United States Census 1880

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United States  Gotoarrow.png  U.S. Census  Gotoarrow.png  1880 Census

Indexes and Images

For an article about 1880 census population schedules available for free online at FamilySearch Historical Record Collections see the U.S. Census Population Schedules, 1880 Wiki page. Ancestry.com (subscription site) has indexes and images of all 1880 federal censuses. HeritageQuestOnline.com (subscription site) has indexes and images of all 1880 federal censuses. A Soundex for each state indexing families with children age ten or less is also available on microfilm.

For more details, see individual state census Wiki pages. For tips if the first census index search does not work, see the United States Census Searching Wiki page.


1880 Census was taken beginning 1 June 1880, for thirty days or two weeks for communities with 10,000+ populations. The following information was recorded by the census taker:

Race: (white (W), black (B), Chinese (C), Indian (I), mulatto (M)
Month of birth if born within year
Relationship to head of household
Single, married, widowed, divorced
Married within year
Occupation/months unemployed
Parents’ birthplace
School attendance within year
Whether unable to read if age 10+
Sick or temporarily disabled when enumerated and reason
Blind, deaf-mute, idiotic, insane or permanently disabled

Missing Data

A few localities in the 1880 U.S. census are either missing or were absorbed into other counties. When missing localities were reported, they were checked against their original census data. It was confirmed that the localities were missing in the original census returns. The following localities are missing data.  Details can be found on the state census page and individual county page.

Kentucky = Crittenden County
Michigan = Oscoda and Sanilac Counties
Missouri = St. Louis
New York = Bronx and Madison and Tioga Counties
North Carolina = Guilford County 
Ohio = Allen County 
Utah = Rich County
Virginia = Henrico and York Countues

New York City = includes all 5 boroughs, Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Kings.

1790-2000 Information: http://www.census.gov/prod/2000pubs/cff-2.pdf

HCP entry  is an occasional footnote in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints abstract of the 1880 U.S. census.


The 1880 census can be used to:1

                        Identify birthplace of parents-immigrant information
                        Supplement birth/marriage info. Due to relationship info.
                        Identify relationships—surnamesof married daughter, mother-in-law, cousins, other relatives
                        Indicate that wife may not be mother of kids
                        Give clues to genetic symptoms or diseases

1850-1930 Search Tips: http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/census/1850-1930.html

Unique Features and Problems

1.  Asked the relationship to the head of household
2.  Asked marital status
3.  Lists the name of the streets and house numbers of some of the urban homes
4.  Lists an illness or disability on the day of visitation
5.  Lists number of months unemployed.
6  Lists birthplace of parents
7. People born/died after 1 Jun 1880 were not to be included.
8. Soundex: Lists only families with children under the age of 10 years

States Covered and Missing

  • Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • California
  • Colorado
  • Connecticut
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Illinois
  • Indiana
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maine
  • Maryland
  • Massachusetts
  • Michigan
  • Minnesota
  • Mississippi
  • Missouri
  • Nebraska
  • Nevada
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • North Carolina
  • Ohio
  • Oregon
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Texas
  • Vermont
  • Virginia
  • West Virginia
  • Wisconsin

No states missing 


  • Arizona
  • Dakota
  • Idaho
  • Montana
  • New Mexico
  • Utah
  • Wyoming

Web Sites

1880 United States Census—A free Internet census index to the 1880 census can be viewed on the FamilySearch Record Search. This index shows every name listed on the census including information about each person’s residence, age, and birthplace. Census images are not included.

1790-2000 Info: http://www.census.gov/prod/2000pubs/cff-2.pdf

1850-1930 Search Tips: http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/census/1850-1930.html

 Sources of This Collection 

1. Szucs, Loretto Dennis and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking. The Source: A Guide book to American Genealogy. 3rd ed. (Provo, UT: Ancestry, 2006.)

2. Missing Data: 1880 Census Index CD Manuel.

How to Cite Your Sources

An example of citing these records is: United States. Census Office. 10th census, 1880. United States Census, 1880. Census page. From FamilySearch Internet (www.familysearch.org), April 23, 2010. Lillie Smith, Prattville, Autauga, Alabama, film number 1254001.

Instructions for citing this source can be found at: How to Cite FamilySearch Collections


To open the FamilySearch 1880 census search page, click here. For information about the 1880 census on the FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service, click here.