United States Census 1880
Indexes and Images
For an article about 1880 census population schedules available for free online at FamilySearch Historical Record Collections see the U.S. Census Population Schedules, 1880 Wiki page. Ancestry.com (subscription site) has indexes and images of all 1880 federal censuses. HeritageQuestOnline.com (subscription site) has indexes and images of all 1880 federal censuses. A Soundex for each state indexing families with children age ten or less is also available on microfilm.
A free Internet census index to the 1880 census can be viewed on the FamilySearch Record Search. This index shows every name listed on the census including information about each person’s residence, age, and birthplace. Census images are not included.
For more details, see individual state census Wiki pages. For tips if the first census index search does not work, see the United States Census Searching Wiki page.
The 1880 Census was taken beginning 1 June 1880, for thirty days or two weeks for communities with 10,000+ populations. The following information was recorded by the census taker:
- Race: (white (W), black (B), Chinese (C), Indian (I), mulatto (M)
- Month of birth if born within year
- Relationship to head of household
- Single, married, widowed, divorced
- Married within year
- Occupation/months unemployed
- Parents’ birthplace
- School attendance within year
- Whether unable to read if age 10+
- Sick or temporarily disabled when enumerated and reason
- Blind, deaf-mute, idiotic, insane or permanently disabled
The 1880 census can be used to:
- Identify birthplace of parents-immigrant information
- Supplement birth/marriage info. Due to relationship info.
- Identify relationships—surnamesof married daughter, mother-in-law, cousins, other relatives
- Indicate that wife may not be mother of kids
- Give clues to genetic symptoms or diseases
Unique Features and Problems
- Asked the relationship to the head of household
- Asked marital status
- Lists the name of the streets and house numbers of some of the urban homes
- Lists an illness or disability on the day of visitation
- Lists number of months unemployed.
- Lists birthplace of parents
- People born/died after 1 Jun 1880 were not to be included.
- Soundex: Lists only families with children under the age of 10 years
States and Territories Covered
- District of Columbia
- New Hampshire
- New Jersey
- New York
- North Carolina
- Rhode Island
- South Carolina
- West Virginia
- New Mexico
- No States Missing
A few localities in the 1880 U.S. census are either missing or were absorbed into other counties. When missing localities were reported, they were checked against their original census data. It was confirmed that the localities were missing in the original census returns.
The following localities are missing data. Details can be found on the state census page and individual county page.
- Kentucky = Crittenden County
- Michigan = Oscoda and Sanilac Counties
- Missouri = St. Louis 
- New York = Bronx and Madison and Tioga Counties, New York City (includes all 5 boroughs, Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Kings)
- North Carolina = Guilford County
- Ohio = Allen County
- Utah = Rich County
- Virginia = Henrico and York Countues
Where to Find the Records
The 1880 Federal Census is available online.
1790-2000 Info: http://www.census.gov/prod/2000pubs/cff-2.pdf
1850-1930 Search Tips: http://www.archives.gov/research/census/1850-1930.html
1. Szucs, Loretto Dennis and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking. The Source: A Guide book to American Genealogy. 3rd ed. (Provo, UT: Ancestry, 2006.)
2. Missing Data: 1880 Census Index CD Manuel.