United States Census 1860

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1860 Census was taken beginning 1 June 1860, for five months. The following information was recorded by the census taker:

                        Occupation males over 15
                        Value of real estate
                        Value of personal estate
                        Married during year
                        Deaf-mute, blind, insane, idiot, pauper, convict
                SLAVE SCHEDULES:
                        Name of slave owner
                        # of slaves owned
                        # of slaves manumitted (released from slavery)
                        NO NAME OF SLAVES
                        Age, color, sex
                        Deaf-mute, blind, insane, idiotic?
                        Fugitive from state?
1790-2000 Information: http://www.census.gov/prod/2000pubs/cff-2.pdf


  The 1860 census can be used to:1

                        Find free population/slave pop. & mortality, agriculture, industry data
                        Identify families by name
                        Identify birthplaces which helps w/immigration
                        Identify ages —go to vital records
                        Identify real estate—land and tax records
                        Identify probable relationships—be careful!
                        Identify occupations/property value
                        Identify possible remarriages/step relationships
1850-1930 Search Tips: http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/census/1850-1930.html

Unique Features and Problems

1.  First time “value of personal estates” was asked (Note: Individuals may have hesitated to answer correctly because
     they were taxed accordingly.)
2.  Country of Birth: Instead of just Great Britain or Germany places were to be more specific: ex: England, Ireland,
     Prussia Baden, etc.
3.  Personal estate—first time
4.  Total of 3 copies again

States Covered and Missing

  • Alabama
  •  Arkansas
  • California
  • Connecticut
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  •  Florida
  • Georgia
  • Illinois
  • Indiana
  • Iowa
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maine
  • Maryland
  • Massachusetts
  • Michigan
  • Minnesota
  • Mississippi
  • Missouri
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • North Carolina
  • Ohio
  • Oregon
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Texas
  • Vermont
  • Virginia (inc. West Virginia)
  • Wisconsin

No states missing


  • Dakota (unorganized)
  • Indian (non-Indians included with Arkansas)
  • Kansas (portions of Colorado)
  • Nebraska (inc. parts Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, North & South Dakota)
  • New Mexico Territory (inc. Arizona)
  • Utah (inc. Nevada, Colorado, Washington)
  • Washington Territory (inc. Idaho, western Montana, Wyoming

 Web Sites

1860 United States Census—Free Internet census indexes and images to the 1860 census can be viewed on the FamilySearch Record Search. These indexes show every name listed on the census and are also linked to census images including information about each person’s residence, age, birthplace, occupation, other family members, and neighbors.

1790-2000 Info: http://www.census.gov/prod/2000pubs/cff-2.pdf

1850-1930 Search Tips: http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/census/1850-1930.html

There are many sites online that include census images, for example:



FamilySearch Labs


  1. Szucs, Loretto Dennis and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking. The Source: A Guide book to American Genealogy. 3rd ed. (Provo, UT: Ancestry, 2006.)