Union Service Records
- 1 Volunteers
- 1.1 Compiled Service Records
- 1.2 Medical Records
- 2 Regular Army
- 3 Sailors
- 4 References
Compiled Service Records
The Compiled Service Records of volunteer Union soldiers were made by the United States Record and Pension Division of the War Department, beginning in 1890. The Record and Pension Division made card abstracts from documents in the custody of the War Department and from muster, pay, and other rolls borrowed from the Second Auditor of the Treasury. In addition to the cards, original documents that related only to the individual soldier were included.
Envelopes were made for each of the soldiers and card abstracts pertaining to that individual were placed inside along with original documents that related only to that individual. Service records may provide rank, unit, date of enlistment, length of service, age, place of birth, and date of death. Preceding the jacket-envelopes for the individual soldiers there are some envelopes containing record-of-events cards giving the stations, movements, or activities of the regiment.
The Compiled Service Records ($) (Fold3.com) of volunteer Union soldiers are available online. In the future, these records will be made available at no charge through the National Archives web site. The service records are also available to access at no charge at any library that provides free access to Fold3.com.
Note: The following Union volunteer records are not available online as of November 2011. However, indexes for these records are available. See Compiled Service Records of Individual States below for indexes by state.
Check to see a list of states currently available online at Fold3.
In addition to the above states, the records of Union volunteers that served with the U.S. Colored Troops are only partially online. Check to see a list of regiments currently available online at Fold3.
Compiled Service Records of African Americans
|55th MA Infantry||M1801||2155607-22||Worldcat||Fold3 ($)||FamilySearch|
|1st-6th Cavalry||M1817||2428750-902||Worldcat||Fold3 ($)||FamilySearch|
|1st Infantry||M1819||Worldcat||Fold3 ($)||FamilySearch|
|2nd-7th Infantry||M1820||Worldcat||Fold3 ($)||FamilySearch|
|8th-13th Infantry||M1821||2310942-1050||Worldcat||Fold3 ($)||FamilySearch|
|14th-19th Infantry||M1822||2428930-9034||Worldcat||Fold3 ($)||FamilySearch|
|20th-25th Infantry||M1823||2429035-132||Worldcat||Fold3 ($)||FamilySearch|
|26th-30th Infantry||M1824||Worldcat||Fold3 ($)||FamilySearch|
|54th MA Infantry||M1898||2155547-66||Worldcat||Fold3 ($)||FamilySearch|
|31st-35th Infantry||M1992||2446713-97||Worldcat||Fold3 ($)||FamilySearch|
|36th-40th Infantry||M1993||2447302-417||Fold3 ($)||FamilySearch|
|41st-46th Infantry||M1994||Fold3 ($)||FamilySearch|
|47th-55th Infantry||M2000||Worldcat||Fold3 ($)||FamilySearch|
|66th-82nd Infantry||Fold3 ($)||FamilySearch|
Compiled Service Records of Galvanized Yankees
Listed below are the service records of former Confederates or "Galvanized Yankees" who enlisted in the Union from prison camps:
- Compiled service records of former Confederate soldiers who served in the 1st through 6th U.S. Volunteer Infantry Regiments, 1864-1866. NARA M1017. (Worldcat) (FHL films 1315687–751) (Fold3) ($) (FamilySearch).
See the official NARA pamphlet explaining the service records of the "Galvanized Yankees" at M1017.pdf.
Compiled Service Records of Veteran Reserve Corps
Soldiers who were no longer able to serve combat duty but who could still perform limited duty, such as being prison guards and hospital stewards served in the Veteran Reserve Corps. The compiled service records of the Veteran Reserve Corps have never been microfilmed.
An index to these records is available:
- Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Union Soldiers Who Served in the Veteran Reserve Corps NARA M636. (FHL 1205358–83) (Worldcat)
Compiled Service Records of Other Units
The Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Union Soldiers Who Served in Organizations Not Raised by States and Territories Excepting the Veterans Reserve Corps and the U.S. Colored Troops have never been microfilmed. Included in these records are special units not raised by the states. The collection includes:
- U.S. Sharp Shooters; Signal Corps; U.S. Volunteers; Pioneer Brigade (Army of the Cumberland); U.S. Veteran Volunteers, Engineers; U.S. Veteran Volunteers, Infantry; U.S. Volunteer Infantry; Confederate Prisoners of War who enlisted in the U.S. Army (Galvanized Yankees); brigade bands; Indian Home Guards; Mississippi Marine Brigade/Marine Regiment, U.S. Volunteers; enlisted men transferred to the Mississippi Flotilla, February 21, 22, and 23, 1862; Departmental Corps (Department of the Monongahela) ; Varner's Battalion of Infantry; and Captain Turners Company, Volunteer Pioneers.
Note: The compiled service records of the 1st through 6th U.S. Volunteer Infantry Regiments (Galvanized Yankees) from this collection have been reproduced as microfilm publication M1017 (mentioned above). Three companies of engineers, Indian scouts, and infantry from the U.S. Volunteer Infantry that were not part of the six regiments were not included in M1017.
An index to these records is available:
Compiled Service Records of Individual States
The records below all refer to Union soldiers only, even though they may have been serving from Southern states.
Indexes for Compiled Service Records
There are microfilmed name indexes for each state. Consult state archives for records of state or local militias or National Guard units that were not federalized. Individual indexes to state volunteer regiments are available on microfilm for every Northern state and every Southern state except South Carolina.
A transcription of the National Archives indexes to compiled Military Service records of Volunteer Union soldiers is:
- The Roster of Union Soldiers, 1861–1865 (FHL 973 M29h) (Worldcat) 33 Volumes. Wilmington, North Carolina: Broadfoot Publishing, 1997–. This series is currently in publication.
An index for Union soldiers that served in the U.S. Colored Troops is:
- Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Union Soldiers Who Served with United States Colored Troops National Archives Microfilm Publication M589. (FHL 1266617–43 and FHL 1266546–616) (Worldcat) Covers many former slaves from the South as well as free African‑Americans who served in the Union Army between 1863 and 1865.
To order compiled military service records from the National Archives see Requesting copies of Civil War service and pension records. To order a service record you must have the soldier's name, rank and unit number.
For medical information about volunteer soldiers who fought in the Civil War, consult the National Archives series, "Carded Medical Records of Volunteer Soldiers in the Mexican and Civil Wars, compiled 1846 - 1865" found in Record Group (RG) 94, Records of the Adjutant General's Office, 17862-1984, entry 534. These cards relate to volunteers admitted to hospitals for treatment and may include information such as name; rank; organization; complaint; date of admission; hospital to which admitted; and date returned to duty, deserted, discharged, sent to general hospital, furloughed, or died. This series is arranged by state, thereunder by the number of the regiment (cavalry, infantry, and artillery are filed together under the common regiment number) and then by initial letter of surname.
The War Department did not compile military service records for those who served in the Regular Army during this period.
A register of enlistments is available online, see US Army Enlistments, 1798-1914. (See volumes 54-61 for enlistments from 1859-1865)
The National Archives also maintains a textual record, entitled "Regular Army Enlistment Papers, 1798–1894" (Record Group 94, entry 91). This series is arranged alphabetically by name of soldier and generally shows the soldier's name, place of enlistment, date, by whom enlisted, age, place of birth, occupation, personal description, regimental assignment, and certifications of the examining surgeon and recruiting officer. Soldiers usually have multiple enlistment papers if they served two or more enlistments.
The "Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army..." by Francis B. Heitman lists Regular Army and volunteer officers from 1789 to 1903 in two volumes giving a brief history of the officers service and awards received. Casualties (including prisoners of war) from 1789 to 1902 are also listed as well as a chronological list of battles, actions, etc., in which troops of the Regular Army have participated.
The War Department did not maintain or compile personnel files for Regular Army officers until 1863.
For service prior to that date, the best place to start is the series of letters received by the adjutant general entitled, "Letters Received by the Office of the Adjutant General (Main Series), 1861–1870," National Archives Microfilm Publication M619.
For an officer's military service after 1863, consult the Commission Branch (CB) and Appointment, Commission and Personal Branch (ACP) records: "Letters Received by the Commission Branch of the Adjutant General's Office, 1863–1870," National Archives Microfilm Publication M1064.
The following may be of help when researching officers:
- Bevet Union Generals of the Civil War, web site, (accessed 31 May 2012)
- General Index to Official Army Register of the Volunteer Force of the United States, 1861–65
- Brevet Brigadier Generals in Blue
- Officers of the Army and Navy (Volunteer) Who Served in the Civil War
- Officers of the Army and Navy (Regular) Who Served in the Civil War
- Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders
- The Records of Living Officers of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps with a History of Naval Operations during the Rebellion of 1861–65, and a List of the Ships and Officers Participating in the Great Battles
- Official Army Register of the Volunteer Force of the United States Army for the Years 1861, 62, 63, 64, 65
The "Weekly Returns of Enlistments at Naval Rendezvous ("Enlistment Rendezvous") Jan. 6, 1855-Aug. 8, 1891" (NARA M1953) list the sailor’s name, enlistment date, birthplace, age, occupation, personal description, date of or return of enlistment, and record of previous naval service.
- United States, Naval Enlistment Rendezvous, 1855-1891 (FamilySearch)
An index to sailors who enlisted between 1861 and 1865 is listed below:
For records of sailors who served in the Union Navy, contact the National Archives. The records have not been microfilmed and are available only at the National Archives in Record Group 24, Records of the Bureau of Naval Personnel.
- Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the Bureau of Naval Personnel. PI 123 compiled by Virgil E. Baugh (FHL 973 A3bv) (Worldcat)
- United States. National Archives Trust Fund Board. Pamphlet Describing M1290: Alphabetical Card Name Indexes to the Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers who Served in Union Organizations not Raised by States or Territories, Excepting the Veterans Reserve Corps and the U.S. Colored Troops. Washington, National Archives And Records Administration, 1988.