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''[[United States|United States]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[United States Military Records|U.S. Military Records]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[United States Indian Wars, 1780-s-1890-s|Indian Wars, 1780s to 1890s]]
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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[United States Military Records|U.S. Military]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]'' '''Indian Wars, 1780s to 1890s'''__TOC__
  
== History  ==
+
The following are the wars that involved American Indians occurring between 1783 and the 1890's. The list does not include the War of 1812, the Mexican War, or the Civil War in which American Indians also fought. (List may not be complete)
  
The [[United States Military Records|United States military]] protected the expanding western frontier from the 1780s to the 1890s. Military personnel surveyed land; enforced government policy; protected settlers; and guarded stage, mail, and telegraph routes. Expanding settlement led to conflicts with the many Indian nations. Military conflicts with Indians are listed in the following:
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{| width="500" border="1" align="center" class="wikitable sortable"
 +
|-
 +
! Date <ref name="Wikipedia - American Indian Wars">Wikipedia contributors, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Indian_Wars American Indian Wars], (accessed 2 April 2012).</ref><ref>Dates differ depending on source.</ref>
 +
! Indian Wars, 1780s to 1890s <ref name="Wikipedia - American Indian Wars" /><ref>List is only partial</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 1785-1795
 +
| [[Northwest Indian War, 1785 to 1795|Northwest Indian War]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1813-1814
 +
| [[Creek War, 1813 to 1814|Creek War]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1817-1818
 +
| [[First Seminole War, 1817 to 1818|First Seminole War]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1827
 +
| [[Winnebago War, 1827|Winnebago War]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1832
 +
| [[Black Hawk War, 1832|Black Hawk War]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1836-1837
 +
| [[Second Creek War, 1836 to 1837|Second Creek War]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1836-1839
 +
| [[Cherokee Disturbances and Removal, 1836 to 1839|Cherokee Disturbances and Removal]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1835-1842
 +
| [[Second Seminole War, 1835 to 1842|Second Seminole War]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1855-1858
 +
| [[Third Seminole War, 1855 to 1858|Third Seminole War]]
 +
|}
  
Peters, Joseph P., compiler. ''[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/show?uri=http%3A%2F%2Fcatalog-search-api%3A8080%2Fwww-catalogapi-webservice%2Fitem%2F439821 Indian Battles and Skirmishes on the American Frontier, 1790–1898],'' ''Comprising Record of Engagements with Hostile Indians within the Military Division of the Missouri from 1868 to 1882; Chronological List of Actions, etc. with Indians from January 1, 1866 to January 1891; and a Compilation of Indian Engagements from January 1837 to January 1866''. New York, New York: Argonaut Press, 1966. (FHL film 1686002.) A chronological list which includes dates, places, and units involved; number of killed and wounded; and remarks that may include names of officers.
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=== States Involved in the Indian Wars  ===
  
Webb, George W. ''[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/show?uri=http%3A%2F%2Fcatalog-search-api%3A8080%2Fwww-catalogapi-webservice%2Fitem%2F491668 Chronological List of Engagements between the Regular Army of the United States and Various Tribes of Hostiles Which Occurred during the Years 1790 to 1898], Inclusive.'' 1939. Reprint, New York, New York: AMS Press, 1976. (FHL book 973 M2ww.) Identifies place; military unit involved; and number of soldiers and American Indians killed, wounded, and captured.
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{| class="FCK__ShowTableBorders" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" width="503"
 +
|-
 +
| valign="top" align="left" |
 +
*[[Image:Alabama flag.png|border|22x15px|Alabama flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Alabama Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Alabama]]
 +
*[[Image:Alaska flag.png|border|22x15px|Alaska flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Alaska
 +
*[[Image:Arizona flag.png|border|22x15px|Arizona flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Arizona Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Arizona]]
 +
*[[Image:Arkansas flag.png|border|22x15px|Arkansas flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Arkansas
 +
*[[Image:California flag.png|border|22x15px|California flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[California Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|California]]
 +
*[[Image:Colorado flag.png|border|22x15px|Colorado flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Colorado Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Colorado]]
 +
*[[Image:Connecticut flag.png|border|22x13px|Connecticut flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Connecticut
 +
*[[Image:Delaware flag.png|border|22x15px|Delaware flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Delaware
 +
*[[Image:District of Columbia flag.png|border|22x11px|District of Columbia flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;District of Columbia
 +
*[[Image:Florida flag.png|border|22x15px|Florida flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Florida Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Florida]]
 +
*[[Image:Georgia flag.png|border|22x14px|Georgia flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Georgia Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Georgia]]
 +
*[[Image:Hawaii flag.png|border|22x11px|Hawaii flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Hawaii
 +
*[[Image:Idaho flag.png|border|22x18px|Idaho flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Idaho Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Idaho]]
 +
*[[Image:Illinois flag.png|border|22x13px|Illinois flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Illinois Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Illinois]]
 +
*[[Image:Indiana flag.png|border|22x15px|Indiana flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Indiana Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Indiana]]
 +
*[[Image:Iowa flag.png|border|22x15px|Iowa flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Iowa Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Iowa]]
 +
*[[Image:Kansas flag.png|border|22x13px|Kansas flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Kansas Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Kansas]]
  
== Service Records ==
+
| valign="top" align="left" |
 +
*[[Image:Kentucky flag.png|border|22x15px|Kentucky flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Kentucky
 +
*[[Image:Louisiana flag.png|border|22x15px|Louisiana flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Louisiana Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Louisiana]]
 +
*[[Image:Maine flag.png|border|22x15px|Maine flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Maine
 +
*[[Image:Maryland flag.png|border|22x15px|Maryland flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Maryland
 +
*[[Image:Massachusetts flag.png|border|22x13px|Massachusetts flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Massachusetts
 +
*[[Image:Michigan flag.png|border|22x15px|Michigan flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Michigan Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Michigan]]
 +
*[[Image:Minnesota flag.png|border|22x14px|Minnesota flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Minnesota Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Minnesota]]
 +
*[[Image:Mississippi flag.png|border|22x13px|Mississippi flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Mississippi
 +
*[[Image:Missouri flag.png|border|22x13px|Missouri flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Missouri Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Missouri]]
 +
*[[Image:Montana flag.png|border|22x15px|Montana flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Montana Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Montana]]
 +
*[[Image:Nebraska flag.png|border|22x13px|Nebraska flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Nebraska
 +
*[[Image:Nevada flag.png|border|22x15px|Nevada flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Nevada
 +
*[[Image:New Hampshire flag.png|border|22x15px|New Hampshire flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;New Hampshire
 +
*[[Image:New Jersey flag.png|border|22x15px|New Jersey flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;New Jersey
 +
*[[Image:New Mexico flag.png|border|22x15px|New Mexico flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[New Mexico Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|New Mexico]]
 +
*[[Image:New York flag.png|border|22x11px|New York flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;New York
 +
*[[Image:North Carolina flag.png|border|22x15px|North Carolina flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[North Carolina Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|North Carolina]]
  
Service records for the Indian conflicts are available at the [[National Archives and Records Administration|National Archives]]. They consist of abstracts from original muster rolls, pay rolls, and medical records.  
+
| valign="top" align="left" |
 +
*[[Image:North Dakota flag.png|border|22x17px|North Dakota flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[North Dakota Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|North Dakota]]
 +
*[[Image:Ohio flag.png|border|22x14px|Ohio flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Ohio
 +
*[[Image:Oklahoma flag.png|border|22x15px|Oklahoma flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Oklahoma
 +
*[[Image:Oregon flag.png|border|22x13px|Oregon flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Oregon Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Oregon]]
 +
*[[Image:Pennsylvania flag.png|border|22x15px|Pennsylvania flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Pennsylvania
 +
*[[Image:Rhode Island flag.png|border|21x20px|Rhode Island flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Rhode Island
 +
*[[Image:South Carolina flag.png|border|22x15px|South Carolina flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[South Carolina Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|South Carolina]]
 +
*[[Image:South Dakota flag.png|border|22x13px|South Dakota flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[South Dakota Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|South Dakota]]
 +
*[[Image:Tennessee flag.png|border|22x13px|Tennessee flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Tennessee Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Tennessee]]
 +
*[[Image:Texas flag.png|border|22x15px|Texas flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Texas Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Texas]]
 +
*[[Image:Utah flag.png|border|22x15px|Utah flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Utah Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Utah]]
 +
*[[Image:Vermont flag.png|border|22x13px|Vermont flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Vermont
 +
*[[Image:Virginia flag.png|border|22x15px|Virginia flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Virginia
 +
*[[Image:Washington flag.png|border|22x13px|Washington flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Washington Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Washington]]
 +
*[[Image:West Virginia flag.png|border|22x12px|West Virginia flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[West Virginia Military Records#Additional_Military_Records|West Virginia]]
 +
*[[Image:Wisconsin flag.png|border|22x15px|Wisconsin flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Wisconsin Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Wisconsin]]
 +
*[[Image:Wyoming flag.png|border|22x15px|Wyoming flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Wyoming Military Records#Indian_Wars_.281780s-1890s.29|Wyoming]]
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
=== History  ===
 +
 
 +
The United States military protected the expanding western frontier from the 1780s to the 1890s. Military personnel surveyed land; enforced government policy; protected settlers; and guarded stage, mail, and telegraph routes. Expanding settlement led to conflicts with the many Indian nations. Military conflicts with Indians are listed in the following:
 +
 
 +
*Peters, Joseph P., compiler. ''Indian Battles and Skirmishes on the American Frontier, 1790–1898 Comprising Record of Engagements with Hostile Indians within the Military Division of the Missouri from 1868 to 1882; Chronological List of Actions, etc. with Indians from January 1, 1866 to January 1891; and a Compilation of Indian Engagements from January 1837 to January 1866''. New York, New York: Argonaut Press, 1966. {{FHL|1686002|disp=FHL 1686002}} ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1370777 Worldcat]) A chronological list which includes dates, places, and units involved; number of killed and wounded; and remarks that may include names of officers.
 +
 
 +
*''Chronological List of Engagements between the Regular Army of the United States and Various Tribes of Hostiles Which Occurred during the Years 1790 to 1898, Inclusive.'' 1939. Reprint, New York, New York: AMS Press, 1976. {{FHL|973 M2ww|disp=FHL 973 M2ww}} ([http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Chronological+List+of+Engagements+between+the+Regular+Army+of+the+United+States+and+Various+Tribes Worldcat]) Identifies place; military unit involved; and number of soldiers and American Indians killed, wounded, and captured.
  
=== Indexes  ===
+
*The Indian Wars Campaign Medal: Its History and its Recipients. By John M. Carroll. J.M Carroll and Company. {{FHL|646979|disp=FHL book 970.1 C236i}} [http://www.worldcat.org/title/indian-wars-campaign-medal-its-history-and-its-recipients/oclc/866299464 WorldCat]
  
Microfilm indexes are available at the [[Family History Library|Family History Library]]:  
+
=== Statistical Summary<ref>Heitman, Francis B. ''Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army.'' (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1903), vol.2, p.281.</ref>  ===
  
''[https://www.familysearch.org/search/search/index/catalog-search#searchType=catalog&filtered=true&collectionId=&fed=false&page=1&catSearchType=keywords&searchCriteria=Index+to+compiled+service+records+of+volunteer+soldiers+who+served+during+Indian+wars+and+disturbances%2C+1815-1858&placeName=&author_givenName=&author_surname= Index to Compiled Military Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served during Indian Wars and Disturbances, 1815–58].'' National Archives Microfilm Publication M629. (FHL films 0882753–94.) This index includes the soldier’s name, rank, and unit along with the name of the war or disturbance.
+
{| width="600" border="1" align="center" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1"
 +
|-
 +
! scope="col" | War
 +
! scope="col" | type of troop
 +
! scope="col" | troops
 +
! scope="col" | deaths
 +
! scope="col" | wounded
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" valign="middle" | <br>Seminole 1817-18
 +
|
 +
regular army
  
''[https://www.familysearch.org/search/search/index/catalog-search#searchType=catalog&filtered=true&collectionId=&fed=false&page=1&catSearchType=keywords&searchCriteria=Compiled+service+records+of+volunteer+soldiers+who+served+from+1784-1811&placeName=&author_givenName=&author_surname=Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served from 1784 to 1811]''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M905. (FHL films 1205385–401.) These records are indexed in:
+
volunteers
  
[https://www.familysearch.org/search/search/index/catalog-search#searchType=catalog&filtered=true&collectionId=&fed=false&page=1&catSearchType=keywords&searchCriteria=Index+to+volunteer+soldiers%2C+1784-1811&placeName=&author_givenName=&author_surname= ''Index to Compiled Service Records''. . . .] National Archives Microfilm Publication M694 (FHL CD #9, part 146; films 1205437–45.)
+
| align="center" valign="middle" |
 +
1,100
  
This microfilm index has been transcribed and the information partially abstracted in the following two books:
+
7,000
  
White, Virgil D. [https://www.familysearch.org/search/search/index/catalog-search#searchType=catalog&filtered=true&collectionId=&fed=false&page=1&catSearchType=keywords&searchCriteria=Index+to+volunteer+soldiers%2C+1784-1811&placeName=&author_givenName=&author_surname= ''Index to Volunteer Soldiers 1784–1811.''] Waynesboro, Tennessee: National Historical Publishing, 1987. (FHL book 973 M22woa.)
+
| align="center" valign="middle" | <br>46
 +
| align="center" valign="middle" | <br>36
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" valign="middle" | <br>Black Hawk 1831-32
 +
|
 +
regular army
  
Clark, Murtie June. ''[https://www.familysearch.org/search/search/index/catalog-search#searchType=catalog&filtered=true&collectionId=&fed=false&page=1&catSearchType=keywords&searchCriteria=American+militia+in+the+frontier+wars%2C+1790-1796&placeName=&author_givenName=&author_surname=American Militia in the Frontier Wars], 1790–1796.'' Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1990. (FHL book 973 M2clm).
+
volunteers
  
=== Service Records after 1811  ===
+
| align="center" valign="bottom" |
 +
1,341
  
Listed below are the only service records for Indian wars after 1811 that have been filmed:
+
5,368
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=36135&disp=Compiled+service+records+of+volunteer+so&columns=*,0,0 Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served in Organizations from the State of Florida during the Florida Indian Wars, 1835–1858].'' National Archives Microfilm Publication M1086. (FHL 63 films.)
+
| align="center" valign="middle" | <br>26
 +
| align="center" valign="middle" | <br>39
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" valign="middle" | <br>Seminole 1835-42
 +
|
 +
regular army
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=404600&disp=Compiled+military+service+records+of+Mic&columns=*,0,0 Compiled Service Records of Michigan and Illinois Volunteers Who Served during the Winnebago Indian Disturbances, 1827]''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M1505. (FHL films 1638617–19.)
+
volunteer
  
=== Regular Army Soldiers  ===
+
| align="center" valign="middle" |
 +
11,169
  
In addition to volunteer soldiers, many soldiers involved in the Indian wars enlisted in the regular Army. For information on regular Army soldiers, see:
+
29,953
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=43696&disp=Registers+of+enlistments+in+the+United+S&columns=*,0,0 The Registers of Enlistments in the U.S. Army, 1798–1914]''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M233. (FHL 47 films.)
+
| align="center" valign="middle" | <br>383
 +
| align="center" valign="middle" | <br>557
 +
|}
  
 
=== Forts  ===
 
=== Forts  ===
Line 47: Line 166:
 
For information about forts where soldiers were garrisoned, see the following:  
 
For information about forts where soldiers were garrisoned, see the following:  
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=499095&disp=Historical+information+relating+to+milit&columns=*,0,0 Historical Information Relating to Military Posts and Other Installations, ca. 1700–1900]''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M661. (FHL films 1466009–16.)  
+
*''Historical Information Relating to Military Posts and Other Installations, ca. 1700–1900''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M661. ({{FHL|1466009|disp=FHL 1466009–16}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/4396128 Worldcat])
 +
 
 +
*''Returns from U.S. Military Posts, 1800–1916''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M617. ({{FHL|1663081|disp=FHL 1663081–4630}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Returns+from+U.S.+Military+Posts Worldcat]) This source contains extensive rolls and reports listing soldiers stationed at forts and posts.
 +
 
 +
=== Service Records  ===
 +
 
 +
Service records for the Indian conflicts are available at the [[National Archives and Records Administration|National Archives]]. They consist of abstracts from original muster rolls, pay rolls, and medical records.
 +
 
 +
==== Volunteers  ====
 +
 
 +
<u>Service Records after 1784-1811</u>
 +
 
 +
*''Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers who Served from 1784 to 1811'' (NARA M905).
 +
 
 +
:'''Online'''
 +
 
 +
:*[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=2237 U.S. Compiled Service Records, Post-Revolutionary War Volunteer Soldiers, 1784-1811] (Ancestry) ($)
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=589910&disp=Returns+from+U.S.+military+posts,+&columns=*,0,0 Returns from U.S. Military Posts, 1800–1916]''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M617. (FHL films 1663081–4630.) This source contains extensive rolls and reports listing soldiers stationed at forts and posts.
+
:'''Libraries'''
  
=== State Indexes  ===
+
:*Locate these records at a library using [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Compiled+Service+Records+of+Volunteer+Soldiers+Who+Served+from+1784+to+1811 Worldcat]
 +
:*Family History Library ({{FHL|1205385|disp=FHL 1205385–401}})
  
'''Cherokee Disturbances and Removal''', 1836 to 1839. Individual state indexes are available for:
+
'''Indexes'''  
  
*Alabama. [http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=331707&disp=Index+to+compiled+service+records+of+vol&columns=*,0,0 National Archives Microfilm Publication M243] (FHL film 0368685.)
+
*''Index to Compiled Service Records 1784-1811'' National Archives Microfilm Publication M694 ({{FHL|1205437|disp=FHL CD #9, part 146; films 1205437–45}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/6444436 Worldcat])
*Georgia. [http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=95617&disp=Index+to+compiled+service+records+of+vol&columns=*,0,0 National Archives Microfilm Publication M907] (FHL film 1205402.)  
 
*North Carolina. [http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=filmhitlist&columns=*,0,0&filmno=0368686 National Archives Microfilm Publication M256] (FHL film 0368686.)
 
*Tennessee, including field and staff of the Army of the Cherokee Nation. [http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=302008&disp=Indexes+to+compiled+service+records+of+v&columns=*,0,0 National Archives Microfilm Publication M908] (FHL film 1205384.)
 
  
=== Indexes&nbsp;for Specific Wars  ===
+
:This microfilm index has been transcribed and the information partially abstracted in the following two books:
  
'''Creek War, 1836 to 1837'''. For this war, the [[National Archives and Records Administration|National Archives]] and [[Family History Library|Family History Library]] have the following:
+
::*White, Virgil D. ''Index to Volunteer Soldiers 1784–1811'' Waynesboro, Tennessee: National Historical Publishing, 1987. ({{FHL|973 M22woa|disp=FHL 973 M22woa}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/18381240 Worldcat])
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=313031&disp=Index+to+compiled+service+records+of+vol&columns=*,0,0 Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served during the Creek War in Organizations from the State of Alabama]''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M244. (FHL films 0880845–46.) The records to which the index refers have not been microfilmed.
+
::*Clark, Murtie June. ''American Militia in the Frontier Wars, 1790–1796'' Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1990. ({{FHL|973 M2clm|disp=FHL 973 M2clm}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/22179720 Worldcat])
  
'''Second Seminole War, 1836 to 1843.''' ''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=484357&disp=Index+to+compiled+service+records+of+vol&columns=*,0,0 Indexes for soldiers who served from Alabama]'', National Archives Microfilm Publication M245 (FHL film 0880847) and [http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=312962&disp=Index+to+compiled+service+records+of+vol&columns=*,0,0 Louisiana], National Archives Microfilm Publication M239 (FHL film 0880843) are available on microfilm.
+
<u>Service Records after 1811</u>
 +
 
 +
Listed below are the only service records for Indian wars after 1811 that have been filmed:  
  
'''Florida'''
+
:*''Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served in Organizations from the State of Florida during the Florida Indian Wars, 1835–1858'' National Archives Microfilm Publication M1086. ({{FHL|1303446|disp=FHL films 6019538;1303446-500;1303296-297;1313918-23}}) (FHL 63 films) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/25305615 Worldcat])
  
Only the service records for soldiers from the state of Florida have been microfilmed:
+
'''Indexes'''
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=36135&disp=Compiled+service+records+of+volunteer+so&columns=*,0,0 Compiled Service Records, Volunteer Soldiers, Florida Indian Wars, 1835–1858]''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M1086. (FHL 63 films.)
+
The [[Indian Wars Compiled Service Records Index, 1815-1858]] (NARA M629) contains index cards to compiled service records of volunteer soldiers who served in various Indian wars and disturbances from 1815 to 1858.  
  
The records are indexed by National Archives Microfilm Publication M629, United States Adjutant General's Office. ''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=98003&disp=Index+to+compiled+service+records+of+vol&columns=*,0,0 Index to compiled service records of volunteer soldiers who served during Indian wars and disturbances, 1815-1858]''. Washington [District of Columbia]&nbsp;: The National Archives, 1966
+
==== Regular Army Soldiers  ====
  
'''War of 1837 to 1838 (Second Florida Campaign).''' Below is an index to records from this campaign:
+
In addition to volunteer soldiers, many soldiers involved in the Indian wars enlisted in the regular Army. For information on regular Army enlistments, see [[US Army Enlistments, 1798-1914]].  
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=312983&disp=Index+to+compiled+service+records+of+vol&columns=*,0,0 Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served during the War of 1837–1838 in Organizations from the State of Louisiana]''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M241. (FHL film 0880844.) The records to which the index refers have not been microfilmed.
+
==== Officers  ====
  
'''Black Hawk War 1831-1832'''Illinois soldiers of the 1831-1832, Black Hawk War, Illinois State Archives = [http://www.sos.state.il.us/departments/archives/blkhawk.html <u>www.sos.state.il.us/departments/archives/blkhawk.html</u>]
+
The "[[Historical Register and Dictionary of the US Army|Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army]]..." by Francis B. Heitman lists Regular Army and volunteer officers from 1789 to 1903 in two volumes giving a brief history of the officers service and awards received. Casualties (including prisoners of war) from 1789 to 1902 are also listed as well as a chronological list of battles, actions, etc., in which troops of the Regular Army have participated.  
  
== Pension Records  ==
+
=== Pension Records  ===
  
 
The pension files in the [[National Archives and Records Administration|National Archives]] relate to service performed between 1817 and 1898. Soldiers killed or disabled during the Indian wars were initially covered by existing pension laws. The first pensions based on Indian war service were granted in 1892, but they were limited to specifically named wars. By 1902 pensions were extended to cover all service between 1817 and 1858. Later acts continued extending coverage for service to 1898. The files are alphabetically arranged by the veteran’s name.  
 
The pension files in the [[National Archives and Records Administration|National Archives]] relate to service performed between 1817 and 1898. Soldiers killed or disabled during the Indian wars were initially covered by existing pension laws. The first pensions based on Indian war service were granted in 1892, but they were limited to specifically named wars. By 1902 pensions were extended to cover all service between 1817 and 1858. Later acts continued extending coverage for service to 1898. The files are alphabetically arranged by the veteran’s name.  
  
=== Indexes  ===
+
'''Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892–1926'''
  
 
The index to these records is the following:  
 
The index to these records is the following:  
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=98739&disp=Pension+index+files,+Indian+wars,+18&columns=*,0,0 Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892–1926]''. National Archives Microfilm Publication T318. (FHL films 0821610–21.) The index gives name, names of dependents, rank, dates of enlistment and discharge, military unit, application and certificate numbers, date and state of filing, and the pension act it was filed under.  
+
*''Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892–1926''. National Archives Microfilm Publication T318. ({{FHL|0821610|disp=FHL films 0821610–21}}) ({{RecordSearch|1979427|FamilySearch}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/46426248 Worldcat]) The index gives name, names of dependents, rank, dates of enlistment and discharge, military unit, application and certificate numbers, date and state of filing, and the pension act it was filed under.
 +
 
 +
::'''Wiki articles describing online collections are found at:'''
 +
 
 +
::*[[United States, Index to Indian Wars Pension Files (FamilySearch Historical Records)|United States, Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892-1926 (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
  
 
A published version of this same index is listed below:  
 
A published version of this same index is listed below:  
  
White, Virgil D. ''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=692073&disp=Index+to+pension+applications+for+Indian&columns=*,0,0 Index to Pension Applications for Indian Wars Service between 1817 and 1898].'' Waynesboro, Tennessee: National Historical Publishing, 1997. (FHL book 973 M22whv.) Includes name of veteran or widow or both, applicant pension number, date of filing, name of conflict, date of service, and military unit. Some entries have death date and place. This is a revision of the 1987 edition.  
+
*White, Virgil D. ''Index to Pension Applications for Indian Wars Service between 1817 and 1898'' Waynesboro, Tennessee: National Historical Publishing, 1997. ({{FHL|973 M22whv|disp=FHL book 973 M22whv}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/37503652 Worldcat]) Includes name of veteran or widow or both, applicant pension number, date of filing, name of conflict, date of service, and military unit. Some entries have death date and place. This is a revision of the 1987 edition.
 +
 
 +
'''Old War Index to Pension Files, 1815-1926'''
 +
 
 +
*The "[[Old War Index to Pension Files, 1815-1926]]" (NARA T316) also includes pensioners of the Indian Wars. They relate mainly to pensions based on death or disability incurred in service between the years of 1816-1861.
 +
 
 +
'''Old War Index to Pension Files, 1815-1898'''
 +
 
 +
Prior to 1892 pension benefits were avilable to soldiers in the regular Army who were disabled or the widows of soldiers killed in service. The benefits were based on service between 1783 and 1861. Many of the claimants were never directly involved in a particular war, but served for a number of years at forts or military establishments. These pensions are referred to as the Old War Series. The Old War pension index has been microfilmed (N.A. film group T316). The index usually contains:
 +
 
 +
*Name of soldier
 +
*Branch of service (i.e. Army, Navy)
 +
*Name and class of dependents
 +
*Date of enlistment and discharge
 +
*Rank and unit
 +
*Date application was filed
 +
*Type or class of application&nbsp;(i.e., service, invalid, widow, etc.)
 +
*Pension application number
 +
*Pension certificate number
 +
*Pension file number
 +
*Account number
 +
*Date of death
 +
*State from where filed
 +
 
 +
Old War Index to pension files, 1815-1898 are available:
 +
 
 +
{{FHL|98862|item|disp=FHL Online}}
 +
 
 +
{{FHL|98862|item|disp=FHL microfilm 821603-821609}}
 +
 
 +
::
 +
 
 +
:
 +
 
 +
{| width="400" border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1"
 +
|-
 +
! scope="col" | Film Number
 +
! scope="col" | First Name on Film
 +
! scope="col" | Last Name on Film
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;821,603
 +
| Aa
 +
| Brin
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;821,604
 +
| Bris
 +
| Duncan, A.
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;821,605
 +
| Duncan, D.
 +
| Herrin
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;821,606
 +
| Herring
 +
| McDonnell, James
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;821,607
 +
| McDonnell, John
 +
| Porter, Thomas J.
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;821,608
 +
| Porter, W.
 +
| Sullivan, D.
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;821,609
 +
| Sullivan, E.
 +
| Zw
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
<br> <br> <br> '''Additional Resources'''
 +
 
 +
*''[https://fch.ldschurch.org/WWSupport/Courses/FamilyHistoryLibraryExport/U.S._Military_Records__Pre-WWI_Pension_Application/Player.html Military Records: Pre-WWI Pension Applications]'' (16 minute online video) [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/education/frameset_education.asp?PAGE=education_research_series_online.asp%3FActiveTab=2 FamilySearch Research Classes Online], 2010.
 +
 
 +
*Boyd, Mark F. "Seminole War: Background and Onset." (''Florida Historical Quarterly'', 1951, vol.30, p. 3). {{FHL|214103|item|disp=FHL film 1689409}}.
 +
 
 +
*Dennis, Henry C., comp. ''The American Indian 1492-1970: A Chronology and Fact Book''. (Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., 1971). {{FHL|47642|item|disp=FHL book 973 F25e no. 1}}.
 +
 
 +
*Downey, Fairfax D. ''Indian Wars of the Army, 1776-1865''. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1963).
 +
 
 +
*Foreman, Grant. ''Indian Removal: The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians''. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1953). {{FHL|115293|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 F761i}}.
 +
 
 +
*Halbert, Henry S. and Ball, T. H. ''The Creek War of 1813 and 1814''. (University: University of Alabama Press, 1969).
 +
 
 +
*Laumer, Frank. ''Massacre''. (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1968). {{FHL|577471|item|disp=FHL book 970.3 Se52Lf}}.
 +
 
 +
*Mahon, John K. ''History of the Second Seminole War, 1835-1842''. (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1967). {{FHL|489086|item|disp=FHL book 970.3 Se52mj}}.
 +
 
 +
*Nichols, Roger L. "The Black Hawk War: Another View." (''Annals of Iowa,'' 1963,vol. 36, p. 525-533). {{FHL|31912|item|disp=FHL Online}}.
 +
 
 +
*Pruchas, Francis P. ''The Sword of the Republic: the United States Army on the Frontier, 1783-1846''. (New York: Macmillan, 1969).
 +
 
 +
*Sprague, John T. ''Origin, Progress and Conclusions of the Florida War''. (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1848).
 +
 
 +
*Stevens, Frank E. ''Black Hawk War, Including a Review of Black Hawks' Life''. (Chicago: Frank E. Stevens, 1903). {{FHL|707348|item|disp=FHL book 970.3 Sa86s}}.
 +
 
 +
*Thwaites, Reuben G. "Story of Black Hawk War." (''Wisconsin Historical Collection'',1892, vol. 12, p. 217). {{FHL|541421|item|disp=FHL film 1550319 item 4}}.
 +
 
 +
*Wakefield, John A. ''History of War between United States and Sac and Fox Nations of Indians, and Parts of Other Disaffected Tribes of Indians in the Year Eighteen Hundred and Twenty-Seven''. (New York: Garland Publishers, 1975). {{FHL|301982|item|disp=FHL film 989444 item 6}}.
 +
 
 +
*Whitney, Ellen M., ed. ''The Black Hawk War, 1831-32''. (Springfield: Illinois State Historical Society, 1970). {{FHL|292455|item|disp=FHL book 977.3 B4i v. 36}}.
 +
 
 +
=== Websites  ===
  
Pensioners of the Indian Wars are also included in United States, Veterans Administration. [http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=98862&disp=Old+war+index+to+pension+files,+1815%2&columns=*,0,0 ''Old Wars Index to Pension Files'', ''1815–1926''].&nbsp;Washington, District of Columbia: National Archives. Central Plains Region, 1959. For more information, see National Archive Microfilm Publication T316 on page 56.
+
*[http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1008.html U-S-history.com] - Histories of all Indian Wars, 1622-1890
  
For a list and histories of all Indian Wars, 1622-1890, click [http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1008.html <u>www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1008.html</u>]
+
=== References  ===
  
''[https://fch.ldschurch.org/WWSupport/Courses/FamilyHistoryLibraryExport/U.S._Military_Records__Pre-WWI_Pension_Application/Player.html Military Records: Pre-WWI Pension Applications]'' (16 minute online video) [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/education/frameset_education.asp?PAGE=education_research_series_online.asp%3FActiveTab=2 FamilySearch Research Classes Online], 2010.
+
<references />
  
{{U.S. Military}}  
+
<br> {{U.S. Military}}  
  
[[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:Wars_involving_the_United_States|Indian]] [[Category:United_States]] [[Category:National_Archives_and_Records_Administration]]
+
[[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:US Indian Wars, 1780s-1890s]]

Revision as of 18:43, 26 May 2016

United States Gotoarrow.png U.S. Military Gotoarrow.png Indian Wars, 1780s to 1890s

The following are the wars that involved American Indians occurring between 1783 and the 1890's. The list does not include the War of 1812, the Mexican War, or the Civil War in which American Indians also fought. (List may not be complete)

Date [1][2] Indian Wars, 1780s to 1890s [1][3]
1785-1795 Northwest Indian War
1813-1814 Creek War
1817-1818 First Seminole War
1827 Winnebago War
1832 Black Hawk War
1836-1837 Second Creek War
1836-1839 Cherokee Disturbances and Removal
1835-1842 Second Seminole War
1855-1858 Third Seminole War

States Involved in the Indian Wars

History

The United States military protected the expanding western frontier from the 1780s to the 1890s. Military personnel surveyed land; enforced government policy; protected settlers; and guarded stage, mail, and telegraph routes. Expanding settlement led to conflicts with the many Indian nations. Military conflicts with Indians are listed in the following:

  • Peters, Joseph P., compiler. Indian Battles and Skirmishes on the American Frontier, 1790–1898 Comprising Record of Engagements with Hostile Indians within the Military Division of the Missouri from 1868 to 1882; Chronological List of Actions, etc. with Indians from January 1, 1866 to January 1891; and a Compilation of Indian Engagements from January 1837 to January 1866. New York, New York: Argonaut Press, 1966. FHL 1686002 (Worldcat) A chronological list which includes dates, places, and units involved; number of killed and wounded; and remarks that may include names of officers.
  • Chronological List of Engagements between the Regular Army of the United States and Various Tribes of Hostiles Which Occurred during the Years 1790 to 1898, Inclusive. 1939. Reprint, New York, New York: AMS Press, 1976. FHL 973 M2ww (Worldcat) Identifies place; military unit involved; and number of soldiers and American Indians killed, wounded, and captured.

Statistical Summary[4]

War type of troop troops deaths wounded

Seminole 1817-18

regular army

volunteers

1,100

7,000


46

36

Black Hawk 1831-32

regular army

volunteers

1,341

5,368


26

39

Seminole 1835-42

regular army

volunteer

11,169

29,953


383

557

Forts

For information about forts where soldiers were garrisoned, see the following:

  • Historical Information Relating to Military Posts and Other Installations, ca. 1700–1900. National Archives Microfilm Publication M661. (FHL 1466009–16) (Worldcat)
  • Returns from U.S. Military Posts, 1800–1916. National Archives Microfilm Publication M617. (FHL 1663081–4630) (Worldcat) This source contains extensive rolls and reports listing soldiers stationed at forts and posts.

Service Records

Service records for the Indian conflicts are available at the National Archives. They consist of abstracts from original muster rolls, pay rolls, and medical records.

Volunteers

Service Records after 1784-1811

  • Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers who Served from 1784 to 1811 (NARA M905).
Online
Libraries

Indexes

This microfilm index has been transcribed and the information partially abstracted in the following two books:
  • White, Virgil D. Index to Volunteer Soldiers 1784–1811 Waynesboro, Tennessee: National Historical Publishing, 1987. (FHL 973 M22woa) (Worldcat)
  • Clark, Murtie June. American Militia in the Frontier Wars, 1790–1796 Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1990. (FHL 973 M2clm) (Worldcat)

Service Records after 1811

Listed below are the only service records for Indian wars after 1811 that have been filmed:

Indexes

The Indian Wars Compiled Service Records Index, 1815-1858 (NARA M629) contains index cards to compiled service records of volunteer soldiers who served in various Indian wars and disturbances from 1815 to 1858.

Regular Army Soldiers

In addition to volunteer soldiers, many soldiers involved in the Indian wars enlisted in the regular Army. For information on regular Army enlistments, see US Army Enlistments, 1798-1914.

Officers

The "Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army..." by Francis B. Heitman lists Regular Army and volunteer officers from 1789 to 1903 in two volumes giving a brief history of the officers service and awards received. Casualties (including prisoners of war) from 1789 to 1902 are also listed as well as a chronological list of battles, actions, etc., in which troops of the Regular Army have participated.

Pension Records

The pension files in the National Archives relate to service performed between 1817 and 1898. Soldiers killed or disabled during the Indian wars were initially covered by existing pension laws. The first pensions based on Indian war service were granted in 1892, but they were limited to specifically named wars. By 1902 pensions were extended to cover all service between 1817 and 1858. Later acts continued extending coverage for service to 1898. The files are alphabetically arranged by the veteran’s name.

Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892–1926

The index to these records is the following:

  • Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892–1926. National Archives Microfilm Publication T318. (FHL films 0821610–21) (FamilySearch) (Worldcat) The index gives name, names of dependents, rank, dates of enlistment and discharge, military unit, application and certificate numbers, date and state of filing, and the pension act it was filed under.
Wiki articles describing online collections are found at:

A published version of this same index is listed below:

  • White, Virgil D. Index to Pension Applications for Indian Wars Service between 1817 and 1898 Waynesboro, Tennessee: National Historical Publishing, 1997. (FHL book 973 M22whv) (Worldcat) Includes name of veteran or widow or both, applicant pension number, date of filing, name of conflict, date of service, and military unit. Some entries have death date and place. This is a revision of the 1987 edition.

Old War Index to Pension Files, 1815-1926

  • The "Old War Index to Pension Files, 1815-1926" (NARA T316) also includes pensioners of the Indian Wars. They relate mainly to pensions based on death or disability incurred in service between the years of 1816-1861.

Old War Index to Pension Files, 1815-1898

Prior to 1892 pension benefits were avilable to soldiers in the regular Army who were disabled or the widows of soldiers killed in service. The benefits were based on service between 1783 and 1861. Many of the claimants were never directly involved in a particular war, but served for a number of years at forts or military establishments. These pensions are referred to as the Old War Series. The Old War pension index has been microfilmed (N.A. film group T316). The index usually contains:

  • Name of soldier
  • Branch of service (i.e. Army, Navy)
  • Name and class of dependents
  • Date of enlistment and discharge
  • Rank and unit
  • Date application was filed
  • Type or class of application (i.e., service, invalid, widow, etc.)
  • Pension application number
  • Pension certificate number
  • Pension file number
  • Account number
  • Date of death
  • State from where filed

Old War Index to pension files, 1815-1898 are available:

FHL Online

FHL microfilm 821603-821609

Film Number First Name on Film Last Name on Film
     821,603 Aa Brin
     821,604 Bris Duncan, A.
     821,605 Duncan, D. Herrin
     821,606 Herring McDonnell, James
     821,607 McDonnell, John Porter, Thomas J.
     821,608 Porter, W. Sullivan, D.
     821,609 Sullivan, E. Zw




Additional Resources

  • Boyd, Mark F. "Seminole War: Background and Onset." (Florida Historical Quarterly, 1951, vol.30, p. 3). FHL film 1689409.
  • Dennis, Henry C., comp. The American Indian 1492-1970: A Chronology and Fact Book. (Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., 1971). FHL book 973 F25e no. 1.
  • Downey, Fairfax D. Indian Wars of the Army, 1776-1865. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1963).
  • Foreman, Grant. Indian Removal: The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1953). FHL book 970.1 F761i.
  • Halbert, Henry S. and Ball, T. H. The Creek War of 1813 and 1814. (University: University of Alabama Press, 1969).
  • Mahon, John K. History of the Second Seminole War, 1835-1842. (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1967). FHL book 970.3 Se52mj.
  • Nichols, Roger L. "The Black Hawk War: Another View." (Annals of Iowa, 1963,vol. 36, p. 525-533). FHL Online.
  • Pruchas, Francis P. The Sword of the Republic: the United States Army on the Frontier, 1783-1846. (New York: Macmillan, 1969).
  • Sprague, John T. Origin, Progress and Conclusions of the Florida War. (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1848).
  • Stevens, Frank E. Black Hawk War, Including a Review of Black Hawks' Life. (Chicago: Frank E. Stevens, 1903). FHL book 970.3 Sa86s.
  • Thwaites, Reuben G. "Story of Black Hawk War." (Wisconsin Historical Collection,1892, vol. 12, p. 217). FHL film 1550319 item 4.
  • Wakefield, John A. History of War between United States and Sac and Fox Nations of Indians, and Parts of Other Disaffected Tribes of Indians in the Year Eighteen Hundred and Twenty-Seven. (New York: Garland Publishers, 1975). FHL film 989444 item 6.
  • Whitney, Ellen M., ed. The Black Hawk War, 1831-32. (Springfield: Illinois State Historical Society, 1970). FHL book 977.3 B4i v. 36.

Websites

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Wikipedia contributors, American Indian Wars, (accessed 2 April 2012).
  2. Dates differ depending on source.
  3. List is only partial
  4. Heitman, Francis B. Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army. (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1903), vol.2, p.281.