Difference between revisions of "Spanish Genealogical Word List"

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=== Dates and Time  ===
 
=== Dates and Time  ===
  
In Spanish records, dates are usually written out. Although English uses ordinal numbers, such as ''the tenth of July'' or ''July 10th'', in Spanish the cardinal numbers are almost always used for the days of the month; for example, ''el diez de julio'' (the ten of July). The one exception is the first of the month, for which the ordinal number ''primero'' (1ero) is almost always used instead of the cardinal number ''uno'', for example:
+
In Spanish records, dates are usually written out. Although English uses ordinal numbers, such as ''the tenth of July'' or ''July 10th'', in Spanish the cardinal numbers are almost always used for the days of the month; for example, ''el diez de julio'' (the ten of July). The one exception is the first of the month, for which the ordinal number ''primero'' (1ero) is almost always used instead of the cardinal number ''uno'', for example:  
  
:'A los veinte y tres días de marzo del año de nuestro Señor de mil ochocientos y treinta y seis''.[On the twenty-three day of the month of March in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred thirty six.] To understand Spanish dates, use the following lists as well as the preceding "Numbers" section.  
+
:''A los veinte y tres días de marzo del año de nuestro Señor de mil ochocientos y treinta y seis''.[On the twenty-three day of the month of March in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred thirty six.] To understand Spanish dates, use the following lists as well as the preceding "Numbers" section.
  
 
==== Months  ====
 
==== Months  ====

Revision as of 02:37, 21 August 2009

This list contains Spanish words with their English translations. The words included here are those that you are likely to find in genealogical sources. If the word you are looking for is not on this list, please consult a Spanish-English dictionary. (See the "Additional Resources" section below.)

Spanish is a Romance language derived from Latin. It is the national language of Spain as well as of most Latin American countries. Spanish is spoken in many parts of the United States, in regions which once were part of Mexico as well as areas where Hispanic immigrants have settled.

Language Characteristics

Spanish words for persons, places, and things (nouns) are classified as masculine or feminine. El (the masculine form of the) is used with masculine words. La (the feminine form of the) is used with feminine words. Masculine words generally end in o, r, l, and ma. Feminine words generally end in a, ión, tad, dad, tud, and umbre. Nouns which end in or are masculine; an a is added to indicate the feminine version.

Most adjectives used to describe nouns are masculine or feminine. Adjectives which end in o are masculine. Feminine adjectives end in a. For example, the married son would be translated as el hijo casado, while the married daughter would be translated as la hija casada.

Variant Forms of Words

In Spanish, as in English, the forms of some words will vary according to how they are used in a sentence. Who—whose—whom or marry—marries— married are examples of words in English with variant forms. This word list gives the standard form of each Spanish word. As you read Spanish records, you will need to be aware that some words vary with usage.

Plural forms of Spanish words usually add s to the singular noun as well as to the article and adjective. Thus, el abuelo materno (the maternal grandparent) become los abuelos maternos (the maternal grandparents).

Alphabetical Order

Written Spanish uses three letters in addition to the 26 letters used in the English alphabet. These are ñ and the letter combinations ch and ll, which are considered single letters. The letter w, although not part of the Spanish alphabet, is included since it is found in a few names of foreign origin. The following list shows the letters in alphabetical order:

a, b, c, ch, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, ll, m, n, ñ, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z

This word list follows the standard English alphabetical order.

In Spanish indexes of surnames, it is important to note that prefixes (such as De la Torre) may be ignored in alphabetization. Be sure to search under both parts of a name, for example, De la Torre and Torre, de la.

Accent Marks

Vowels in Spanish can carry an accent mark: á, é, í, ó, and ú. Accent marks do not affect alphabetical order.

Spelling

Although Spanish spelling was standardized in the mid-1700s, scribes usually spelled words the way they sounded. Generally, variations between old and modern spellings should not cause too much trouble for the researcher. In Spanish, the following variations are common:

ch  used for  c
e  used for  i
j  used for  g
j  used for  x
j  used for  i
y  used for  i
the addition or removal of an h
the doubling of letters

Examples:

chrisma
excrebir
lejítimo
Méjico
domjngo
yndio
Henrique
religiosso
now written as
now written as
now written as
now written as
now written as
now written as
now written as
now written as
crisma
escribir
legítimo
México
domingo
indio
Enrique
religioso


Additional Resources

This word list includes only the words most commonly found in genealogical sources. For further help, use a Spanish-English dictionary. Several Spanish-English dictionaries are available at the Family History Library. These are in the European collection. The call numbers begin with 463.21.

The following dictionary may be helpful in your research:

Additional dictionaries are listed in the Subject section of the Family History Library Catalog under SPANISH LANGUAGE - DICTIONARIES. Most bookstores also carry inexpensive Spanish-English dictionaries.

Key Words

To find and use specific types of Spanish records, you will need to know some key words in Spanish. This section gives key genealogical terms in English and the Spanish words with the same or similar meanings.

For example, in the first column you will find the English word marriage. In the second column you will find Spanish words with meanings such as marry, marriage, wedding, wedlock, unite, legitimate, joined, and other words used in Spanish records to indicate marriage. Variant endings of Spanish words are given in parentheses.

English
archive
baptism
birth
burial
Catholic church
census
child
christening
church records
civil registry
confirmation
day
death
father
husband
index
marriage
military
month
morning
mother
name, given
name, surname
parents
parish
wife
year
Spanish
archivo
bautismo, bauticé, bautizado (a), bautismo, crisma
nacimiento, nació, nacido (a)
entierro, sepultura, entierrado (a), sepultado (a)
Iglesia Católica
censo, padrón
niño (a), hijo (a), párvulo (a), expósito
See baptism
registros parroquiales
Registro Civil
confirmación, crisma
día 
muerte, defunción, fallecimiento, óbito, muerto (a), difunto (a), fallecido (a)
padre
esposo, marido, cónyuge
índice
matrimonio, casamiento, casé, casado (a)
militar, ejército
mes
mañana
madre
nombre de pila, nombre de bautismo
nombre, apellido
padres
parroquia
esposa, marida, mujer, cónyuge
año


Numbers

The following list gives the cardinal (1, 2, 3, etc.) and the ordinal (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) versions of each number. In actual usage, days of the month are almost never written in ordinal form. Ordinal numbers end in o or a depending on the gender of the thing described. Ordinal numbers above 31 are rarely seen in genealogical sources.

Numbers such as 16, 22, and 31 are compound numbers joined by y (and). In modern Spanish, these numbers can also be written as a single word, for example:

16
22
31
diez y seis
veinte y dos
treinta y uno
or
or
or
dieciseis
veintidos
treintiuno
 
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
101
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
   Cardinal
un, uno, una
dos
tres
cuatro
cinco
seis
siete
ocho
nueve
diez
once
doce
trece
catorce
quince
diez y seis, dieciseis
diez y siete, diecisiete
diez y ocho, dieciocho
diez y nueve, diecinueve
veinte
veinte y uno, veintiuno
veinte y dos, veintidos
veinte y tres, veintitres
veinte y cuatro, veinticuatro
veinte y cinco, veinticinco
veinte y seis, veintiseis
veinte y siete, veintisiete
veinte y ocho, veintiocho
veinte y nueve, veintinueve
treinta
treinta y uno
cuarenta
cincuenta
sesenta
setenta
ochenta
noventa
ciento
ciento uno
doscientos
trescientos
cuatrocientos
quinientos
seiscientos
setecientos
ochocientos
novecientos
mil
 
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th
11th
12th
13th
14th
15th
16th
17th
18th
19th
20th
21st
22nd
23rd
24th
25th
26th
27th
28th
29th
30th
31st
40th
50th
60th
70th
80th
90th
100th
101st
200th
300th
400th
500th
600th
700th
800th
900th
1000th
Ordinal
primero (a)
segundo
tercero
cuarto
quinto
sexto
séptimo
octavo
nono, noveno
décimo
undécimo, décimoprimero
duodécimo, décimosegundo
décimotercero
décimocuarto
décimoquinto
décimosexto
décimo séptimo
décimoctavo
décimonono
vigésimo
vigésimo primero
vigésimo segundo
vigésimo tercero
vigésimo cuarto
vigésimo quinto
vigésimo sexto
vigésimo séptimo
vigésimo octavo
vigésimo nono
trigésimo
trigésimo primero
cuadragésimo
quincuagésimo
sexagésimo
septuagésimo
octogésimo
nonagésimo
centésimo
centésimo primero
ducentésimo
tricentésimo
cuadringéntesimo
quingentésimo
sexcentésimo
septingentésimo
octingentésimo
noningentésimo
milésimo

Dates and Time

In Spanish records, dates are usually written out. Although English uses ordinal numbers, such as the tenth of July or July 10th, in Spanish the cardinal numbers are almost always used for the days of the month; for example, el diez de julio (the ten of July). The one exception is the first of the month, for which the ordinal number primero (1ero) is almost always used instead of the cardinal number uno, for example:

A los veinte y tres días de marzo del año de nuestro Señor de mil ochocientos y treinta y seis.[On the twenty-three day of the month of March in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred thirty six.] To understand Spanish dates, use the following lists as well as the preceding "Numbers" section.

Months