Difference between revisions of "United States Indian Wars, 1780-s-1890-s"

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== History ==
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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[United States Military Records|U.S. Military]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[United_States_Indian_Wars,_1780-s-1890-s|Indian Wars, 1780s to 1890s]]''__TOC__
<div class="Section1">
 
The United States military protected the expanding western frontier from the 1780s to the 1890s. Military personnel surveyed land; enforced government policy; protected settlers; and guarded stage, mail, and telegraph routes. Expanding settlement led to conflicts with the many Indian nations. Military conflicts with Indians are listed in the following:
 
  
Peters, Joseph P., compiler. ''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=439821&disp=Indian+battles+and+skirmishes+on+the+Ame%20%20&columns=*,0,0 Indian Battles and Skirmishes on the American Frontier, 1790–1898],'' ''Comprising Record of Engagements with Hostile Indians within the Military Division of the Missouri from 1868 to 1882; Chronological List of Actions, etc. with Indians from January 1, 1866 to January 1891; and a Compilation of Indian Engagements from January 1837 to January 1866''. New York, New York: Argonaut Press, 1966. (FHL film 1686002.) A chronological list which includes dates, places, and units involved; number of killed and wounded; and remarks that may include names of officers.
+
The following are the wars that involved American Indians occurring between 1783 and the 1890's. The list does not include the War of 1812, the Mexican War, or the Civil War in which American Indians also fought. (List may not be complete)  
</div>
 
Webb, George W. ''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlehitlist&columns=*,0,0&title=Chronological+List+of+Engagements+between+the+Regular+Army+of+the+United+States+and+Various+Tribes+of+Hostiles+Which+Occurred+during+the+Years+1790+to+1898&pretitle=Chronological+List+of+Engagements+between+the+Regular+Army+of+the+United+States+and+Various+Tribes+of+Hostiles+Which+Occurred+during+the+Years+1790+to+1898 Chronological List of Engagements between the Regular Army of the United States and Various Tribes of Hostiles Which Occurred during the Years 1790 to 1898], Inclusive.'' 1939. Reprint, New York, New York: AMS Press, 1976. (FHL book 973 M2ww.) Identifies place; military unit involved; and number of soldiers and American Indians killed, wounded, and captured.
 
  
== Service Records ==
+
{| width="500" border="1" align="center" class="wikitable sortable"
 +
|-
 +
! Date <ref name="Wikipedia - American Indian Wars">Wikipedia contributors, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Indian_Wars American Indian Wars], (accessed 2 April 2012).</ref><ref>Dates differ depending on source.</ref>
 +
! Indian Wars, 1780s to 1890s <ref name="Wikipedia - American Indian Wars"/><ref>List is only partial</ref>
 +
|-
 +
|  1785-1795
 +
| [[Northwest Indian War, 1785 to 1795|Northwest Indian War]]
 +
|-
 +
|  1813-1814
 +
| [[Creek War, 1813 to 1814|Creek War]]
 +
|-
 +
|  1817-1818
 +
| [[First Seminole War, 1817 to 1818|First Seminole War]]
 +
|-
 +
|  1827
 +
| [[Winnebago War, 1827|Winnebago War]]
 +
|-
 +
|  1832
 +
| [[Black Hawk War, 1832|Black Hawk War]]
 +
|-
 +
|  1836-1837
 +
| [[Second Creek War, 1836 to 1837|Second Creek War]]
 +
|-
 +
|  1836-1839
 +
| [[Cherokee Disturbances and Removal, 1836 to 1839|Cherokee Disturbances and Removal]]
 +
|-
 +
|  1835-1842
 +
| [[Second Seminole War, 1835 to 1842|Second Seminole War]]
 +
|-
 +
|  1855-1858
 +
| [[Third Seminole War, 1855 to 1858|Third Seminole War]]
 +
|}
  
Service records for the Indian conflicts are available at the National Archives. They consist of abstracts from original muster rolls, pay rolls, and medical records.
+
=== States Involved in the Indian Wars ===
  
=== Indexes ===
+
{| class="FCK__ShowTableBorders" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" width="503"
 +
|-
 +
| valign="top" align="left" |
 +
*[[Image:Alabama flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Alabama Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Alabama]]
 +
*[[Image:Alaska flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Alaska
 +
*[[Image:Arizona flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Arizona Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Arizona]]
 +
*[[Image:Arkansas flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Arkansas
 +
*[[Image:California flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[California Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|California]]
 +
*[[Image:Colorado flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Colorado Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Colorado]]
 +
*[[Image:Connecticut flag.png|border|22x13px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Connecticut
 +
*[[Image:Delaware flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Delaware
 +
*[[Image:District of Columbia flag.png|border|22x11px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;District of Columbia
 +
*[[Image:Florida flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Florida Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Florida]]
 +
*[[Image:Georgia flag.png|border|22x14px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Georgia Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Georgia]]
 +
*[[Image:Hawaii flag.png|border|22x11px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Hawaii
 +
*[[Image:Idaho flag.png|border|22x18px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Idaho Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Idaho]]
 +
*[[Image:Illinois flag.png|border|22x13px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Illinois Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Illinois]]
 +
*[[Image:Indiana flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Indiana Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Indiana]]
 +
*[[Image:Iowa flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Iowa Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Iowa]]
 +
*[[Image:Kansas flag.png|border|22x13px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Kansas Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Kansas]]
  
Microfilm indexes are available at the Family History Library:
+
| valign="top" align="left" |
 +
*[[Image:Kentucky flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Kentucky
 +
*[[Image:Louisiana flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Louisiana Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Louisiana]]
 +
*[[Image:Maine flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Maine
 +
*[[Image:Maryland flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Maryland
 +
*[[Image:Massachusetts flag.png|border|22x13px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Massachusetts
 +
*[[Image:Michigan flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Michigan Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Michigan]]
 +
*[[Image:Minnesota flag.png|border|22x14px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Minnesota Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Minnesota]]
 +
*[[Image:Mississippi flag.png|border|22x13px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Mississippi
 +
*[[Image:Missouri flag.png|border|22x13px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Missouri Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Missouri]]
 +
*[[Image:Montana flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Montana Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Montana]]
 +
*[[Image:Nebraska flag.png|border|22x13px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Nebraska
 +
*[[Image:Nevada flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Nevada
 +
*[[Image:New Hampshire flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;New Hampshire
 +
*[[Image:New Jersey flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;New Jersey
 +
*[[Image:New Mexico flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[New Mexico Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|New Mexico]]
 +
*[[Image:New York flag.png|border|22x11px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;New York
 +
*[[Image:North Carolina flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[North Carolina Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|North Carolina]]
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=98003&disp=Index+to+compiled+service+records+of+vol&columns=*,0,0 Index to Compiled Military Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served during Indian Wars and Disturbances, 1815–58].'' National Archives Microfilm Publication M629. (FHL films 0882753–94.) This index includes the soldier’s name, rank, and unit along with the name of the war or disturbance.
+
| valign="top" align="left" |
 +
*[[Image:North Dakota flag.png|border|22x17px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[North Dakota Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|North Dakota]]
 +
*[[Image:Ohio flag.png|border|22x14px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Ohio
 +
*[[Image:Oklahoma flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Oklahoma
 +
*[[Image:Oregon flag.png|border|22x13px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Oregon Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Oregon]]
 +
*[[Image:Pennsylvania flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Pennsylvania
 +
*[[Image:Rhode Island flag.png|border|21x20px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Rhode Island
 +
*[[Image:South Carolina flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[South Carolina Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|South Carolina]]
 +
*[[Image:South Dakota flag.png|border|22x13px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[South Dakota Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|South Dakota]]
 +
*[[Image:Tennessee flag.png|border|22x13px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Tennessee Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Tennessee]]
 +
*[[Image:Texas flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Texas Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Texas]]
 +
*[[Image:Utah flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Utah Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Utah]]  
 +
*[[Image:Vermont flag.png|border|22x13px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Vermont
 +
*[[Image:Virginia flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Virginia
 +
*[[Image:Washington flag.png|border|22x13px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Washington Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Washington]]
 +
*[[Image:West Virginia flag.png|border|22x12px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[West Virginia Military Records#Additional Military Records|West Virginia]]
 +
*[[Image:Wisconsin flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Wisconsin Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Wisconsin]]
 +
*[[Image:Wyoming flag.png|border|22x15px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Wyoming Military Records#Indian Wars (1780s-1890s)|Wyoming]]
 +
|}
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=95536&disp=Compiled+service+records+of+volunteer+so&columns=*,0,0 Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served from 1784 to 1811]''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M905. (FHL films 1205385–401.) These records are indexed in:
+
=== History ===
  
[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=530824&disp=Index+to+compiled+service+records+of+vol&columns=*,0,0 ''Index to Compiled Service Records''. . . .] National Archives Microfilm Publication M694 (FHL CD #9, part 146; films 1205437–45.)
+
The United States military protected the expanding western frontier from the 1780s to the 1890s. Military personnel surveyed land; enforced government policy; protected settlers; and guarded stage, mail, and telegraph routes. Expanding settlement led to conflicts with the many Indian nations. Military conflicts with Indians are listed in the following:
  
This microfilm index has been transcribed and the information partially abstracted in the following two books:
+
*Peters, Joseph P., compiler. ''Indian Battles and Skirmishes on the American Frontier, 1790–1898 Comprising Record of Engagements with Hostile Indians within the Military Division of the Missouri from 1868 to 1882; Chronological List of Actions, etc. with Indians from January 1, 1866 to January 1891; and a Compilation of Indian Engagements from January 1837 to January 1866''. New York, New York: Argonaut Press, 1966. ({{FHL|1686002|disp=FHL 1686002}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1370777 Worldcat]) A chronological list which includes dates, places, and units involved; number of killed and wounded; and remarks that may include names of officers.
  
White, Virgil D. ''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1232951&disp=Index+to+volunteer+soldiers,+1784-18&columns=*,0,0 Index to Volunteer Soldiers 1784–1811].'' Waynesboro, Tennessee: National Historical Publishing, 1987. (FHL book 973 M22woa.)
+
*''Chronological List of Engagements between the Regular Army of the United States and Various Tribes of Hostiles Which Occurred during the Years 1790 to 1898, Inclusive.'' 1939. Reprint, New York, New York: AMS Press, 1976. ({{FHL|973 M2ww|disp=FHL 973 M2ww}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Chronological+List+of+Engagements+between+the+Regular+Army+of+the+United+States+and+Various+Tribes Worldcat]) Identifies place; military unit involved; and number of soldiers and American Indians killed, wounded, and captured.
  
Clark, Murtie June. ''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=574023&disp=American+militia+in+the+frontier+wars,&columns=*,0,0 American Militia in the Frontier Wars], 1790–1796.'' Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1990. (FHL book 973 M2clm).
+
=== Forts ===
 +
 
 +
For information about forts where soldiers were garrisoned, see the following:
 +
 
 +
*''Historical Information Relating to Military Posts and Other Installations, ca. 1700–1900''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M661. ({{FHL|1466009|disp=FHL 1466009–16}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/4396128 Worldcat])
  
=== Service Records after 1811 ===
+
*''Returns from U.S. Military Posts, 1800–1916''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M617. ({{FHL|1663081|disp=FHL 1663081–4630}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Returns+from+U.S.+Military+Posts Worldcat]) This source contains extensive rolls and reports listing soldiers stationed at forts and posts.
  
Listed below are the only service records for Indian wars after 1811 that have been filmed:
+
=== Service Records ===
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=36135&disp=Compiled+service+records+of+volunteer+so&columns=*,0,0 Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served in Organizations from the State of Florida during the Florida Indian Wars, 1835–1858].'' National Archives Microfilm Publication M1086. (FHL 63 films.)
+
Service records for the Indian conflicts are available at the [[National Archives and Records Administration|National Archives]]. They consist of abstracts from original muster rolls, pay rolls, and medical records.
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=404600&disp=Compiled+military+service+records+of+Mic&columns=*,0,0 Compiled Service Records of Michigan and Illinois Volunteers Who Served during the Winnebago Indian Disturbances, 1827]''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M1505. (FHL films 1638617–19.)
+
==== Volunteers ====
  
=== Regular Army Soldiers ===
+
<u>Service Records after 1784-1811</u>
  
In addition to volunteer soldiers, many soldiers involved in the Indian wars enlisted in the regular Army. For information on regular Army soldiers, see:
+
*''Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers who Served from 1784 to 1811'' (NARA M905).  
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=43696&disp=Registers+of+enlistments+in+the+United+S&columns=*,0,0 The Registers of Enlistments in the U.S. Army, 1798–1914]''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M233. (FHL 47 films.)
+
:'''Online'''  
  
=== Forts ===
+
:*[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=2237 U.S. Compiled Service Records, Post-Revolutionary War Volunteer Soldiers, 1784-1811] (Ancestry) ($)
 +
 
 +
:'''Libraries'''
 +
 
 +
:*Locate these records at a library using [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Compiled+Service+Records+of+Volunteer+Soldiers+Who+Served+from+1784+to+1811 Worldcat]
 +
:*Family History Library ({{FHL|1205385|disp=FHL 1205385–401}})
 +
 
 +
'''Indexes'''
 +
 
 +
*''Index to Compiled Service Records 1784-1811'' National Archives Microfilm Publication M694 ({{FHL|1205437|disp=FHL CD #9, part 146; films 1205437–45}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/6444436 Worldcat])
 +
 
 +
:This microfilm index has been transcribed and the information partially abstracted in the following two books:
 +
 
 +
::*White, Virgil D. ''Index to Volunteer Soldiers 1784–1811'' Waynesboro, Tennessee: National Historical Publishing, 1987. ({{FHL|973 M22woa|disp=FHL 973 M22woa}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/18381240 Worldcat])
 +
 
 +
::*Clark, Murtie June. ''American Militia in the Frontier Wars, 1790–1796'' Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1990. ({{FHL|973 M2clm|disp=FHL 973 M2clm}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/22179720 Worldcat])
 +
 
 +
<u>Service Records after 1811</u>
 +
 
 +
Listed below are the only service records for Indian wars after 1811 that have been filmed:
  
For information about forts where soldiers were garrisoned, see the following:
+
:*''Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served in Organizations from the State of Florida during the Florida Indian Wars, 1835–1858'' National Archives Microfilm Publication M1086. ({{FHL|1303446|disp=FHL films 6019538;1303446-500;1303296-297;1313918-23}}) (FHL 63 films) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/25305615 Worldcat])
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=499095&disp=Historical+information+relating+to+milit&columns=*,0,0 Historical Information Relating to Military Posts and Other Installations, ca. 1700–1900]''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M661. (FHL films 1466009–16.)
+
''' Indexes'''
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=589910&disp=Returns+from+U.S.+military+posts,+&columns=*,0,0 Returns from U.S. Military Posts, 1800–1916]''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M617. (FHL films 1663081–4630.) This source contains extensive rolls and reports listing soldiers stationed at forts and posts.
+
The [[Indian Wars Compiled Service Records Index, 1815-1858]] (NARA M629) contains index cards to compiled service records of volunteer soldiers who served in various Indian wars and disturbances from 1815 to 1858.
  
=== State Indexes ===
+
==== Regular Army Soldiers ====
  
'''Cherokee Disturbances and Removal''', 1836 to 1839. Individual state indexes are available for:
+
In addition to volunteer soldiers, many soldiers involved in the Indian wars enlisted in the regular Army. For information on regular Army enlistments, see [[US Army Enlistments, 1798-1914]].
  
* Alabama. [http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=331707&disp=Index+to+compiled+service+records+of+vol&columns=*,0,0 National Archives Microfilm Publication M243] (FHL film 0368685.)
+
==== Officers ====
* Georgia. [http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=95617&disp=Index+to+compiled+service+records+of+vol&columns=*,0,0 National Archives Microfilm Publication M907] (FHL film 1205402.)
 
* North Carolina. [http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=filmhitlist&columns=*,0,0&filmno=0368686 National Archives Microfilm Publication M256] (FHL film 0368686.)
 
* Tennessee, including field and staff of the Army of the Cherokee Nation. [http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=302008&disp=Indexes+to+compiled+service+records+of+v&columns=*,0,0 National Archives Microfilm Publication M908] (FHL film 1205384.)
 
  
=== Indexes&nbsp;for Specific Wars ===
+
The "[[Historical Register and Dictionary of the US Army|Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army]]..." by Francis B. Heitman lists Regular Army and volunteer officers from 1789 to 1903 in two volumes giving a brief history of the officers service and awards received. Casualties (including prisoners of war) from 1789 to 1902 are also listed as well as a chronological list of battles, actions, etc., in which troops of the Regular Army have participated.
  
'''Creek War, 1836 to 1837'''. For this war, the National Archives and Family History Library have the following:
+
=== Pension Records ===
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=313031&disp=Index+to+compiled+service+records+of+vol&columns=*,0,0 Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served during the Creek War in Organizations from the State of Alabama]''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M244. (FHL films 0880845–46.) The records to which the index refers have not been microfilmed.
+
The pension files in the [[National Archives and Records Administration|National Archives]] relate to service performed between 1817 and 1898. Soldiers killed or disabled during the Indian wars were initially covered by existing pension laws. The first pensions based on Indian war service were granted in 1892, but they were limited to specifically named wars. By 1902 pensions were extended to cover all service between 1817 and 1858. Later acts continued extending coverage for service to 1898. The files are alphabetically arranged by the veteran’s name.  
  
'''Second Seminole War, 1836 to 1843.''' ''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=484357&disp=Index+to+compiled+service+records+of+vol&columns=*,0,0 Indexes for soldiers who served from Alabama]'', National Archives Microfilm Publication M245 (FHL film 0880847) and [http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=312962&disp=Index+to+compiled+service+records+of+vol&columns=*,0,0 Louisiana], National Archives Microfilm Publication M239 (FHL film 0880843) are available on microfilm.
+
'''Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892–1926'''
  
'''Florida'''
+
The index to these records is the following:
  
Only the service records for soldiers from the state of Florida have been microfilmed:
+
*''Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892–1926''. National Archives Microfilm Publication T318. ({{FHL|0821610|disp=FHL films 0821610–21}}) ({{RecordSearch|1979427|FamilySearch}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/46426248 Worldcat]) The index gives name, names of dependents, rank, dates of enlistment and discharge, military unit, application and certificate numbers, date and state of filing, and the pension act it was filed under.
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=36135&disp=Compiled+service+records+of+volunteer+so&columns=*,0,0 Compiled Service Records, Volunteer Soldiers, Florida Indian Wars, 1835–1858]''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M1086. (FHL 63 films.)
+
::'''Wiki articles describing online collections are found at:'''
  
The records are indexed by National Archives Microfilm Publication M629, United States Adjutant General's Office. ''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=98003&disp=Index+to+compiled+service+records+of+vol&columns=*,0,0 Index to compiled service records of volunteer soldiers who served during Indian wars and disturbances, 1815-1858]''. Washington [District of Columbia]&nbsp;: The National Archives, 1966
+
::*[[United States, Index to Indian Wars Pension Files (FamilySearch Historical Records)|United States, Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892-1926 (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
  
'''War of 1837 to 1838 (Second Florida Campaign).''' Below is an index to records from this campaign:
+
A published version of this same index is listed below:  
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=312983&disp=Index+to+compiled+service+records+of+vol&columns=*,0,0 Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served during the War of 1837–1838 in Organizations from the State of Louisiana]''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M241. (FHL film 0880844.) The records to which the index refers have not been microfilmed.
+
*White, Virgil D. ''Index to Pension Applications for Indian Wars Service between 1817 and 1898'' Waynesboro, Tennessee: National Historical Publishing, 1997. ({{FHL|973 M22whv|disp=FHL book 973 M22whv}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/37503652 Worldcat]) Includes name of veteran or widow or both, applicant pension number, date of filing, name of conflict, date of service, and military unit. Some entries have death date and place. This is a revision of the 1987 edition.
  
'''Black Hawk War 1831-1832'''Illinois soldiers of the 1831-1832, Black Hawk War, Illinois State Archives = [http://www.sos.state.il.us/departments/archives/blkhawk.html <u>www.sos.state.il.us/departments/archives/blkhawk.html</u>]
+
'''Old War Index to Pension Files, 1815-1926'''
  
== Pension Records ==
+
*The "[[Old War Index to Pension Files, 1815-1926]]" (NARA T316) also includes pensioners of the Indian Wars. They relate mainly to pensions based on death or disability incurred in service between the years of 1816-1861.
  
The pension files in the National Archives relate to service performed between 1817 and 1898. Soldiers killed or disabled during the Indian wars were initially covered by existing pension laws. The first pensions based on Indian war service were granted in 1892, but they were limited to specifically named wars. By 1902 pensions were extended to cover all service between 1817 and 1858. Later acts continued extending coverage for service to 1898. The files are alphabetically arranged by the veteran’s name.
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'''Additional Resources'''
  
=== Indexes ===
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*''[https://fch.ldschurch.org/WWSupport/Courses/FamilyHistoryLibraryExport/U.S._Military_Records__Pre-WWI_Pension_Application/Player.html Military Records: Pre-WWI Pension Applications]'' (16 minute online video) [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/education/frameset_education.asp?PAGE=education_research_series_online.asp%3FActiveTab=2 FamilySearch Research Classes Online], 2010.
  
The index to these records is the following:
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=== Websites ===
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=98739&disp=Pension+index+files,+Indian+wars,+18&columns=*,0,0 Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892–1926]''. National Archives Microfilm Publication T318. (FHL films 0821610–21.) The index gives name, names of dependents, rank, dates of enlistment and discharge, military unit, application and certificate numbers, date and state of filing, and the pension act it was filed under.
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*[http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1008.html U-S-history.com] - Histories of all Indian Wars, 1622-1890
  
A published version of this same index is listed below:
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=== References ===
  
White, Virgil D. ''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=692073&disp=Index+to+pension+applications+for+Indian&columns=*,0,0 Index to Pension Applications for Indian Wars Service between 1817 and 1898].'' Waynesboro, Tennessee: National Historical Publishing, 1997. (FHL book 973 M22whv.) Includes name of veteran or widow or both, applicant pension number, date of filing, name of conflict, date of service, and military unit. Some entries have death date and place. This is a revision of the 1987 edition.
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<references/>
  
Pensioners of the Indian Wars are also included in United States, Veterans Administration. [http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=98862&disp=Old+war+index+to+pension+files,+1815%2&columns=*,0,0 ''Old Wars Index to Pension Files'', ''1815–1926''].&nbsp;Washington, District of Columbia: National Archives. Central Plains Region, 1959. For more information, see National Archive Microfilm Publication T316 on page 56.
 
  
For a list and histories of all Indian Wars, 1622-1890, click [http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1008.html <u>www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1008.html</u>]
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{{U.S. Military}}
  
[[Category:United States of America]]
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[[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:Wars_involving_the_United_States|Indian]]

Revision as of 22:29, 22 April 2012

United States Gotoarrow.png U.S. Military Gotoarrow.png Indian Wars, 1780s to 1890s

The following are the wars that involved American Indians occurring between 1783 and the 1890's. The list does not include the War of 1812, the Mexican War, or the Civil War in which American Indians also fought. (List may not be complete)

Date [1][2] Indian Wars, 1780s to 1890s [1][3]
1785-1795 Northwest Indian War
1813-1814 Creek War
1817-1818 First Seminole War
1827 Winnebago War
1832 Black Hawk War
1836-1837 Second Creek War
1836-1839 Cherokee Disturbances and Removal
1835-1842 Second Seminole War
1855-1858 Third Seminole War

States Involved in the Indian Wars

History

The United States military protected the expanding western frontier from the 1780s to the 1890s. Military personnel surveyed land; enforced government policy; protected settlers; and guarded stage, mail, and telegraph routes. Expanding settlement led to conflicts with the many Indian nations. Military conflicts with Indians are listed in the following:

  • Peters, Joseph P., compiler. Indian Battles and Skirmishes on the American Frontier, 1790–1898 Comprising Record of Engagements with Hostile Indians within the Military Division of the Missouri from 1868 to 1882; Chronological List of Actions, etc. with Indians from January 1, 1866 to January 1891; and a Compilation of Indian Engagements from January 1837 to January 1866. New York, New York: Argonaut Press, 1966. (FHL 1686002) (Worldcat) A chronological list which includes dates, places, and units involved; number of killed and wounded; and remarks that may include names of officers.
  • Chronological List of Engagements between the Regular Army of the United States and Various Tribes of Hostiles Which Occurred during the Years 1790 to 1898, Inclusive. 1939. Reprint, New York, New York: AMS Press, 1976. (FHL 973 M2ww) (Worldcat) Identifies place; military unit involved; and number of soldiers and American Indians killed, wounded, and captured.

Forts

For information about forts where soldiers were garrisoned, see the following:

  • Historical Information Relating to Military Posts and Other Installations, ca. 1700–1900. National Archives Microfilm Publication M661. (FHL 1466009–16) (Worldcat)
  • Returns from U.S. Military Posts, 1800–1916. National Archives Microfilm Publication M617. (FHL 1663081–4630) (Worldcat) This source contains extensive rolls and reports listing soldiers stationed at forts and posts.

Service Records

Service records for the Indian conflicts are available at the National Archives. They consist of abstracts from original muster rolls, pay rolls, and medical records.

Volunteers

Service Records after 1784-1811

  • Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers who Served from 1784 to 1811 (NARA M905).
Online
Libraries

Indexes

This microfilm index has been transcribed and the information partially abstracted in the following two books:
  • White, Virgil D. Index to Volunteer Soldiers 1784–1811 Waynesboro, Tennessee: National Historical Publishing, 1987. (FHL 973 M22woa) (Worldcat)
  • Clark, Murtie June. American Militia in the Frontier Wars, 1790–1796 Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1990. (FHL 973 M2clm) (Worldcat)

Service Records after 1811

Listed below are the only service records for Indian wars after 1811 that have been filmed:

Indexes

The Indian Wars Compiled Service Records Index, 1815-1858 (NARA M629) contains index cards to compiled service records of volunteer soldiers who served in various Indian wars and disturbances from 1815 to 1858.

Regular Army Soldiers

In addition to volunteer soldiers, many soldiers involved in the Indian wars enlisted in the regular Army. For information on regular Army enlistments, see US Army Enlistments, 1798-1914.

Officers

The "Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army..." by Francis B. Heitman lists Regular Army and volunteer officers from 1789 to 1903 in two volumes giving a brief history of the officers service and awards received. Casualties (including prisoners of war) from 1789 to 1902 are also listed as well as a chronological list of battles, actions, etc., in which troops of the Regular Army have participated.

Pension Records

The pension files in the National Archives relate to service performed between 1817 and 1898. Soldiers killed or disabled during the Indian wars were initially covered by existing pension laws. The first pensions based on Indian war service were granted in 1892, but they were limited to specifically named wars. By 1902 pensions were extended to cover all service between 1817 and 1858. Later acts continued extending coverage for service to 1898. The files are alphabetically arranged by the veteran’s name.

Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892–1926

The index to these records is the following:

  • Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892–1926. National Archives Microfilm Publication T318. (FHL films 0821610–21) (FamilySearch) (Worldcat) The index gives name, names of dependents, rank, dates of enlistment and discharge, military unit, application and certificate numbers, date and state of filing, and the pension act it was filed under.
Wiki articles describing online collections are found at:

A published version of this same index is listed below:

  • White, Virgil D. Index to Pension Applications for Indian Wars Service between 1817 and 1898 Waynesboro, Tennessee: National Historical Publishing, 1997. (FHL book 973 M22whv) (Worldcat) Includes name of veteran or widow or both, applicant pension number, date of filing, name of conflict, date of service, and military unit. Some entries have death date and place. This is a revision of the 1987 edition.

Old War Index to Pension Files, 1815-1926

  • The "Old War Index to Pension Files, 1815-1926" (NARA T316) also includes pensioners of the Indian Wars. They relate mainly to pensions based on death or disability incurred in service between the years of 1816-1861.

Additional Resources

Websites

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Wikipedia contributors, American Indian Wars, (accessed 2 April 2012).
  2. Dates differ depending on source.
  3. List is only partial