will be names of individuals but little detail about them. For more information about American Indian correspondence, [[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|click here]].  
 
There are several sets of correspondence between the supervising offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the local offices -- agencies, subagencies, etc. The correspondence is often historical in nature, including reports of the conditions among local groups of Indians, hostilities, plans for building facilities, activities of traders or missionaries, etc. Occasionally, there will be names of individuals but little detail about them. For more information about American Indian correspondence, [[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|click here]].  
  
The following table lists some of the correspondence records relating to the Blackfeet Indians:  
+
The following table lists some of the correspondence records relating to the Salish Indians:  
  
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
+
<br>  
|-
 
! scope="col" | BIA Field Office
 
! scope="col" | Location of Original Records
 
! scope="col" |
 
Pre-1880 Correspondence<br> M234, RG 75, 962 Rolls<br> Roll Number
 
  
! scope="col" |
+
<br>  
FHL <br> Film Number
 
  
|-
+
<br>  
| Upper Missouri Agency, 1824-1874
 
| National Archives in Washington D.C.
 
| Rolls 883-888
 
| 1661613-1661618
 
|-
 
| Upper Platte, 1846-1870
 
| National Archives in Washington D.C.
 
| Rolls 889-896
 
| 1661619-1661626
 
|-
 
| Blackfeet Agency, 1855-1869
 
| National Archives in Washington D.C.
 
| Roll 30
 
| 1660760
 
|-
 
| Montana Superintendency, 1864-1880<br>  
 
| National Archives in Washington D.C. and Kansas City Regional Archives of NARA
 
| Rolls 488-518
 
| 1661218-1661248
 
|}
 
  
 
<br>Some correspondence for the following field offices may be included in the records of those offices preserved in the research facilities indicated.  
 
<br>Some correspondence for the following field offices may be included in the records of those offices preserved in the research facilities indicated.  
  
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
+
<br>  
|-
 
! scope="col" | BIA Field Office
 
! scope="col" | Location of Original Records
 
! scope="col" | General Agency Records<br>  
 
! scope="col" |
 
FHL<br> Film Number
 
 
 
|-
 
| Cheyenne River/Standing Rock, 1862-1957
 
| Washington D.C. and Kansas City Regional Archives of NARA<br>
 
| -
 
| -
 
|-
 
| Blackfeet Agency, 1873-1927
 
| Washington D. C. and Denver Regional Archives of NARA<br>
 
| -
 
| -
 
|-
 
| Blackfeet Agency, 1875-1952
 
| Washington D.C. and Seattle Regional Archives of NARA<br>
 
| -
 
| -
 
|}
 
  
<br>  
+
<br><br>  
  
 
==== Treaties  ====
 
==== Treaties  ====
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During the latter part of the 18th Century and most of the 19th Century, treaties were negotiated between the federal government and individual Indian tribes. The treaties provide helpful information about the history of the tribe, but usually only include the names of those persons who signed the treaty. For more information about treaties, [[American Indian Treaties with the United States|click here]].  
 
During the latter part of the 18th Century and most of the 19th Century, treaties were negotiated between the federal government and individual Indian tribes. The treaties provide helpful information about the history of the tribe, but usually only include the names of those persons who signed the treaty. For more information about treaties, [[American Indian Treaties with the United States|click here]].  
  
Treaties to which the Blackfeet Indians were a part were:  
+
Treaties to which the Salsih Indians were a part were: <br>
 
 
*September 17, 1851, referred to in treaty, at Fort Laramie
 
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/bla0736.htm 1855] October 17,
 
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/bla0898.htm 1865] October 19, at Fort Sully -- this treaty was with the Blackfeet band of Sioux Indians, not the Blackfeet Tribe. They are two different entities or groups.
 
*April 29, 1868, at Fort Laramie
 
  
 
==== Tribal Office Records  ====
 
==== Tribal Office Records  ====
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Prior to the Indian Reorganization Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, through their agencies, may have recorded some vital events. Some were recorded on health forms, such as the "[[American Indian Sanitary Record of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc.|Sanitary Record]] of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc." Others were recorded as supplements to the [[American Indian Census Rolls|"Indian Census Rolls."]] Some were included in the unindexed reports and other correspondence of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
Prior to the Indian Reorganization Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, through their agencies, may have recorded some vital events. Some were recorded on health forms, such as the "[[American Indian Sanitary Record of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc.|Sanitary Record]] of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc." Others were recorded as supplements to the [[American Indian Census Rolls|"Indian Census Rolls."]] Some were included in the unindexed reports and other correspondence of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
  
Some vital records for the Blackfeet Indians include:  
+
Some vital records for the Salish Indians include:  
 
 
*Blackfeet Agency, M595, Births and Deaths 1924-1932, FHL Film: 573855 and 573856; 1916-1938, FHL film: 573857
 
  
 
=== Important Web Sites  ===
 
=== Important Web Sites  ===
 
*[http://www.blackfeetnation.com/ Official Web Site] of the Blackfeet Indians of Montana
 
*[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/blackfeet/blackfeetindiantribe.htm History of the Blackfeet] from Frederick Webb Hodge's ''Indians of North America...''
 
*[http://www.narf.org/nill/Constitutions/BlackfeetConst/bfconttoc.htm Constitution and By-laws] for the Blackfeet Tribe of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation of Montana, adopted in 1935 and subsequently amended.
 
*[http://www.tribalnations.mt.gov/blackfeet.asp State Office of Indian Affairs] website regarding the Blackfeet Indians
 
*Blackfoot Indians [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackfoot Wikipedia]
 
*[http://www.angelfire.com/ar/waakomimm/genealogy.html Genealogy website] for the Blackfoot Indians
 
  
 
=== References  ===
 
=== References  ===
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=== Bibliography  ===
 
=== Bibliography  ===
  
==== Blackfeet Tribe  ====
+
==== Tribe  ====
  
*DeMarce, Roxanne. Blackfeet Heritage, 1907-1908; Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Browning, Montana. Browning, Montana: Blackfeet Heritage Program, [1980]. FHL book 970.3 Si29b.
+
<br>
*Gilham, Robert C. (comp.) Blackfeet Nation Family History: A Compilation of Records of Members of the Blackfeet Nation and Some Non-Indian Relatives. Riverton, Utah: R.C. Gilham, [199-?]. 4 volumes. (All on FH film 2056034)
 
 
 
:Vol. 1 -- Joseph to Double Blaze, George
 
:Vol. 2 -- Double Blaze, Hamilton to Little Dog, Maggie
 
:Vol. 3 -- Little Dog, Mary to Running
 
:Vol. 4 -- Running After Buffalo to Ziegler
 
:Index
 
  
 
==== General  ====
 
==== General  ====
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*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. {{WorldCat|317923332}}; {{FHL|970.1 R259e|book}}; [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1122745&disp=Reference+encyclopedia+of+the+American+I%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 R259e].  
+
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. {{WorldCat|317923332}}; {{FHL|970.1 R259e|book}}; [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; {{FHL|1122745|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 R259e}}.  
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=831087&disp=The+Gale+encyclopedia+of+Native+American%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 G131g].
+
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; {{FHL|831087|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 G131g}}.
  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
Line 251: Line 125:
 
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>  
 
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>  
 
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>  
 
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>  
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4].  
+
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4}}.  
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5].  
+
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5}}.  
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6].  
+
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6}}.  
 
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]  
 
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]  
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8].  
+
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8}}.  
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9].  
+
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9}}.  
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10].  
+
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10}}.  
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11].  
+
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11}}.  
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12].  
+
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12}}.  
 
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]  
 
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15].  
+
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15}}.  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]  
 
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]  
Line 270: Line 144:
  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1465222&disp=Encyclopedia+of+Native+American+tribes%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006].
+
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; {{FHL|1465222|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006}}.
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{{ featured article }}
  
[[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_North_America]]
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[[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:Indians_of_North_America]]

Revision as of 00:45, 3 September 2013

Indians of Montana > Salish Indians [[Indians of Montana|
North American Indians2.png
]] {{#if: other tribes|
Salish
[[Image:|232x231px]]
Population
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Regions with significant populations
Ancestral Homelands:

Descendants:
Blackfeet Reservation in Montana.

Status

Federally recognized

Linguistic Group

not yet researched

Cultural Group

not yet researched

Other Related Ethnic Groups

other tribes

 

Alternate Names and Spellings:

Tribal Headquarters

address, phone number and web site

History

-- Brief History of the Tribe --

Brief Timeline


Additional References to the History of the Tribe


Records

Agencies

The following agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs had jurisdiction over the Blackfeet for the time periods indicated. BIA agencies were responsible to keep such records as census rolls, allotment (land) records, annuity rolls, school records, correspondence, and other records of individual Indians under their jurisdiction. For details, see the page for the respective agency.

The agencies which had jurisdiction over a major portion of the Salish in the United States were:

Census (a specific type of record kept by the BIA Agencies)

The Bureau of Indian Affairs compiled annual Indian Census Rolls on many of the reservations from 1885 to 1940. They list the names of individuals, their age, and other details about each person enumerated. For more information about these records, click here.

The following table lists the census rolls for the Salish Indians:

Correspondence

There are several sets of correspondence between the supervising offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the local offices -- agencies, subagencies, etc. The correspondence is often historical in nature, including reports of the conditions among local groups of Indians, hostilities, plans for building facilities, activities of traders or missionaries, etc. Occasionally, there will be names of individuals but little detail about them. For more information about American Indian correspondence, click here.

The following table lists some of the correspondence records relating to the Salish Indians:





Some correspondence for the following field offices may be included in the records of those offices preserved in the research facilities indicated.




Treaties

During the latter part of the 18th Century and most of the 19th Century, treaties were negotiated between the federal government and individual Indian tribes. The treaties provide helpful information about the history of the tribe, but usually only include the names of those persons who signed the treaty. For more information about treaties, click here.

Treaties to which the Salsih Indians were a part were:

Tribal Office Records

The Tribal Office is responsible for enrollment records, vital records, tribal police records, tribal court records, employment records and many others. They are an entirely different set of records from those kept by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Most of them remain in the Tribal Office. For details, contact that office at the address for the Tribal Headquarters listed above.

Vital Records

Prior to the Indian Reorganization Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, through their agencies, may have recorded some vital events. Some were recorded on health forms, such as the "Sanitary Record of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc." Others were recorded as supplements to the "Indian Census Rolls." Some were included in the unindexed reports and other correspondence of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Some vital records for the Salish Indians include:

Important Web Sites

References

  1. Frederick Webb Hodge. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.

Bibliography

Tribe


General

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL 970.1 R259e; WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published