Difference between revisions of "St James Garlickhithe, London Genealogy"

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''[[England]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[London]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[London Parishes]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[St_James_Garlickhithe|St James Garlickhithe]]'' <br><br>[[Image:Londonstjamesgarlickhithe.jpg|thumb|right|200px]]
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''[[England]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[London]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[London Parishes]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[St_James_Garlickhithe|St James Garlickhithe]]''  
  
== Parish History  ==
+
'''London St James Garlickhithe''' family history and genealogy research page. Guide to parish registers (baptisms, christenings, marriages, and burials), civil registration (births, marriages, and deaths), census records, history, wills, cemetery, online transcriptions and indexes, an interactive map and website resources.
  
St James Garlickhithe, the church of, is situated at the corner of Garlick Hill and Maiden Lane, Upper Thames Street, and derives its name from being dedicated to St James the Apostle, and its addition from its ancient vicinity to the Garlick market of the city. The earlist mention of this church is, that it was rebuilt by Richard deRothin, sheriff, in 1326. The ancient church was destroyed by the great fire of 1666, the foundation of the present building was liad in 1676, and the church finished in 1682. It is build of stone, is 75 feet in length, 45 feet in breath, and 40 feet in height to the ceiling. This steeple much resembles those of Stephen, in Walbrook, and St Michael, Royal College Hill, which are three as original, handsome and tastful erections of the sort, as any in London. From the body of the church projects a very handsome dial, upon the top which is a statue of the apostle to whom the church is dedicated. This church is a rectory, the patronage of which appears to have been in the abbot and convent of Westminster, till the suppression of their monastery by Henry VIII, when coming to crown, it was granted by Queen Mary to the Bishop fo London, and in the patronage of the Bishop of that see.<ref>James Elmes, M.R. I. A., Architect, ''A Topographical Dictionary of London and its Envirions'' (London: Whittaker, Treacher and Arnot, 1831). Adapted. Digital version: [http://books.google.com/books?id=tjEQAAAAYAAJ Google Books].</ref>
+
<br>[[Image:Londonstjamesgarlickhithe.jpg|thumb|right|200px]]  
  
St James Garlickhithe Parish was part of [[Vintry Ward, London, England|Vintry Ward]].
+
=== Church records  ===
  
== Resources  ==
+
{{LondonStJamesGarlickhithe}}
  
=== Civil Registration  ===
+
Webb published an index to burials for the years 1813 to 1853.<ref name="cliff">Cliff Webb, ''Some London Burials, Post-1812'' (1979). {{FHL|108167|item|disp=FHL Book 942.1/L1 K29w}}.</ref>  
 
 
Birth, marriages and deaths were kept by the government, from July 1837 to the present day. The [[England Civil Registration|civil registration]] article tells more about these records. There are several Internet sites with name lists or indexes. A popular site is [http://freebmd.org.uk/ FreeBMD].
 
 
 
=== Church records  ===
 
 
 
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1" width="100%"
 
|-
 
| bgcolor="#cc99ff" align="center" colspan="20" | <font size="+1">'''Online St James Garlickhithe Parish Register Images and Indexes'''</font>
 
|-
 
| bgcolor="#cc99ff" align="center" colspan="2" | &nbsp;
 
| bgcolor="#99cccc" align="center" colspan="6" | '''Baptisms'''
 
| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" colspan="6" | '''Marriages'''
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" colspan="6" | '''Burials'''
 
|-
 
| bgcolor="#cc99ff" align="center" colspan="2" | '''Earliest'''
 
| bgcolor="#99cccc" align="center" colspan="6" | 1538
 
| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" colspan="6" | 1538
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" colspan="6" | 1538
 
|-
 
| bgcolor="#000000" align="center" colspan="20" | <br>
 
|-
 
| bgcolor="#cc99ff" align="center" rowspan="2" colspan="2" | '''Images'''
 
| bgcolor="#cc99ff" align="center" colspan="18" | 1538-1812&nbsp;[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1624 Ancestry] baptisms, marriages, and burials<ref>[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1624 London, England, Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials, 1538-1812], courtesy: [http://www.ancestry.com/ Ancestry] ($). Described as St James Garlickhithe in the City of London. Marriages from 1754 to 1812 are not included in this database. Partially indexed.</ref>
 
|-
 
| bgcolor="#99cccc" align="center" colspan="2" | 1813-1906
 
| bgcolor="#99cccc" align="center" colspan="4" | [http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1558 Ancestry]<ref>[http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1558 London, England, Births and Baptisms, 1813-1906], courtesy: [http://www.ancestry.com Ancestry] ($). Described as St James Garlickhithe in the City of London. Partially indexed.</ref>
 
| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" colspan="2" | 1754-1921
 
| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" colspan="4" | [http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1623 Ancestry]<ref>[http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1623 London, England, Marriages and Banns, 1754-1921], courtesy: [http://www.ancestry.com Ancestry] ($). Described as St James Garlickhithe in the City of London. Partially indexed.</ref>
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" colspan="2" | 1813-1853  
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" colspan="4" | [http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1559 Ancestry]<ref>[http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1559 London, England, Deaths and Burials, 1813-1980], courtesy: [http://www.ancestry.com Ancestry] ($). Described as St James Garlickhithe in the City of London. Partially indexed.</ref>
 
|-
 
| bgcolor="#000000" align="center" colspan="20" | <br>
 
|-
 
| bgcolor="#cc99ff" align="center" rowspan="5" colspan="2" | '''Indexes'''
 
| bgcolor="#99cccc" align="center" colspan="2" | 1538-1809<br>1854-1864
 
| bgcolor="#99cccc" align="center" colspan="4" | {{RecordSearch|1473014|FamilySearch}}<ref>Batches C022492-C022493, see: Hugh Wallis, [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hughwallis/IGIBatchNumbers/CountyLondon_including_Middlesex_(A-M).htm "IGI Batch Numbers for London including Middlesex (A-M), England,"] ''IGI Batch Numbers,'' accessed 8 June 2011. Indexes parish register transcripts.</ref>
 
| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" colspan="2" | 1754-1868
 
| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" colspan="4" | {{RecordSearch|1473015|FamilySearch}}<ref>Batch M022491, see: Hugh Wallis, [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hughwallis/IGIBatchNumbers/CountyLondon_including_Middlesex_(A-M).htm "IGI Batch Numbers for London including Middlesex (A-M), England,"] ''IGI Batch Numbers,'' accessed 8 June 2011. Indexes parish register transcripts.</ref>
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" colspan="2" | 1813-1853
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" colspan="4" | [http://www.findmypast.co.uk/content/sog/london-burials FindMyPast]<ref>John Hanson, [http://www.findmypast.co.uk/helpadvice/knowledge-base/parish-records/index.jsp#city "City of London Burials,"] ''Find My Past,'' accessed 8 June 2011.</ref>
 
|-
 
| bgcolor="#99cccc" align="center" colspan="2" | &nbsp;
 
| bgcolor="#99cccc" align="center" colspan="4" | &nbsp;
 
| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" colspan="2" | &nbsp;???-???
 
| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" colspan="4" | [http://www.findmypast.co.uk/content/sog/misc-series FindMyPast]<ref>[http://www.origins.net/help/aboutbo-bmi-parish-LON.aspx "Boyd's Marriage Index - Parish details by county,"] ''Origins.net,'' accessed 12 June 2011; Percival Boyd, ''A List of Parishes in Boyd's Marriage Index'' (London: Society of Genealogists Enterprises Ltd., 1994). {{FHL|682509|item|disp=FHL Book 942 K22L 1994}}</ref>
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" colspan="2" | &nbsp;
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" colspan="4" | &nbsp;
 
|-
 
| bgcolor="#99cccc" align="center" colspan="2" | &nbsp;
 
| bgcolor="#99cccc" align="center" colspan="4" | &nbsp;
 
| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" colspan="2" | &nbsp;???-???
 
| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" colspan="4" | [http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=5967 Ancestry]<ref>''Pallot's Marriage and Birth Indexes, Guide to Parishes'' (n.p.: n.p., n.d.). {{FHL|293148|item|disp=FHL British Book 942 V25pm}}</ref>  
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" colspan="2" | &nbsp;
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" colspan="4" | &nbsp;
 
|}
 
  
 
To find the names of the neighbouring parishes, use [http://maps.familysearch.org/ England Jurisdictions 1851]. In this site, search for the name of the parish, click on the location "pin", click Options and click List contiguous parishes.  
 
To find the names of the neighbouring parishes, use [http://maps.familysearch.org/ England Jurisdictions 1851]. In this site, search for the name of the parish, click on the location "pin", click Options and click List contiguous parishes.  
  
Contributor: Include here information for parish registers, Bishop’s Transcripts, nonconformist and other types of church records, such as parish chest records. Add the contact information for the office holding the original records. Add links to the Family History Library Catalog showing the film numbers in their collection.
+
Contributor: Include here information for parish registers, Bishop’s Transcripts, nonconformist and other types of church records, such as parish chest records. Add the contact information for the office holding the original records. Add links to the Family History Library Catalog showing the film numbers in their collection.  
  
 
=== Census records  ===
 
=== Census records  ===
 +
<div style="float: left; width: 147%">
 +
==== 1547 Subsidy  ====
 +
 +
*St James Garlickhithe, Vintry Ward, London (The National Archives, Ref: E179/145/157); copy: {{FHL|988765|item|disp=FHL Film 2228700}}.
  
 
==== 1582 Subsidy  ====
 
==== 1582 Subsidy  ====
  
 
*[http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=36144 1582 London Subsidy Roll, Vintry Ward - St James Parishe], courtesy: [http://www.british-history.ac.uk British History Online]
 
*[http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=36144 1582 London Subsidy Roll, Vintry Ward - St James Parishe], courtesy: [http://www.british-history.ac.uk British History Online]
 +
 +
==== 1625 Subsidy  ====
 +
 +
*St James Garlickhithe, Vintry Ward, London (The National Archives, Ref: E179/147/543); copy: {{FHL|988765|item|disp=FHL Film 2228703}}.<br>
  
 
==== 1638 Inhabitants List  ====
 
==== 1638 Inhabitants List  ====
 +
 +
[[Image:St James Garlickhithe.png|thumb|right|500px]]
  
 
*[http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=32015 Inhabitants of London in 1638 - St James Garlickhithe], courtesy: [http://www.british-history.ac.uk British History Online]
 
*[http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=32015 Inhabitants of London in 1638 - St James Garlickhithe], courtesy: [http://www.british-history.ac.uk British History Online]
  
Contributor: Include an overview if there is any unique information, such as the census for X year was destroyed. Add a link to online sites for indexes and/or images. Also add a link to the Family History Library Catalog showing the film numbers in their collection.  
+
==== 1645 Subsidy  ====
 +
 
 +
*St James Garlickhithe, Vintry Ward, London (The National Archives, Ref: E179/147/590 Part 8); copy: {{FHL|988765|item|disp=FHL Film 2228704}}.<br>
 +
 
 +
{{1692}}
 +
 
 +
{{1695}}
 +
 
 +
{{Expand section|any unique information, such as ''the census for X year was destroyed''}}
 +
 
 +
=== Civil Registration  ===
 +
 
 +
Birth, marriages and deaths were kept by the government, from July 1837 to the present day. The [[England Civil Registration|civil registration]] article tells more about these records. There are several Internet sites with name lists or indexes. A popular site is [http://freebmd.org.uk/ FreeBMD].  
  
 
=== Probate records  ===
 
=== Probate records  ===
  
Records of wills, administrations, inventories, indexes, etc. were filed by the court with jurisdiction over this parish. Go to [[London Probate Records|London Probate Records]] to find the name of the court having primary jurisdiction. Scroll down in the article to the section Court Jurisdictions by Parish.
+
{{Londonwill|St James Garlickhithe Parish}}
  
=== Poor Law Unions ===
+
Before 1858, {{PAGENAME}} fell under the jurisdiction of the [[Court of the Commissary of the Bishop of London (London Division)|Court of the Commissary of the Bishop of London]]. From 1858 to the present, refer to the [[Principal Probate Registry|Principal Probate Registry]].
 +
 
 +
Go to [[London Probate Records|London Probate Records]] to find the names of the courts having secondary jurisdiction. Scroll down in the article to the section Court Jurisdictions by Parish.
 +
 
 +
Records of wills, administrations, inventories, indexes, etc. were filed by the court with jurisdiction over this parish.
 +
 
 +
=== Cemetery  ===
 +
 
 +
{{LondonCemetery|church}}
 +
 
 +
{{LondonMI|63|St James Garlick Hill}}
 +
 
 +
=== Records of the Poor  ===
  
 
Contributor: Add information about the pertinent poor law unions in the area.  
 
Contributor: Add information about the pertinent poor law unions in the area.  
 +
 +
== Parish History  ==
 +
 +
=== Timeline  ===
 +
 +
*'''1100s''' - first mentioned
 +
*'''1535''' - first baptism recorded in English parish registers occurred at this church<br>
 +
*'''1666''' - church destroyed in Great Fire of London
 +
*'''1676-1683''' - church rebuilt
 +
 +
=== 1831 description  ===
 +
 +
[[Image:{{LondonStJamesGarlickhitheChurch}}]]'St James Garlickhithe, the church of, is situated at the corner of Garlick Hill and Maiden Lane, Upper Thames Street, and derives its name from being dedicated to St James the Apostle, and its addition from its ancient vicinity to the Garlick market of the city. The earlist mention of this church is, that it was rebuilt by Richard deRothin, sheriff, in 1326. The ancient church was destroyed by the great fire of 1666, the foundation of the present building was liad in 1676, and the church finished in 1682. It is build of stone, is 75 feet in length, 45 feet in breath, and 40 feet in height to the ceiling. This steeple much resembles those of Stephen, in Walbrook, and St Michael, Royal College Hill, which are three as original, handsome and tastful erections of the sort, as any in London. From the body of the church projects a very handsome dial, upon the top which is a statue of the apostle to whom the church is dedicated. This church is a rectory, the patronage of which appears to have been in the abbot and convent of Westminster, till the suppression of their monastery by Henry VIII, when coming to crown, it was granted by Queen Mary to the Bishop fo London, and in the patronage of the Bishop of that see.'<ref>James Elmes, ''A Topographical Dictionary of London and its Environs'' (London: Whittaker, Treacher and Arnot, 1831). Adapted. Digitised by [http://books.google.com/books?id=tjEQAAAAYAAJ Google Books].</ref>
 +
 +
<br>St James Garlickhithe Parish was part of [[Vintry Ward, London, England|Vintry Ward]]. Garlickhithe was also spelled Garlickhythe.<ref name="cliff" /><br>
  
 
== Maps and Gazetteers  ==
 
== Maps and Gazetteers  ==
Line 99: Line 93:
 
== Web sites  ==
 
== Web sites  ==
  
 +
{{Lfhc}} {{Wikipedia|St_James_Garlickhythe|St James Garlickhythe}}
 +
 +
*[http://www.londonfhc.org/content/catalogue?c=10&p=England,England,London,St.+James+Garlickhithe&f=1 London Family History Centre Catalogue]
 
*[http://www.londonancestor.com/views/vc-james-g.htm Sketch of St. James Garlickhithe Parish Church], courtesy: [http://www.londonancestor.com/ London Ancestor]  
 
*[http://www.londonancestor.com/views/vc-james-g.htm Sketch of St. James Garlickhithe Parish Church], courtesy: [http://www.londonancestor.com/ London Ancestor]  
*[http://62.32.98.6/S10312UKStaff/OPAC/ Society of Genealogists Library Catalogue] (to narrow results, conduct a subject search for 'London St James Garlickhithe')
+
*{{SOGCAT}} (to narrow results, conduct a subject search for 'London St James Garlickhithe')
  
 
== References  ==
 
== References  ==
  
 
<references />  
 
<references />  
 
+
</div>{{-}}
 
{{London}}  
 
{{London}}  
  
 
[[Category:London]]
 
[[Category:London]]

Revision as of 21:52, 4 October 2012

England Gotoarrow.png London Gotoarrow.png London Parishes Gotoarrow.png St James Garlickhithe

London St James Garlickhithe family history and genealogy research page. Guide to parish registers (baptisms, christenings, marriages, and burials), civil registration (births, marriages, and deaths), census records, history, wills, cemetery, online transcriptions and indexes, an interactive map and website resources.


Londonstjamesgarlickhithe.jpg

Church records

Online St James Garlickhithe Parish Register Images and Indexes
 
Baptisms
Marriages
Burials
Earliest
1538
1538
1538
Images
1538-1812 Ancestry baptisms, marriages, and burials[1]
1813-1906 Ancestry[2] 1754-1921 Ancestry[3] 1813-1853 Ancestry[4]
Indexes 1538-1809
1854-1864
FamilySearch[5] 1535-1754 findmypast[6] 1813-1853 findmypast[7]
    1754-1868 FamilySearch[8] 1813-1853 findmypast[9]
    1780-1837 Ancestry[10]    

Webb published an index to burials for the years 1813 to 1853.[11]

To find the names of the neighbouring parishes, use England Jurisdictions 1851. In this site, search for the name of the parish, click on the location "pin", click Options and click List contiguous parishes.

Contributor: Include here information for parish registers, Bishop’s Transcripts, nonconformist and other types of church records, such as parish chest records. Add the contact information for the office holding the original records. Add links to the Family History Library Catalog showing the film numbers in their collection.

Census records

1547 Subsidy

  • St James Garlickhithe, Vintry Ward, London (The National Archives, Ref: E179/145/157); copy: FHL Film 2228700.

1582 Subsidy

1625 Subsidy

  • St James Garlickhithe, Vintry Ward, London (The National Archives, Ref: E179/147/543); copy: FHL Film 2228703.

1638 Inhabitants List

St James Garlickhithe.png

1645 Subsidy

  • St James Garlickhithe, Vintry Ward, London (The National Archives, Ref: E179/147/590 Part 8); copy: FHL Film 2228704.

1692-1932 Land Taxes


1695 Inhabitants Lists


Civil Registration

Birth, marriages and deaths were kept by the government, from July 1837 to the present day. The civil registration article tells more about these records. There are several Internet sites with name lists or indexes. A popular site is FreeBMD.

Probate records

Will indexes for probate courts covering St James Garlickhithe Parish are available online.


Before 1858, St James Garlickhithe, London Genealogy fell under the jurisdiction of the Court of the Commissary of the Bishop of London. From 1858 to the present, refer to the Principal Probate Registry.

Go to London Probate Records to find the names of the courts having secondary jurisdiction. Scroll down in the article to the section Court Jurisdictions by Parish.

Records of wills, administrations, inventories, indexes, etc. were filed by the court with jurisdiction over this parish.

Cemetery

Transcripts of early St James Garlickhithe, London Genealogy tombs found in the interior of the church were published in Catalogue of the most Memorable Persons who had visible Tombs, plated Gravestones ... in the City of London (through) A.D. 1700, which is available online.[12]

A cemetery survey (1910), available online, covers monumental inscriptions in the St James Garlick Hill churchyard.[13]

Records of the Poor

Contributor: Add information about the pertinent poor law unions in the area.

Parish History

Timeline

  • 1100s - first mentioned
  • 1535 - first baptism recorded in English parish registers occurred at this church
  • 1666 - church destroyed in Great Fire of London
  • 1676-1683 - church rebuilt

1831 description

St James Garlickhithe
'St James Garlickhithe, the church of, is situated at the corner of Garlick Hill and Maiden Lane, Upper Thames Street, and derives its name from being dedicated to St James the Apostle, and its addition from its ancient vicinity to the Garlick market of the city. The earlist mention of this church is, that it was rebuilt by Richard deRothin, sheriff, in 1326. The ancient church was destroyed by the great fire of 1666, the foundation of the present building was liad in 1676, and the church finished in 1682. It is build of stone, is 75 feet in length, 45 feet in breath, and 40 feet in height to the ceiling. This steeple much resembles those of Stephen, in Walbrook, and St Michael, Royal College Hill, which are three as original, handsome and tastful erections of the sort, as any in London. From the body of the church projects a very handsome dial, upon the top which is a statue of the apostle to whom the church is dedicated. This church is a rectory, the patronage of which appears to have been in the abbot and convent of Westminster, till the suppression of their monastery by Henry VIII, when coming to crown, it was granted by Queen Mary to the Bishop fo London, and in the patronage of the Bishop of that see.'[14]


St James Garlickhithe Parish was part of Vintry Ward. Garlickhithe was also spelled Garlickhythe.[11]

Maps and Gazetteers

Maps are a visual look at the locations in England. Gazetteers contain brief summaries about a place.

Web sites

(The London Family History Centre Catalogue is a terrific resource for identifying FamilySearch's London collections).
Wikipedia
Wikipedia has more about this subject: St James Garlickhythe

References

  1. London, England, Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials, 1538-1812, courtesy: Ancestry (£). Described as St James Garlickhithe in the City of London. Marriages from 1754 to 1812 are not included in this database. Partially indexed.
  2. London, England, Births and Baptisms, 1813-1906, courtesy: Ancestry (£). Described as St James Garlickhithe in the City of London. Partially indexed.
  3. London, England, Marriages and Banns, 1754-1921, courtesy: Ancestry (£). Described as St James Garlickhithe in the City of London. Partially indexed.
  4. London, England, Deaths and Burials, 1813-1980, courtesy: Ancestry (£). Described as St James Garlickhithe in the City of London. Partially indexed.
  5. Batches C022492-C022493, see: Hugh Wallis, 'IGI Batch Numbers for London including Middlesex (A-M), England,' IGI Batch Numbers, accessed 8 June 2011.
  6. 'Boyd's Marriage Index - Parish details by county,' Origins.net, accessed 12 June 2011; Percival Boyd, A List of Parishes in Boyd's Marriage Index (London: Society of Genealogists Enterprises Ltd., 1994). FHL Book 942 K22L 1994
  7. John Hanson, 'City of London Burials,' Find My Past, accessed 8 June 2011.
  8. Batch M022491, see: Hugh Wallis, 'IGI Batch Numbers for London including Middlesex (A-M), England,' IGI Batch Numbers, accessed 8 June 2011.
  9. 'Greater London Burials: Middlesex and City of London Burials: Parishes, Counts and References,' (Wayback Machine) British Origins (£), accessed 4 April 2013.
  10. Pallot's Marriage and Birth Indexes, Guide to Parishes (n.p.: n.p., n.d.). FHL British Book 942 V25pm
  11. 11.0 11.1 Cliff Webb, Some London Burials, Post-1812 (1979). FHL Book 942.1/L1 K29w.
  12. Payne Fisher and G. Blacker Morgan, Catalogue of the Tombs in the Churches of the City of London, A.D. 1666 (1668; reprint, London: Hasell, Watson, Viney, Ld., 1885). Digitised by Internet Archive.
  13. Percy C. Rushden, The Churchyard Inscriptions of the City of London (London: Phillimore and Co., Ltd., 1910). Digitised by Internet Archive.
  14. James Elmes, A Topographical Dictionary of London and its Environs (London: Whittaker, Treacher and Arnot, 1831). Adapted. Digitised by Google Books.