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''[[United States|United States]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[United States Military Records|U.S. Military]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[United_States_Indian_Wars,_1780-s-1890-s|Indian Wars, 1780s to 1890s]] ''
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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[United States Military Records|U.S. Military]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]'' '''Indian Wars, 1780s to 1890s'''__TOC__
  
=== History ===
+
The following are the wars that involved American Indians occurring between 1783 and the 1890's. The list does not include the War of 1812, the Mexican War, or the Civil War in which American Indians also fought. (List may not be complete)
 +
 
 +
{| width="500" border="1" align="center" class="wikitable sortable"
 +
|-
 +
! Date <ref name="Wikipedia - American Indian Wars">Wikipedia contributors, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Indian_Wars American Indian Wars], (accessed 2 April 2012).</ref><ref>Dates differ depending on source.</ref>
 +
! Indian Wars, 1780s to 1890s <ref name="Wikipedia - American Indian Wars" /><ref>List is only partial</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 1785-1795
 +
| [[Northwest Indian War, 1785 to 1795|Northwest Indian War]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1813-1814
 +
| [[Creek War, 1813 to 1814|Creek War]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1817-1818
 +
| [[First Seminole War, 1817 to 1818|First Seminole War]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1827
 +
| [[Winnebago War, 1827|Winnebago War]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1832
 +
| [[Black Hawk War, 1832|Black Hawk War]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1836-1837
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| [[Second Creek War, 1836 to 1837|Second Creek War]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1836-1839
 +
| [[Cherokee Disturbances and Removal, 1836 to 1839|Cherokee Disturbances and Removal]]
 +
|-
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| 1835-1842
 +
| [[Second Seminole War, 1835 to 1842|Second Seminole War]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1855-1858
 +
| [[Third Seminole War, 1855 to 1858|Third Seminole War]]
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
=== States Involved in the Indian Wars  ===
 +
 
 +
{| class="FCK__ShowTableBorders" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" width="503"
 +
|-
 +
| valign="top" align="left" |
 +
*[[Image:Alabama flag.png|border|22x15px|Alabama flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Alabama Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Alabama]]
 +
*[[Image:Alaska flag.png|border|22x15px|Alaska flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Alaska
 +
*[[Image:Arizona flag.png|border|22x15px|Arizona flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Arizona Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Arizona]]
 +
*[[Image:Arkansas flag.png|border|22x15px|Arkansas flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Arkansas
 +
*[[Image:California flag.png|border|22x15px|California flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[California Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|California]]
 +
*[[Image:Colorado flag.png|border|22x15px|Colorado flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Colorado Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Colorado]]
 +
*[[Image:Connecticut flag.png|border|22x13px|Connecticut flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Connecticut
 +
*[[Image:Delaware flag.png|border|22x15px|Delaware flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Delaware
 +
*[[Image:District of Columbia flag.png|border|22x11px|District of Columbia flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;District of Columbia
 +
*[[Image:Florida flag.png|border|22x15px|Florida flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Florida Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Florida]]
 +
*[[Image:Georgia flag.png|border|22x14px|Georgia flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Georgia Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Georgia]]
 +
*[[Image:Hawaii flag.png|border|22x11px|Hawaii flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Hawaii
 +
*[[Image:Idaho flag.png|border|22x18px|Idaho flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Idaho Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Idaho]]
 +
*[[Image:Illinois flag.png|border|22x13px|Illinois flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Illinois Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Illinois]]
 +
*[[Image:Indiana flag.png|border|22x15px|Indiana flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Indiana Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Indiana]]
 +
*[[Image:Iowa flag.png|border|22x15px|Iowa flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Iowa Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Iowa]]
 +
*[[Image:Kansas flag.png|border|22x13px|Kansas flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Kansas Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Kansas]]
 +
 
 +
| valign="top" align="left" |
 +
*[[Image:Kentucky flag.png|border|22x15px|Kentucky flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Kentucky
 +
*[[Image:Louisiana flag.png|border|22x15px|Louisiana flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Louisiana Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Louisiana]]
 +
*[[Image:Maine flag.png|border|22x15px|Maine flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Maine
 +
*[[Image:Maryland flag.png|border|22x15px|Maryland flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Maryland
 +
*[[Image:Massachusetts flag.png|border|22x13px|Massachusetts flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Massachusetts
 +
*[[Image:Michigan flag.png|border|22x15px|Michigan flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Michigan Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Michigan]]
 +
*[[Image:Minnesota flag.png|border|22x14px|Minnesota flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Minnesota Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Minnesota]]
 +
*[[Image:Mississippi flag.png|border|22x13px|Mississippi flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Mississippi
 +
*[[Image:Missouri flag.png|border|22x13px|Missouri flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Missouri Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Missouri]]
 +
*[[Image:Montana flag.png|border|22x15px|Montana flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Montana Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Montana]]
 +
*[[Image:Nebraska flag.png|border|22x13px|Nebraska flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Nebraska
 +
*[[Image:Nevada flag.png|border|22x15px|Nevada flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Nevada
 +
*[[Image:New Hampshire flag.png|border|22x15px|New Hampshire flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;New Hampshire
 +
*[[Image:New Jersey flag.png|border|22x15px|New Jersey flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;New Jersey
 +
*[[Image:New Mexico flag.png|border|22x15px|New Mexico flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[New Mexico Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|New Mexico]]
 +
*[[Image:New York flag.png|border|22x11px|New York flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;New York
 +
*[[Image:North Carolina flag.png|border|22x15px|North Carolina flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[North Carolina Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|North Carolina]]
 +
 
 +
| valign="top" align="left" |
 +
*[[Image:North Dakota flag.png|border|22x17px|North Dakota flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[North Dakota Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|North Dakota]]
 +
*[[Image:Ohio flag.png|border|22x14px|Ohio flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Ohio
 +
*[[Image:Oklahoma flag.png|border|22x15px|Oklahoma flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Oklahoma
 +
*[[Image:Oregon flag.png|border|22x13px|Oregon flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Oregon Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Oregon]]
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*[[Image:Pennsylvania flag.png|border|22x15px|Pennsylvania flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Pennsylvania
 +
*[[Image:Rhode Island flag.png|border|21x20px|Rhode Island flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Rhode Island
 +
*[[Image:South Carolina flag.png|border|22x15px|South Carolina flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[South Carolina Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|South Carolina]]
 +
*[[Image:South Dakota flag.png|border|22x13px|South Dakota flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[South Dakota Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|South Dakota]]
 +
*[[Image:Tennessee flag.png|border|22x13px|Tennessee flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Tennessee Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Tennessee]]
 +
*[[Image:Texas flag.png|border|22x15px|Texas flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Texas Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Texas]]
 +
*[[Image:Utah flag.png|border|22x15px|Utah flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Utah Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Utah]]
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*[[Image:Vermont flag.png|border|22x13px|Vermont flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Vermont
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*[[Image:Virginia flag.png|border|22x15px|Virginia flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Virginia
 +
*[[Image:Washington flag.png|border|22x13px|Washington flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Washington Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Washington]]
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*[[Image:West Virginia flag.png|border|22x12px|West Virginia flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[West Virginia Military Records#Additional_Military_Records|West Virginia]]
 +
*[[Image:Wisconsin flag.png|border|22x15px|Wisconsin flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Wisconsin Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Wisconsin]]
 +
*[[Image:Wyoming flag.png|border|22x15px|Wyoming flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Wyoming Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Wyoming]]
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
=== History ===
  
 
The United States military protected the expanding western frontier from the 1780s to the 1890s. Military personnel surveyed land; enforced government policy; protected settlers; and guarded stage, mail, and telegraph routes. Expanding settlement led to conflicts with the many Indian nations. Military conflicts with Indians are listed in the following:  
 
The United States military protected the expanding western frontier from the 1780s to the 1890s. Military personnel surveyed land; enforced government policy; protected settlers; and guarded stage, mail, and telegraph routes. Expanding settlement led to conflicts with the many Indian nations. Military conflicts with Indians are listed in the following:  
  
*Peters, Joseph P., compiler. ''Indian Battles and Skirmishes on the American Frontier, 1790–1898 Comprising Record of Engagements with Hostile Indians within the Military Division of the Missouri from 1868 to 1882; Chronological List of Actions, etc. with Indians from January 1, 1866 to January 1891; and a Compilation of Indian Engagements from January 1837 to January 1866''. New York, New York: Argonaut Press, 1966. ({{FHL|1686002|disp=FHL 1686002}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1370777 Worldcat]) A chronological list which includes dates, places, and units involved; number of killed and wounded; and remarks that may include names of officers.  
+
*Peters, Joseph P., compiler. ''Indian Battles and Skirmishes on the American Frontier, 1790–1898 Comprising Record of Engagements with Hostile Indians within the Military Division of the Missouri from 1868 to 1882; Chronological List of Actions, etc. with Indians from January 1, 1866 to January 1891; and a Compilation of Indian Engagements from January 1837 to January 1866''. New York, New York: Argonaut Press, 1966. {{FHL|1686002|disp=FHL 1686002}} ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1370777 Worldcat]) A chronological list which includes dates, places, and units involved; number of killed and wounded; and remarks that may include names of officers.
 +
 
 +
*''Chronological List of Engagements between the Regular Army of the United States and Various Tribes of Hostiles Which Occurred during the Years 1790 to 1898, Inclusive.'' 1939. Reprint, New York, New York: AMS Press, 1976. {{FHL|973 M2ww|disp=FHL 973 M2ww}} ([http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Chronological+List+of+Engagements+between+the+Regular+Army+of+the+United+States+and+Various+Tribes Worldcat]) Identifies place; military unit involved; and number of soldiers and American Indians killed, wounded, and captured.
 +
 
 +
*The Indian Wars Campaign Medal: Its History and its Recipients. By John M. Carroll. J.M Carroll and Company. {{FHL|646979|disp=FHL book 970.1 C236i}} [http://www.worldcat.org/title/indian-wars-campaign-medal-its-history-and-its-recipients/oclc/866299464 WorldCat]
 +
 
 +
=== Statistical Summary<ref>Heitman, Francis B. ''Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army.'' (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1903), vol.2, p.281.</ref>  ===
 +
 
 +
{| width="600" border="1" align="center" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1"
 +
|-
 +
! scope="col" | War
 +
! scope="col" | type of troop
 +
! scope="col" | troops
 +
! scope="col" | deaths
 +
! scope="col" | wounded
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" valign="middle" | <br>Seminole 1817-18
 +
|
 +
regular army
 +
 
 +
volunteers
 +
 
 +
| align="center" valign="middle" |
 +
1,100
 +
 
 +
7,000
 +
 
 +
| align="center" valign="middle" | <br>46
 +
| align="center" valign="middle" | <br>36
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" valign="middle" | <br>Black Hawk 1831-32
 +
|
 +
regular army
 +
 
 +
volunteers
 +
 
 +
| align="center" valign="bottom" |
 +
1,341
 +
 
 +
5,368
 +
 
 +
| align="center" valign="middle" | <br>26
 +
| align="center" valign="middle" | <br>39
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" valign="middle" | <br>Seminole 1835-42
 +
|
 +
regular army
 +
 
 +
volunteer
  
*''Chronological List of Engagements between the Regular Army of the United States and Various Tribes of Hostiles Which Occurred during the Years 1790 to 1898, Inclusive.'' 1939. Reprint, New York, New York: AMS Press, 1976. ({{FHL|973 M2ww|disp=FHL 973 M2ww}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Chronological+List+of+Engagements+between+the+Regular+Army+of+the+United+States+and+Various+Tribes Worldcat]) Identifies place; military unit involved; and number of soldiers and American Indians killed, wounded, and captured.
+
| align="center" valign="middle" |
 +
11,169
  
=== Forts ===
+
29,953
 +
 
 +
| align="center" valign="middle" | <br>383
 +
| align="center" valign="middle" | <br>557
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
=== Forts ===
  
 
For information about forts where soldiers were garrisoned, see the following:  
 
For information about forts where soldiers were garrisoned, see the following:  
Line 15: Line 168:
 
*''Historical Information Relating to Military Posts and Other Installations, ca. 1700–1900''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M661. ({{FHL|1466009|disp=FHL 1466009–16}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/4396128 Worldcat])
 
*''Historical Information Relating to Military Posts and Other Installations, ca. 1700–1900''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M661. ({{FHL|1466009|disp=FHL 1466009–16}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/4396128 Worldcat])
  
*''Returns from U.S. Military Posts, 1800–1916''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M617. ({{FHL|1663081|disp=FHL 1663081–4630}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Returns+from+U.S.+Military+Posts Worldcat]) This source contains extensive rolls and reports listing soldiers stationed at forts and posts.  
+
*''Returns from U.S. Military Posts, 1800–1916''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M617. ({{FHL|1663081|disp=FHL 1663081–4630}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Returns+from+U.S.+Military+Posts Worldcat]) This source contains extensive rolls and reports listing soldiers stationed at forts and posts.
 +
 
 +
=== Service Records  ===
 +
 
 +
Service records for the Indian conflicts are available at the [[National Archives and Records Administration|National Archives]]. They consist of abstracts from original muster rolls, pay rolls, and medical records.
 +
 
 +
==== Volunteers  ====
  
=== Service Records ===
+
<u>Service Records after 1784-1811</u>
  
Service records for the Indian conflicts are available at the [[National Archives and Records Administration|National Archives]]. They consist of abstracts from original muster rolls, pay rolls, and medical records.
+
*''Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers who Served from 1784 to 1811'' (NARA M905).
  
==== Volunteers ====
+
:'''Online'''
  
<u>Service Records after 1784-1811</u>
+
:*[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=2237 U.S. Compiled Service Records, Post-Revolutionary War Volunteer Soldiers, 1784-1811] (Ancestry) ($)
  
*''Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served from 1784 to 1811''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M905. ({{FHL|1205385|disp=FHL 1205385–401}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Compiled+Service+Records+of+Volunteer+Soldiers+Who+Served+from+1784+to+1811 Worldcat]) These records are indexed in:
+
:'''Libraries'''
  
'''Indexes'''
+
:*Locate these records at a library using [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Compiled+Service+Records+of+Volunteer+Soldiers+Who+Served+from+1784+to+1811 Worldcat]
 +
:*Family History Library ({{FHL|1205385|disp=FHL 1205385–401}})
 +
 
 +
'''Indexes'''  
  
 
*''Index to Compiled Service Records 1784-1811'' National Archives Microfilm Publication M694 ({{FHL|1205437|disp=FHL CD #9, part 146; films 1205437–45}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/6444436 Worldcat])
 
*''Index to Compiled Service Records 1784-1811'' National Archives Microfilm Publication M694 ({{FHL|1205437|disp=FHL CD #9, part 146; films 1205437–45}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/6444436 Worldcat])
  
:This microfilm index has been transcribed and the information partially abstracted in the following two books:  
+
:This microfilm index has been transcribed and the information partially abstracted in the following two books:
  
 
::*White, Virgil D. ''Index to Volunteer Soldiers 1784–1811'' Waynesboro, Tennessee: National Historical Publishing, 1987. ({{FHL|973 M22woa|disp=FHL 973 M22woa}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/18381240 Worldcat])
 
::*White, Virgil D. ''Index to Volunteer Soldiers 1784–1811'' Waynesboro, Tennessee: National Historical Publishing, 1987. ({{FHL|973 M22woa|disp=FHL 973 M22woa}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/18381240 Worldcat])
Line 37: Line 199:
 
::*Clark, Murtie June. ''American Militia in the Frontier Wars, 1790–1796'' Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1990. ({{FHL|973 M2clm|disp=FHL 973 M2clm}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/22179720 Worldcat])
 
::*Clark, Murtie June. ''American Militia in the Frontier Wars, 1790–1796'' Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1990. ({{FHL|973 M2clm|disp=FHL 973 M2clm}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/22179720 Worldcat])
  
<u>Service Records after 1811</u>
+
<u>Service Records after 1811</u>  
  
 
Listed below are the only service records for Indian wars after 1811 that have been filmed:  
 
Listed below are the only service records for Indian wars after 1811 that have been filmed:  
Line 43: Line 205:
 
:*''Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served in Organizations from the State of Florida during the Florida Indian Wars, 1835–1858'' National Archives Microfilm Publication M1086. ({{FHL|1303446|disp=FHL films 6019538;1303446-500;1303296-297;1313918-23}}) (FHL 63 films) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/25305615 Worldcat])
 
:*''Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served in Organizations from the State of Florida during the Florida Indian Wars, 1835–1858'' National Archives Microfilm Publication M1086. ({{FHL|1303446|disp=FHL films 6019538;1303446-500;1303296-297;1313918-23}}) (FHL 63 films) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/25305615 Worldcat])
  
:*''Compiled Service Records of Michigan and Illinois Volunteers Who Served during the Winnebago Indian Disturbances, 1827''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M1505. ({{FHL|1638617|disp=FHL 1638617–19}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/20324653 Worldcat])
+
'''Indexes'''  
  
''' Indexes'''
+
The [[Indian Wars Compiled Service Records Index, 1815-1858]] (NARA M629) contains index cards to compiled service records of volunteer soldiers who served in various Indian wars and disturbances from 1815 to 1858.
  
*"Index to Compiled Military Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served during Indian Wars and Disturbances, 1815–58" (NARA M629). This index includes the soldier’s name, rank, and unit along with the name of the war or disturbance.
+
==== Regular Army Soldiers ====
  
:Includes:
+
In addition to volunteer soldiers, many soldiers involved in the Indian wars enlisted in the regular Army. For information on regular Army enlistments, see [[US Army Enlistments, 1798-1914]].
::::*Creek War -- 1813-14
 
::::*Seminole War 1817-1818 (First Seminole War)
 
::::*War of 1818 (First Seminole War)
 
::::*Winnebago War -- 1827
 
::::*War of 1832 (Black Hawk War)
 
::::*protection of Sabine Frontier 1836
 
::::*Cherokee Disturbances and Removal (Cherokee War) -- 1836-39
 
::::*Florida War (Second Seminole War) -- 1835-42
 
::::*Seminole War (Third Seminole War) -- 1855-58
 
  
:'''Online'''
+
==== Officers  ====
  
:*[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=4654 U.S. Army Indian Campaign Service Records Index, 1815-1858] (Ancestry) ($) (note: browsable only - includes M243, M256, M629, M907)
+
The "[[Historical Register and Dictionary of the US Army|Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army]]..." by Francis B. Heitman lists Regular Army and volunteer officers from 1789 to 1903 in two volumes giving a brief history of the officers service and awards received. Casualties (including prisoners of war) from 1789 to 1902 are also listed as well as a chronological list of battles, actions, etc., in which troops of the Regular Army have participated.
  
:'''Libraries'''
+
=== Pension Records  ===
  
:*Locate these records at a library using [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Index+to+compiled+service+records+of+volunteer+soldiers+who+served+during+Indian+wars&qt=owc_search#x0%253Abook%2Bx4%253Amicformat Worldcat]
+
The pension files in the [[National Archives and Records Administration|National Archives]] relate to service performed between 1817 and 1898. Soldiers killed or disabled during the Indian wars were initially covered by existing pension laws. The first pensions based on Indian war service were granted in 1892, but they were limited to specifically named wars. By 1902 pensions were extended to cover all service between 1817 and 1858. Later acts continued extending coverage for service to 1898. The files are alphabetically arranged by the veteran’s name.
:*Family History Library ({{FHL|0882753|disp=FHL 0882753–94}})
 
  
==== Regular Army Soldiers ====
+
'''Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892–1926'''
  
In addition to volunteer soldiers, many soldiers involved in the Indian wars enlisted in the regular Army. For information on regular Army soldiers, see:  
+
The index to these records is the following:  
  
*{{RecordSearch|1880762|United States, Registers of Enlistments in the U. S. Army, 1798 - 1914}} (FamilySearch) NARA M233 (FHL 47 films)  
+
*''Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892–1926''. National Archives Microfilm Publication T318. ({{FHL|0821610|disp=FHL films 0821610–21}}) ({{RecordSearch|1979427|FamilySearch}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/46426248 Worldcat]) The index gives name, names of dependents, rank, dates of enlistment and discharge, military unit, application and certificate numbers, date and state of filing, and the pension act it was filed under.
  
:'''Wiki articles describing this collection is found at:'''
+
::'''Wiki articles describing online collections are found at:'''
  
:*[[United States Registers of Enlistment in the U.S. Army (FamilySearch Historical Records)|United States Registers of Enlistments in the U.S. Army (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
+
::*[[United States, Index to Indian Wars Pension Files (FamilySearch Historical Records)|United States, Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892-1926 (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
  
==== Officers ====
+
A published version of this same index is listed below:
  
When researching Army officers, consult Francis B. Heitman's ''Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, From Its Organization, September 29, 1789, to March 2, 1903'', available in two volumes ({{FHL|697602|title-id|disp=FHL book 973 M2hh}}) ({{FHL|224525|title-id|disp=FHL film 2229899}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/search?qt=worldcat_org_all&q=Historical+register+and+dictionary+of+the+United+States+Army+%3A+from+its+organization%2C+September+29 Worldcat]). Volume one ([http://books.google.com/books?id=iIUiAAAAMAAJ&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false Google Books]), a register of army officers, provides a brief history of each man's service. Volume two ([http://books.google.com/books?id=WoQiAAAAMAAJ&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false Google Books]) contains a "chronological list of battles, actions, etc., in which troops of the Regular Army have participated.  
+
*White, Virgil D. ''Index to Pension Applications for Indian Wars Service between 1817 and 1898'' Waynesboro, Tennessee: National Historical Publishing, 1997. ({{FHL|973 M22whv|disp=FHL book 973 M22whv}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/37503652 Worldcat]) Includes name of veteran or widow or both, applicant pension number, date of filing, name of conflict, date of service, and military unit. Some entries have death date and place. This is a revision of the 1987 edition.
  
==== Indexes for Specific Wars ====
+
'''Old War Index to Pension Files, 1815-1926'''
  
'''Black Hawk War 1831-1832'''
+
*The "[[Old War Index to Pension Files, 1815-1926]]" (NARA T316) also includes pensioners of the Indian Wars. They relate mainly to pensions based on death or disability incurred in service between the years of 1816-1861.
  
*[http://www.cyberdriveillinois.com/departments/archives/databases/blkhawk.html Illinois soldiers of the 1831-1832, Black Hawk War, Illinois State Archives]
+
'''Old War Index to Pension Files, 1815-1898'''
  
'''Cherokee Disturbances and Removal''', 1836 to 1839
+
Prior to 1892 pension benefits were avilable to soldiers in the regular Army who were disabled or the widows of soldiers killed in service. The benefits were based on service between 1783 and 1861. Many of the claimants were never directly involved in a particular war, but served for a number of years at forts or military establishments. These pensions are referred to as the Old War Series. The Old War pension index has been microfilmed (N.A. film group T316). The index usually contains:
  
Individual state indexes are available for:
+
*Name of soldier
 +
*Branch of service (i.e. Army, Navy)
 +
*Name and class of dependents
 +
*Date of enlistment and discharge
 +
*Rank and unit
 +
*Date application was filed
 +
*Type or class of application&nbsp;(i.e., service, invalid, widow, etc.)
 +
*Pension application number
 +
*Pension certificate number
 +
*Pension file number
 +
*Account number
 +
*Date of death
 +
*State from where filed
  
*Alabama. National Archives Microfilm Publication M243 ({{FHL|0368685|disp=FHL film 0368685}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/10670603 Worldcat])
+
Old War Index to pension files, 1815-1898 are available:  
*Georgia. National Archives Microfilm Publication M907 ({{FHL|1205402|disp=FHL film 1205402}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/17977578 Worldcat])
 
*North Carolina. National Archives Microfilm Publication M256 ({{FHL|0368686|disp=FHL film 0368686}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/12423068 Worldcat])
 
*Tennessee, including field and staff of the Army of the Cherokee Nation. National Archives Microfilm Publication M908 ({{FHL|1205384|disp=FHL film 1205384}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/17249016 Worldcat])
 
  
'''Creek War, 1836 to 1837'''
+
{{FHL|98862|item|disp=FHL Online}}
  
For this war, the [[National Archives and Records Administration|National Archives]] and [[Family History Library|Family History Library]] have the following:
+
{{FHL|98862|item|disp=FHL microfilm 821603-821609}}
  
*''Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served during the Creek War in Organizations from the State of Alabama''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M244. ({{FHL|0880845|disp=FHL films 0880845–46}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/9991300 Worldcat]) The records to which the index refers have not been microfilmed.
+
::
  
'''Second Seminole War, 1836 to 1843'''
+
:
  
*Indexes for soldiers who served from Alabama}}, National Archives Microfilm Publication M245 ({{FHL|0880847|disp=FHL film 0880847}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1804201 Worldcat])
+
{| width="400" border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1"
*Indexes for soldiers who served from Louisiana, National Archives Microfilm Publication M239 ({{FHL|0880843|disp=FHL film 0880843}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/18923239 Worldcat])
+
|-
 +
! scope="col" | Film Number
 +
! scope="col" | First Name on Film
 +
! scope="col" | Last Name on Film
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;821,603
 +
| Aa
 +
| Brin
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;821,604
 +
| Bris
 +
| Duncan, A.
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;821,605
 +
| Duncan, D.  
 +
| Herrin
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;821,606
 +
| Herring
 +
| McDonnell, James
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;821,607
 +
| McDonnell, John
 +
| Porter, Thomas J.
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;821,608
 +
| Porter, W.
 +
| Sullivan, D.
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;821,609
 +
| Sullivan, E.  
 +
| Zw
 +
|}
  
<u>Florida</u>
+
<br> <br> <br> '''Additional Resources'''
  
Only the service records for soldiers from the state of Florida have been microfilmed:  
+
*''[https://fch.ldschurch.org/WWSupport/Courses/FamilyHistoryLibraryExport/U.S._Military_Records__Pre-WWI_Pension_Application/Player.html Military Records: Pre-WWI Pension Applications]'' (16 minute online video) [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/education/frameset_education.asp?PAGE=education_research_series_online.asp%3FActiveTab=2 FamilySearch Research Classes Online], 2010.
  
:*''Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served in Organizations from the State of Florida during the Florida Indian Wars, 1835–1858'' National Archives Microfilm Publication M1086. ({{FHL|1303446|disp=FHL films 6019538;1303446-500;1303296-297;1313918-23}}) (FHL 63 films) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/25305615 Worldcat])
+
*Boyd, Mark F. "Seminole War: Background and Onset." (''Florida Historical Quarterly'', 1951, vol.30, p. 3). {{FHL|214103|item|disp=FHL film 1689409}}.
  
:*An index to these records is also available. See [[United States Indian Wars, 1780-s-1890-s#Volunteers|Index to Compiled Military Service Records 1815–58]].
+
*Dennis, Henry C., comp. ''The American Indian 1492-1970: A Chronology and Fact Book''. (Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., 1971). {{FHL|47642|item|disp=FHL book 973 F25e no. 1}}.
  
'''War of 1837 to 1838 (Second Florida Campaign)'''
+
*Downey, Fairfax D. ''Indian Wars of the Army, 1776-1865''. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1963).
  
*''Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served During the War of 1837-38 in Organizations From the State of Louisiana''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M241. ({{FHL|0880844|disp=FHL film 0880844}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26700719 Worldcat]) The records to which the index refers have not been microfilmed.  
+
*Foreman, Grant. ''Indian Removal: The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians''. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1953). {{FHL|115293|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 F761i}}.
  
=== Pension Records ===
+
*Halbert, Henry S. and Ball, T. H. ''The Creek War of 1813 and 1814''. (University: University of Alabama Press, 1969).
  
The pension files in the [[National Archives and Records Administration|National Archives]] relate to service performed between 1817 and 1898. Soldiers killed or disabled during the Indian wars were initially covered by existing pension laws. The first pensions based on Indian war service were granted in 1892, but they were limited to specifically named wars. By 1902 pensions were extended to cover all service between 1817 and 1858. Later acts continued extending coverage for service to 1898. The files are alphabetically arranged by the veteran’s name.  
+
*Laumer, Frank. ''Massacre''. (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1968). {{FHL|577471|item|disp=FHL book 970.3 Se52Lf}}.
  
'''Indexes'''
+
*Mahon, John K. ''History of the Second Seminole War, 1835-1842''. (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1967). {{FHL|489086|item|disp=FHL book 970.3 Se52mj}}.
  
The index to these records is the following:  
+
*Nichols, Roger L. "The Black Hawk War: Another View." (''Annals of Iowa,'' 1963,vol. 36, p. 525-533). {{FHL|31912|item|disp=FHL Online}}.
  
*''Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892–1926''. National Archives Microfilm Publication T318. ({{FHL|0821610|disp=FHL films 0821610–21}}) ({{RecordSearch|1979427|FamilySearch}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/46426248 Worldcat]) The index gives name, names of dependents, rank, dates of enlistment and discharge, military unit, application and certificate numbers, date and state of filing, and the pension act it was filed under.  
+
*Pruchas, Francis P. ''The Sword of the Republic: the United States Army on the Frontier, 1783-1846''. (New York: Macmillan, 1969).
  
A published version of this same index is listed below:  
+
*Sprague, John T. ''Origin, Progress and Conclusions of the Florida War''. (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1848).
  
*White, Virgil D. ''Index to Pension Applications for Indian Wars Service between 1817 and 1898'' Waynesboro, Tennessee: National Historical Publishing, 1997. ({{FHL|973 M22whv|disp=FHL book 973 M22whv}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/37503652 Worldcat]) Includes name of veteran or widow or both, applicant pension number, date of filing, name of conflict, date of service, and military unit. Some entries have death date and place. This is a revision of the 1987 edition.  
+
*Stevens, Frank E. ''Black Hawk War, Including a Review of Black Hawks' Life''. (Chicago: Frank E. Stevens, 1903). {{FHL|707348|item|disp=FHL book 970.3 Sa86s}}.
  
Pensioners of the Indian Wars are also included in United States, Veterans Administration. ''Old War Index to Pension Files'', ''1815–1926''. Washington, District of Columbia: National Archives. Central Plains Region, 1959. NARA T316 ({{FHL|821603|disp=FHL films 821603-09}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/6705864 Worldcat]) For more information, see National Archive Microfilm Publication T316 on page 56.  
+
*Thwaites, Reuben G. "Story of Black Hawk War." (''Wisconsin Historical Collection'',1892, vol. 12, p. 217). {{FHL|541421|item|disp=FHL film 1550319 item 4}}.
  
=== Additional Resources ===
+
*Wakefield, John A. ''History of War between United States and Sac and Fox Nations of Indians, and Parts of Other Disaffected Tribes of Indians in the Year Eighteen Hundred and Twenty-Seven''. (New York: Garland Publishers, 1975). {{FHL|301982|item|disp=FHL film 989444 item 6}}.
  
*''[https://fch.ldschurch.org/WWSupport/Courses/FamilyHistoryLibraryExport/U.S._Military_Records__Pre-WWI_Pension_Application/Player.html Military Records: Pre-WWI Pension Applications]'' (16 minute online video) [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/education/frameset_education.asp?PAGE=education_research_series_online.asp%3FActiveTab=2 FamilySearch Research Classes Online], 2010.
+
*Whitney, Ellen M., ed. ''The Black Hawk War, 1831-32''. (Springfield: Illinois State Historical Society, 1970). {{FHL|292455|item|disp=FHL book 977.3 B4i v. 36}}.
  
=== Websites ===
+
=== Websites ===
  
 
*[http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1008.html U-S-history.com] - Histories of all Indian Wars, 1622-1890
 
*[http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1008.html U-S-history.com] - Histories of all Indian Wars, 1622-1890
  
 +
=== References  ===
  
 +
<references />
  
'''Wiki articles describing online collections are found at:'''
+
<br> {{U.S. Military}}  
 
 
*[[United States, Index to Indian Wars Pension Files (FamilySearch Historical Records)|United States, Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892-1926 (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
 
 
 
 
 
{{U.S. Military}}  
 
  
[[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:Wars_involving_the_United_States|Indian]]
+
[[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:US Indian Wars, 1780s-1890s]]

Revision as of 18:43, 26 May 2016

United States Gotoarrow.png U.S. Military Gotoarrow.png Indian Wars, 1780s to 1890s

The following are the wars that involved American Indians occurring between 1783 and the 1890's. The list does not include the War of 1812, the Mexican War, or the Civil War in which American Indians also fought. (List may not be complete)

Date [1][2] Indian Wars, 1780s to 1890s [1][3]
1785-1795 Northwest Indian War
1813-1814 Creek War
1817-1818 First Seminole War
1827 Winnebago War
1832 Black Hawk War
1836-1837 Second Creek War
1836-1839 Cherokee Disturbances and Removal
1835-1842 Second Seminole War
1855-1858 Third Seminole War

States Involved in the Indian Wars

History

The United States military protected the expanding western frontier from the 1780s to the 1890s. Military personnel surveyed land; enforced government policy; protected settlers; and guarded stage, mail, and telegraph routes. Expanding settlement led to conflicts with the many Indian nations. Military conflicts with Indians are listed in the following:

  • Peters, Joseph P., compiler. Indian Battles and Skirmishes on the American Frontier, 1790–1898 Comprising Record of Engagements with Hostile Indians within the Military Division of the Missouri from 1868 to 1882; Chronological List of Actions, etc. with Indians from January 1, 1866 to January 1891; and a Compilation of Indian Engagements from January 1837 to January 1866. New York, New York: Argonaut Press, 1966. FHL 1686002 (Worldcat) A chronological list which includes dates, places, and units involved; number of killed and wounded; and remarks that may include names of officers.
  • Chronological List of Engagements between the Regular Army of the United States and Various Tribes of Hostiles Which Occurred during the Years 1790 to 1898, Inclusive. 1939. Reprint, New York, New York: AMS Press, 1976. FHL 973 M2ww (Worldcat) Identifies place; military unit involved; and number of soldiers and American Indians killed, wounded, and captured.

Statistical Summary[4]

War type of troop troops deaths wounded

Seminole 1817-18

regular army

volunteers

1,100

7,000


46

36

Black Hawk 1831-32

regular army

volunteers

1,341

5,368


26

39

Seminole 1835-42

regular army

volunteer

11,169

29,953


383

557

Forts

For information about forts where soldiers were garrisoned, see the following:

  • Historical Information Relating to Military Posts and Other Installations, ca. 1700–1900. National Archives Microfilm Publication M661. (FHL 1466009–16) (Worldcat)
  • Returns from U.S. Military Posts, 1800–1916. National Archives Microfilm Publication M617. (FHL 1663081–4630) (Worldcat) This source contains extensive rolls and reports listing soldiers stationed at forts and posts.

Service Records

Service records for the Indian conflicts are available at the National Archives. They consist of abstracts from original muster rolls, pay rolls, and medical records.

Volunteers

Service Records after 1784-1811

  • Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers who Served from 1784 to 1811 (NARA M905).
Online
Libraries

Indexes

This microfilm index has been transcribed and the information partially abstracted in the following two books:
  • White, Virgil D. Index to Volunteer Soldiers 1784–1811 Waynesboro, Tennessee: National Historical Publishing, 1987. (FHL 973 M22woa) (Worldcat)
  • Clark, Murtie June. American Militia in the Frontier Wars, 1790–1796 Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1990. (FHL 973 M2clm) (Worldcat)

Service Records after 1811

Listed below are the only service records for Indian wars after 1811 that have been filmed:

Indexes

The Indian Wars Compiled Service Records Index, 1815-1858 (NARA M629) contains index cards to compiled service records of volunteer soldiers who served in various Indian wars and disturbances from 1815 to 1858.

Regular Army Soldiers

In addition to volunteer soldiers, many soldiers involved in the Indian wars enlisted in the regular Army. For information on regular Army enlistments, see US Army Enlistments, 1798-1914.

Officers

The "Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army..." by Francis B. Heitman lists Regular Army and volunteer officers from 1789 to 1903 in two volumes giving a brief history of the officers service and awards received. Casualties (including prisoners of war) from 1789 to 1902 are also listed as well as a chronological list of battles, actions, etc., in which troops of the Regular Army have participated.

Pension Records

The pension files in the National Archives relate to service performed between 1817 and 1898. Soldiers killed or disabled during the Indian wars were initially covered by existing pension laws. The first pensions based on Indian war service were granted in 1892, but they were limited to specifically named wars. By 1902 pensions were extended to cover all service between 1817 and 1858. Later acts continued extending coverage for service to 1898. The files are alphabetically arranged by the veteran’s name.

Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892–1926

The index to these records is the following:

  • Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892–1926. National Archives Microfilm Publication T318. (FHL films 0821610–21) (FamilySearch) (Worldcat) The index gives name, names of dependents, rank, dates of enlistment and discharge, military unit, application and certificate numbers, date and state of filing, and the pension act it was filed under.
Wiki articles describing online collections are found at:

A published version of this same index is listed below:

  • White, Virgil D. Index to Pension Applications for Indian Wars Service between 1817 and 1898 Waynesboro, Tennessee: National Historical Publishing, 1997. (FHL book 973 M22whv) (Worldcat) Includes name of veteran or widow or both, applicant pension number, date of filing, name of conflict, date of service, and military unit. Some entries have death date and place. This is a revision of the 1987 edition.

Old War Index to Pension Files, 1815-1926

  • The "Old War Index to Pension Files, 1815-1926" (NARA T316) also includes pensioners of the Indian Wars. They relate mainly to pensions based on death or disability incurred in service between the years of 1816-1861.

Old War Index to Pension Files, 1815-1898

Prior to 1892 pension benefits were avilable to soldiers in the regular Army who were disabled or the widows of soldiers killed in service. The benefits were based on service between 1783 and 1861. Many of the claimants were never directly involved in a particular war, but served for a number of years at forts or military establishments. These pensions are referred to as the Old War Series. The Old War pension index has been microfilmed (N.A. film group T316). The index usually contains:

  • Name of soldier
  • Branch of service (i.e. Army, Navy)
  • Name and class of dependents
  • Date of enlistment and discharge
  • Rank and unit
  • Date application was filed
  • Type or class of application (i.e., service, invalid, widow, etc.)
  • Pension application number
  • Pension certificate number
  • Pension file number
  • Account number
  • Date of death
  • State from where filed

Old War Index to pension files, 1815-1898 are available:

FHL Online

FHL microfilm 821603-821609

Film Number First Name on Film Last Name on Film
     821,603 Aa Brin
     821,604 Bris Duncan, A.
     821,605 Duncan, D. Herrin
     821,606 Herring McDonnell, James
     821,607 McDonnell, John Porter, Thomas J.
     821,608 Porter, W. Sullivan, D.
     821,609 Sullivan, E. Zw




Additional Resources

  • Boyd, Mark F. "Seminole War: Background and Onset." (Florida Historical Quarterly, 1951, vol.30, p. 3). FHL film 1689409.
  • Dennis, Henry C., comp. The American Indian 1492-1970: A Chronology and Fact Book. (Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., 1971). FHL book 973 F25e no. 1.
  • Downey, Fairfax D. Indian Wars of the Army, 1776-1865. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1963).
  • Foreman, Grant. Indian Removal: The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1953). FHL book 970.1 F761i.
  • Halbert, Henry S. and Ball, T. H. The Creek War of 1813 and 1814. (University: University of Alabama Press, 1969).
  • Mahon, John K. History of the Second Seminole War, 1835-1842. (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1967). FHL book 970.3 Se52mj.
  • Nichols, Roger L. "The Black Hawk War: Another View." (Annals of Iowa, 1963,vol. 36, p. 525-533). FHL Online.
  • Pruchas, Francis P. The Sword of the Republic: the United States Army on the Frontier, 1783-1846. (New York: Macmillan, 1969).
  • Sprague, John T. Origin, Progress and Conclusions of the Florida War. (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1848).
  • Stevens, Frank E. Black Hawk War, Including a Review of Black Hawks' Life. (Chicago: Frank E. Stevens, 1903). FHL book 970.3 Sa86s.
  • Thwaites, Reuben G. "Story of Black Hawk War." (Wisconsin Historical Collection,1892, vol. 12, p. 217). FHL film 1550319 item 4.
  • Wakefield, John A. History of War between United States and Sac and Fox Nations of Indians, and Parts of Other Disaffected Tribes of Indians in the Year Eighteen Hundred and Twenty-Seven. (New York: Garland Publishers, 1975). FHL film 989444 item 6.
  • Whitney, Ellen M., ed. The Black Hawk War, 1831-32. (Springfield: Illinois State Historical Society, 1970). FHL book 977.3 B4i v. 36.

Websites

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Wikipedia contributors, American Indian Wars, (accessed 2 April 2012).
  2. Dates differ depending on source.
  3. List is only partial
  4. Heitman, Francis B. Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army. (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1903), vol.2, p.281.