Difference between revisions of "Spanish-American War, 1898"

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''[[United States|United States]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[United States Military Records|U.S. Military Records]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] '''Spanish-American War, 1898'''
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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[United States Military Records|U.S. Military]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Spanish-American_War,_1898|Spanish-American War, 1898]]''  
  
 
The war between the United States and Spain was largely fought in Cuba and the Philippines. The conflict lasted from April to August 1898. As a result, the United States acquired Puerto Rico and Guam and bought the Philippines. Cuba became independent.  
 
The war between the United States and Spain was largely fought in Cuba and the Philippines. The conflict lasted from April to August 1898. As a result, the United States acquired Puerto Rico and Guam and bought the Philippines. Cuba became independent.  
  
The war was fought by U.S. regular forces and state volunteers. About 250,000 enlisted men and 11,000 officers served in this conflict. Most volunteers came from the states of New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Ohio. Records for this war are listed in the Place Search of the Family History Library Catalog under:
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The war was fought by U.S. regular forces and state volunteers. About 250,000 enlisted men and 11,000 officers served in this conflict. Most volunteers came from the states of New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Ohio.  
  
UNITED STATES ‑ MILITARY RECORDS ‑ WAR OF 1898  
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=== Chronology of Major Events  ===
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:
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{| width="600" border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1"
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|-
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| Jan 1898  
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| Spanish sypmathizers stasged a riot in Havana, Cuba, a colony of Spain. The United States government sent the ship the U.S.S. Maine to Havana to protect the Americans in Cuba.
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|-
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| 15 Feb 1898
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| The U.S. Maine was blown up in the Havana harbor. Many Americans believe that the ship was sunk by the Spanish, though the actual cause was never proven.
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|-
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| 19 Apr 1898
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| The U.S. Congress adopted resolutions that declared Cuba independent from Spain and authorized U.S. military intervention to compel the Spanish to leave Cuba.
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|-
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| 21 Apr 1898
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| Spain broke diplomatic relations with the United States.They declared a state of war on April 24. The U.S. officially declared war on Spain the following day.
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|-
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| 23 Apr 1898
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| President McKinley asked for 125,000 volunteers to fight the war with Spain.
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|-
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| 1 May 1898
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| Commodore George Dewey led an American attack against the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay in the Philippines, a Spanish colony. The Spanish fleet was destroyed, but the American ships were unharmed. Only eight Americans were slightly wounded in the skirmish.
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|-
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| 15 Jun 1898
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| American forces repulsed a Spanish force a Guantanamo Bay,Cuba.
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|-
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| 1 Jul 1898
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| American troops stormed the Spanish strongholds of San<br> Juan and El Caney near Santiago, Cuba. Casualties were<br> heavy on both sides. The city of Santiago surrendered on July<br> 17th.
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|-
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| 3 Jul 1898
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| The Spanish fleet, stationed in the Santiago harbor, was<br> either destroyed or disabled.<br>
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|-
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| 25 Jul 1898
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| American troops landed at Guanica Harbor, Puerto Rico.Three days later the island surrendered.
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|-
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| 12 Aug 1898
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| All hostilities ended by the terms of a protocol. The terms&nbsp;ceded Cuba and Guam, one of the Mariana Islands, to the&nbsp;United States. The U.S. also purchased the Philippine Islands.
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|-
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| 10 Dec 1898
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| The peace treaty was signed in Paris.
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|-
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| 6 Feb 1899
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| The peace treaty was approved by the U.S. Senate.
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|}
  
 
=== Service Records  ===
 
=== Service Records  ===
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'''Volunteers'''
  
 
Below is an index to service records:  
 
Below is an index to service records:  
  
 
*''General Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served during the War with Spain''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M871. (FHL films 1002433–558.)
 
*''General Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served during the War with Spain''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M871. (FHL films 1002433–558.)
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:'''A wiki article describing an online collection is found at:'''
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:[[United States, Index to Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers in the War with Spain (FamilySearch Historical Records)|United States, Index to Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers in the War with Spain (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
  
 
Individual state indexes are also available for:  
 
Individual state indexes are also available for:  
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*''Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served in the Florida Infantry during the War With Spain''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M1087. (FHL films 1314126–38.) See the Family History Library Catalog for complete film numbers.
 
*''Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served in the Florida Infantry during the War With Spain''. National Archives Microfilm Publication M1087. (FHL films 1314126–38.) See the Family History Library Catalog for complete film numbers.
  
Other service records are available at the National Archives. You may also find military records at state archives, historical societies, and county courthouses. Some are on microfilm at the Family History Library. To find specific microfilm numbers, look in the&nbsp;Place Search of the Family History Library Catalog under:
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Other service records are available at the National Archives. You may also find military records at state archives, historical societies, and county courthouses. Some are on microfilm at the Family History Library.  
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<u>Officers</u>
  
[STATE] ‑ MILITARY RECORDS ‑ WAR OF 1898
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A list of volunteer officers is in Vol.2 pages 185–272 of the following:
  
=== Records of Officers  ===
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*The "[[Historical Register and Dictionary of the US Army|Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army]]..." by Francis B. Heitman lists Regular Army and volunteer officers from 1789 to 1903 in two volumes giving a brief history of the officers service and awards received.
  
A list of volunteer officers is in the following:
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'''Regular Army'''
  
*Heitman, Francis B. ''Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States.'' . . . Volume 2. 1903. Reprint, Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1994, pages 185–272. (FHL book 973 M2hh 1994.) (FHL film 0002237.) Entries are in alphabetical order and include the rank and military unit.
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<u>Enlisted Men</u>
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The "Register of Enlistments in the U.S. Army, 1798-1914" (NARA M233) consists of U.S. Army registers that recorded the name and other information on soldiers that enlisted between 1798 and 1914. The collection includes enlistees from the time period of the Spanish-American War, however, it does not specify whether they served in the war or not. See [[US Army Enlistments, 1798-1914]].  
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<u>Officers</u>
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*The "[[Historical Register and Dictionary of the US Army|Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army]]..." by Francis B. Heitman lists Regular Army and volunteer officers from 1789 to 1903 in two volumes giving a brief history of the officers service and awards received.
  
 
=== Pension Records  ===
 
=== Pension Records  ===
  
For pension files of Spanish‑American War veterans, use General Index to Pension Files, 1861–1934, National Archives Microfilm Publication T288. The index covers veterans of the Civil War, Spanish‑American War, Philippine Insurrection, Boxer Rebellion (1900 to 1901), and the regular Army, Navy, and Marine forces. The pension records are not on microfilm at the Family History Library. [http://www.archives.gov/forms Order copies] from the National Archives. For additional information, see [[Union Pension Records|Union Pension Records]] in the “Civil War” . See also ''[https://fch.ldschurch.org/WWSupport/Courses/FamilyHistoryLibraryExport/U.S._Military_Records__Pre-WWI_Pension_Application/Player.html Military Records: Pre-WWI Pension Applications]'' (16 minute online video) [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/education/frameset_education.asp?PAGE=education_research_series_online.asp%3FActiveTab=2 FamilySearch Research Classes Online], 2010.
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'''Indexes'''  
  
For Spanish‑American War nurses who applied for pensions, see the source below:
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*The [[General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934|General Index to Pension Files]] is available online. The "General Index to Pension Files, 1861–1934" (NARA) T288. The index covers veterans of the Civil War, Spanish‑American War, Philippine Insurrection, Boxer Rebellion (1900 to 1901), and the regular Army, Navy, and Marine forces.
  
*{{RecordSearch|1471019|Civil War Pension Index Cards}}. National Archives Microfilm Publication T289 765 rolls (FHL films 1570402–03.)
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*The [[Organization Index to Pension Files|Organization Index to Pension Files]] is available online. The "Organization Index to Pension Files of Veterans Who Served Between 1861 and 1900" (NARA T289), also called the "Civil War Pension Index", lists Spanish‑American War veterans including Spanish‑American War nurses.
::'''Note''': This collection is often referred to as the "Organization Index". Itovers the years 1861-1917 and includes records for veterans of the Spanish-American War.
 
  
=== Veterans’ and Lineage Society Records ===
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'''Pension Records'''
  
The United Spanish War Veterans was established in 1899. Its membership includes veterans with service in the war with Spain and the Philippine Insurrection to 4 July 1902. The following sources with information on their members who were veterans of these wars are available at the Family History Library.  
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The pension records themselves are not on microfilm. Copies can be [http://www.archives.gov/forms ordered from the National Archives].  
  
Michigan. ''United Spanish War Veterans Camp Index'', ca. 1890–1984. (FHL Sources for Further Reading
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:See also ''[https://fch.ldschurch.org/WWSupport/Courses/FamilyHistoryLibraryExport/U.S._Military_Records__Pre-WWI_Pension_Application/Player.html Military Records: Pre-WWI Pension Applications]'' (16 minute online video) [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/education/frameset_education.asp?PAGE=education_research_series_online.asp%3FActiveTab=2 FamilySearch Research Classes Online], 2010.
  
Michigan. ''United Spanish War Veterans Master Index'', ca. 1890–1984. (FHL film 1765850–52.) This index is similar to the one described above.
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=== Casualty Records  ===
  
Utah. United Spanish War Veterans, Department of Utah. ''Muster Rolls of Members, 1929–1957''. (FHL film 1666085.) Lists the veteran’s name, age, residence, final discharge date, and unit. Some entries may contain additional data.
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'''Regular Army Officers'''  
  
See the Family History Library Catalog for complete information on film numbers.  
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*The "[[Historical Register and Dictionary of the US Army|Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army]]..." by Francis B. Heitman lists Regular Army and volunteer officers from 1789 to 1903 that were killed, wounded, or taken prisoner. See Vol.2 pp. 13-42.
  
 
=== Cemetery Records  ===
 
=== Cemetery Records  ===
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Peterson, Clarence Stewart. Known Military Dead during the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection, 1898–1901. Baltimore: Clarence Stewart Peterson, 1958. (FHL book 973 M23pc; fiche 6051242.) This work includes name, rank, company, regiment, and death date and place.  
 
Peterson, Clarence Stewart. Known Military Dead during the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection, 1898–1901. Baltimore: Clarence Stewart Peterson, 1958. (FHL book 973 M23pc; fiche 6051242.) This work includes name, rank, company, regiment, and death date and place.  
  
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=== Census Records  ===
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'''1900 U.S. Federal Census'''
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The [[United States Census 1900|1900 Federal Census]] (NARA T623) enumerated military personnel stationed overseas in places such as Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. The census gives the soldier’s name, rank, place of residence in the United States, birth date and place, company, regiment, and branch of service.
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'''1930 U.S. Federal Census'''
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The [[United States Census 1930|1930 Federal Censusasked]] if a person was "A veteran of the U.S. military or naval forces mobilized for any war or expedition" and "What war or expedition" they served in.
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'''1940 U.S. Federal Census'''
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The [[United States Census 1940|1940 Federal Census]] asked "Is this person a veteran of the United States military forces or the wife, widow, or under 18-year-old child of a veteran?" and "If child, is veteran-father dead?" and "War or Military" served in. These were only asked of persons which were recorded on 2 of the 40 lines per page, which would have covered about five percent of the population.
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=== Prisoner of War Records  ===
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'''Regular Army Officers'''
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*The "[[Historical Register and Dictionary of the US Army|Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army]]..." by Francis B. Heitman lists Regular Army and volunteer officers from 1789 to 1903 that were killed, wounded, or taken prisoner. See Vol.2 pp. 13-42.
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=== Society Records  ===
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'''Veterans and Lineage Society Records'''
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The United Spanish War Veterans was established in 1899. Its membership includes veterans with service in the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection to 4 July 1902. The following sources contain information on their members who were veterans of the two wars. <!--The 4 records below for Kansas, Michigan, and Utah are also listed on the state military pages-->
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'''Kansas'''
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*[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1680 Kansas, United Spanish War Veterans Reports of Deaths, 1945-1970] (Ancestry) ($)
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'''Michigan'''
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*''United Spanish War Veterans Camp Index, ca. 1890–1984'' ({{FHL|1765853|disp= FHL film 1765853-54, 1766000-6003}})
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*''United Spanish War Veterans Master Index, ca. 1890–1984'' ({{FHL|1765850|disp=FHL film 1765850–52}})
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'''Utah'''
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*United Spanish War Veterans, Department of Utah. ''Muster Rolls of Members, 1929–1957''. ({{FHL|1666085|disp=FHL film 1666085}}) - Lists the veteran’s name, age, residence, final discharge date, and unit. Some entries may contain additional data.
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=== <center>State Spanish-American War Records</center>  ===
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<center>
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{| width="503" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" class="FCK__ShowTableBorders"
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|-
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| valign="top" align="left" |
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*[[Image:Alabama flag.png|border|22x15px|Alabama flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Alabama Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Alabama]]
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*[[Image:Alaska flag.png|border|22x15px|Alaska flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Alaska
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*[[Image:Arizona flag.png|border|22x15px|Arizona flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Arizona
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*[[Image:Arkansas flag.png|border|22x15px|Arkansas flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Arkansas
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*[[Image:California flag.png|border|22x15px|California flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[California Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|California]]
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*[[Image:Colorado flag.png|border|22x15px|Colorado flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Colorado Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Colorado]]
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*[[Image:Connecticut flag.png|border|22x13px|Connecticut flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Connecticut Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Connecticut]]
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*[[Image:Delaware flag.png|border|22x15px|Delaware flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Delaware
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*[[Image:District of Columbia flag.png|border|22x11px|District of Columbia flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;District of Columbia
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*[[Image:Florida flag.png|border|22x15px|Florida flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Florida Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Florida]]
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*[[Image:Georgia flag.png|border|22x14px|Georgia flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Georgia Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Georgia]]
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*[[Image:Hawaii flag.png|border|22x11px|Hawaii flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Hawaii Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Hawaii]]
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*[[Image:Idaho flag.png|border|22x18px|Idaho flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Idaho
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*[[Image:Illinois flag.png|border|22x13px|Illinois flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Illinois Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Illinois]]
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*[[Image:Indiana flag.png|border|22x15px|Indiana flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Indiana Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Indiana]]
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*[[Image:Iowa flag.png|border|22x15px|Iowa flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Iowa Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Iowa]]
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*[[Image:Kansas flag.png|border|22x13px|Kansas flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Kansas Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Kansas]]
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| valign="top" align="left" |
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*[[Image:Kentucky flag.png|border|22x15px|Kentucky flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Kentucky Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Kentucky]]
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*[[Image:Louisiana flag.png|border|22x15px|Louisiana flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Louisiana Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Louisiana]]
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*[[Image:Maine flag.png|border|22x15px|Maine flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Maine Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Maine]]
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*[[Image:Maryland flag.png|border|22x15px|Maryland flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Maryland Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Maryland]]
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*[[Image:Massachusetts flag.png|border|22x13px|Massachusetts flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Massachusetts Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Massachusetts]]
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*[[Image:Michigan flag.png|border|22x15px|Michigan flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Michigan Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Michigan]]
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*[[Image:Minnesota flag.png|border|22x14px|Minnesota flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Minnesota Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Minnesota]]
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*[[Image:Mississippi flag.png|border|22x13px|Mississippi flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Mississippi
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*[[Image:Missouri flag.png|border|22x13px|Missouri flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Missouri Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Missouri]]
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*[[Image:Montana flag.png|border|22x15px|Montana flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Montana
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*[[Image:Nebraska flag.png|border|22x13px|Nebraska flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Nebraska Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Nebraska]]
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*[[Image:Nevada flag.png|border|22x15px|Nevada flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Nevada
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*[[Image:New Hampshire flag.png|border|22x15px|New Hampshire flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;New Hampshire
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*[[Image:New Jersey flag.png|border|22x15px|New Jersey flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[New Jersey Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|New Jersey]]
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*[[Image:New Mexico flag.png|border|22x15px|New Mexico flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[New Mexico Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|New Mexico]]
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*[[Image:New York flag.png|border|22x11px|New York flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[New York Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|New York]]
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*[[Image:North Carolina flag.png|border|22x15px|North Carolina flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[North Carolina Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|North Carolina]]
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| valign="top" align="left" |
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*[[Image:North Dakota flag.png|border|22x17px|North Dakota flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[North Dakota Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|North Dakota]]
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*[[Image:Ohio flag.png|border|22x14px|Ohio flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Ohio Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Ohio]]
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*[[Image:Oklahoma flag.png|border|22x15px|Oklahoma flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Oklahoma Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Oklahoma]]
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*[[Image:Oregon flag.png|border|22x13px|Oregon flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Oregon Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Oregon]]
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*[[Image:Pennsylvania flag.png|border|22x15px|Pennsylvania flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Pennsylvania Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Pennsylvania]]
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*[[Image:Rhode Island flag.png|border|21x20px|Rhode Island flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Rhode Island
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*[[Image:South Carolina flag.png|border|22x15px|South Carolina flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[South Carolina Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|South Carolina]]
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*[[Image:South Dakota flag.png|border|22x13px|South Dakota flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[South Dakota Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|South Dakota]]
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*[[Image:Tennessee flag.png|border|22x13px|Tennessee flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Tennessee
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*[[Image:Texas flag.png|border|22x15px|Texas flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Texas Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Texas]]
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*[[Image:Utah flag.png|border|22x15px|Utah flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Utah Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29_and_the_Philippine_Insurrection_.281899-1902.29|Utah]]
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*[[Image:Vermont flag.png|border|22x13px|Vermont flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Vermont Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Vermont]]
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*[[Image:Virginia flag.png|border|22x15px|Virginia flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Virginia
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*[[Image:Washington flag.png|border|22x13px|Washington flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Washington
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*[[Image:West Virginia flag.png|border|22x12px|West Virginia flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;West Virginia
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*[[Image:Wisconsin flag.png|border|22x15px|Wisconsin flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;Wisconsin
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*[[Image:Wyoming flag.png|border|22x15px|Wyoming flag.png]]&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Wyoming Military Records#Spanish-American_War_.281898.29|Wyoming]]
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 +
|}
 +
</center>
 
=== Sources for Further Reading  ===
 
=== Sources for Further Reading  ===
  
Dyal, Donald H. Historical Dictionary of the Spanish American War. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996.  
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*Alger, Russell A. ''The Spanish-American War''. (Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press, 1971).
 +
 
 +
*Chadwick, French E. ''The Relations of the U.S. and Spain: The Spanish-American War''. (New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1911).
 +
 
 +
*Dyal, Donald H. ''Historical Dictionary of the Spanish American War''. (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996).
 +
 
 +
*Foner, Philip S. ''The Spanish-Cuban-American War and the Birth of American Imperialism, 1895-1902''. (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1972).
 +
 
 +
*Freidel, Frank. ''The Splendid Little War''. (Boston: Little, Brown and Co.,1958).
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 +
*Gabbert, Howard Markland. ''The Rough Riders: A Brief Study and Indexed Roster of the 1st Regiment U.S. Volunteer Cavalry 1898.'' (Tucson: Arizona State Genealogical Society, 1992). {{FHL|631021|item|disp=FHL book 973 M2grr}}.
 +
**Includes the name of the soldier, rank, place of residence, death date, muster out date, and discharge date.
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 +
*Kelly, Thomas E., III. ''The U.S. Army and the Spanish-American Era, 1895–1910''. Special Bibliography 9 in 2 parts. (Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania: U.S. Army Military History Research Collection, 1974). {{FHL|258506|item|disp=FHL book 973 B4ua no. 9}}.
 +
**An inventory of the manuscript and published holdings of the U.S. Army Military History Research Institute. The collection has material gathered from veterans and widows, including questionnaires completed by veterans in 1968 as part of the Spanish-American War, Philippine Insurrection, and Boxer Rebellion research project.
 +
 
 +
*Livingston, Rebecca. “Sailors, Soldiers and Marines of the Spanish-American War: The Legacy of USS Maine.” ''Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration'', Vol. 30 (Spring 1998), p. 62–72. (FHL book 973 B2p.)
 +
 
 +
*O'Toole, George J. A. ''The Spanish War: An American Epic--1898''. (New York: Norton, 1984).
 +
 
 +
*Sexton, William T. ''Soldiers in the Sun: An Adventure in Imperialism''. (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: The Military Service Publishing Co., 1939).
  
Gabbert, Howard Markland. ''The Rough Riders: A Brief Study and Indexed Roster of the 1st Regiment U.S. Volunteer Cavalry 1898.'' Tucson, Ariz.: Arizona State Genealogical Society, 1992. (FHL book 979.1 M2g.) Includes the name of the soldier, rank, place of residence, death date, muster out date, and discharge date.  
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*Titherington, Richard Handfield. ''A History of the Spanish-American War of 1898''. (Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press, 1971).
  
Kelly, Thomas E., III. ''The U.S. Army and the Spanish-American Era, 1895–1910''. Special Bibliography 9 in 2 parts. Carlisle Barracks, Pa.: U.S. Army Military History Research Collection, 1974. (FHL book 973 B4ua no. 9.) An inventory of the manuscript and published holdings of the U.S. Army Military History Research Institute. The collection has material gathered from veterans and widows, including questionnaires completed by veterans in 1968 as part of the Spanish-American War, Philippine Insurrection, and Boxer Rebellion research project.  
+
*Trask, David F. ''The War with Spain in 1898''. (New York: Macmillan, 1981).
  
Livingston, Rebecca. “Sailors, Soldiers and Marines of the Spanish-American War: The Legacy of USS Maine.” Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration 30. (Spring 1998): 62–72. (FHL book 973 B2p.)
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*Venzon, Anne Cipriano. ''The Spanish-American War: An Annotated Bibliography''. Vol. 11 of Wars of the United States. (New York: Garland Publishing, 1990). {{FHL|486498|item|disp=FHL book 973 M23b v. 11}}.
 +
**Contains sections on the U.S. Army and Navy which identify sources on regular and volunteer units and vessels. Also covers Black Americans in the war, relief efforts, and medical and sanitary conditions.
  
Venzon, Anne Cipriano. ''The Spanish-American War: An Annotated Bibliography''. Vol. 11 of Wars of the United States. New York: Garland Publishing, 1990. (FHL book 973 M23b v. 11.) Contains sections on the U.S. Army and Navy which identify sources on regular and volunteer units and vessels. Also covers Black Americans in the war, relief efforts, and medical and sanitary conditions.  
+
*Werstein, Irving. ''Turning Point for America: The Story of the Spanish-American War''. (New York: J. Messner, 1964).
  
 
{{U.S. Military}}  
 
{{U.S. Military}}  
  
[[Category:Wars_involving_the_United_States|Spanish]]
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[[Category:Wars_involving_the_United_States|Spanish]] [[Category:United_States_in_Spanish-American_War,_1898]]

Revision as of 18:24, 30 May 2013

United States Gotoarrow.png U.S. Military Gotoarrow.png Spanish-American War, 1898

The war between the United States and Spain was largely fought in Cuba and the Philippines. The conflict lasted from April to August 1898. As a result, the United States acquired Puerto Rico and Guam and bought the Philippines. Cuba became independent.

The war was fought by U.S. regular forces and state volunteers. About 250,000 enlisted men and 11,000 officers served in this conflict. Most volunteers came from the states of New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Ohio.

Chronology of Major Events

Jan 1898 Spanish sypmathizers stasged a riot in Havana, Cuba, a colony of Spain. The United States government sent the ship the U.S.S. Maine to Havana to protect the Americans in Cuba.
15 Feb 1898 The U.S. Maine was blown up in the Havana harbor. Many Americans believe that the ship was sunk by the Spanish, though the actual cause was never proven.
19 Apr 1898 The U.S. Congress adopted resolutions that declared Cuba independent from Spain and authorized U.S. military intervention to compel the Spanish to leave Cuba.
21 Apr 1898 Spain broke diplomatic relations with the United States.They declared a state of war on April 24. The U.S. officially declared war on Spain the following day.
23 Apr 1898 President McKinley asked for 125,000 volunteers to fight the war with Spain.
1 May 1898 Commodore George Dewey led an American attack against the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay in the Philippines, a Spanish colony. The Spanish fleet was destroyed, but the American ships were unharmed. Only eight Americans were slightly wounded in the skirmish.
15 Jun 1898 American forces repulsed a Spanish force a Guantanamo Bay,Cuba.
1 Jul 1898 American troops stormed the Spanish strongholds of San
Juan and El Caney near Santiago, Cuba. Casualties were
heavy on both sides. The city of Santiago surrendered on July
17th.
3 Jul 1898 The Spanish fleet, stationed in the Santiago harbor, was
either destroyed or disabled.
25 Jul 1898 American troops landed at Guanica Harbor, Puerto Rico.Three days later the island surrendered.
12 Aug 1898 All hostilities ended by the terms of a protocol. The terms ceded Cuba and Guam, one of the Mariana Islands, to the United States. The U.S. also purchased the Philippine Islands.
10 Dec 1898 The peace treaty was signed in Paris.
6 Feb 1899 The peace treaty was approved by the U.S. Senate.

Service Records

Volunteers

Below is an index to service records:

  • General Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served during the War with Spain. National Archives Microfilm Publication M871. (FHL films 1002433–558.)
A wiki article describing an online collection is found at:
United States, Index to Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers in the War with Spain (FamilySearch Historical Records)

Individual state indexes are also available for:

  • Louisiana. National Archives Microfilm Publication M240 (FHL film 0880013.)
  • North Carolina. National Archives Microfilm Publication M413 (FHL films 0821907–8.)

The indexes list the soldier’s name, rank, and unit. Entries that refer to miscellaneous personal papers have no corresponding compiled service records. The papers themselves follow the jacket envelopes for most units. See the Family History Library Catalog for complete information on film numbers.

The service records of Florida have been microfilmed:

  • Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served in the Florida Infantry during the War With Spain. National Archives Microfilm Publication M1087. (FHL films 1314126–38.) See the Family History Library Catalog for complete film numbers.

Other service records are available at the National Archives. You may also find military records at state archives, historical societies, and county courthouses. Some are on microfilm at the Family History Library.

Officers

A list of volunteer officers is in Vol.2 pages 185–272 of the following:

Regular Army

Enlisted Men

The "Register of Enlistments in the U.S. Army, 1798-1914" (NARA M233) consists of U.S. Army registers that recorded the name and other information on soldiers that enlisted between 1798 and 1914. The collection includes enlistees from the time period of the Spanish-American War, however, it does not specify whether they served in the war or not. See US Army Enlistments, 1798-1914.

Officers

Pension Records

Indexes

  • The General Index to Pension Files is available online. The "General Index to Pension Files, 1861–1934" (NARA) T288. The index covers veterans of the Civil War, Spanish‑American War, Philippine Insurrection, Boxer Rebellion (1900 to 1901), and the regular Army, Navy, and Marine forces.
  • The Organization Index to Pension Files is available online. The "Organization Index to Pension Files of Veterans Who Served Between 1861 and 1900" (NARA T289), also called the "Civil War Pension Index", lists Spanish‑American War veterans including Spanish‑American War nurses.

Pension Records

The pension records themselves are not on microfilm. Copies can be ordered from the National Archives.

See also Military Records: Pre-WWI Pension Applications (16 minute online video) FamilySearch Research Classes Online, 2010.

Casualty Records

Regular Army Officers

Cemetery Records

Peterson, Clarence Stewart. Known Military Dead during the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection, 1898–1901. Baltimore: Clarence Stewart Peterson, 1958. (FHL book 973 M23pc; fiche 6051242.) This work includes name, rank, company, regiment, and death date and place.

Census Records

1900 U.S. Federal Census

The 1900 Federal Census (NARA T623) enumerated military personnel stationed overseas in places such as Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. The census gives the soldier’s name, rank, place of residence in the United States, birth date and place, company, regiment, and branch of service.

1930 U.S. Federal Census

The 1930 Federal Censusasked if a person was "A veteran of the U.S. military or naval forces mobilized for any war or expedition" and "What war or expedition" they served in.

1940 U.S. Federal Census

The 1940 Federal Census asked "Is this person a veteran of the United States military forces or the wife, widow, or under 18-year-old child of a veteran?" and "If child, is veteran-father dead?" and "War or Military" served in. These were only asked of persons which were recorded on 2 of the 40 lines per page, which would have covered about five percent of the population.

Prisoner of War Records

Regular Army Officers

Society Records

Veterans and Lineage Society Records

The United Spanish War Veterans was established in 1899. Its membership includes veterans with service in the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection to 4 July 1902. The following sources contain information on their members who were veterans of the two wars.

Kansas

Michigan

Utah

  • United Spanish War Veterans, Department of Utah. Muster Rolls of Members, 1929–1957. (FHL film 1666085) - Lists the veteran’s name, age, residence, final discharge date, and unit. Some entries may contain additional data.

State Spanish-American War Records

Sources for Further Reading

  • Alger, Russell A. The Spanish-American War. (Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press, 1971).
  • Chadwick, French E. The Relations of the U.S. and Spain: The Spanish-American War. (New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1911).
  • Dyal, Donald H. Historical Dictionary of the Spanish American War. (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996).
  • Foner, Philip S. The Spanish-Cuban-American War and the Birth of American Imperialism, 1895-1902. (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1972).
  • Freidel, Frank. The Splendid Little War. (Boston: Little, Brown and Co.,1958).
  • Gabbert, Howard Markland. The Rough Riders: A Brief Study and Indexed Roster of the 1st Regiment U.S. Volunteer Cavalry 1898. (Tucson: Arizona State Genealogical Society, 1992). FHL book 973 M2grr.
    • Includes the name of the soldier, rank, place of residence, death date, muster out date, and discharge date.
  • Kelly, Thomas E., III. The U.S. Army and the Spanish-American Era, 1895–1910. Special Bibliography 9 in 2 parts. (Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania: U.S. Army Military History Research Collection, 1974). FHL book 973 B4ua no. 9.
    • An inventory of the manuscript and published holdings of the U.S. Army Military History Research Institute. The collection has material gathered from veterans and widows, including questionnaires completed by veterans in 1968 as part of the Spanish-American War, Philippine Insurrection, and Boxer Rebellion research project.
  • Livingston, Rebecca. “Sailors, Soldiers and Marines of the Spanish-American War: The Legacy of USS Maine.” Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration, Vol. 30 (Spring 1998), p. 62–72. (FHL book 973 B2p.)
  • O'Toole, George J. A. The Spanish War: An American Epic--1898. (New York: Norton, 1984).
  • Sexton, William T. Soldiers in the Sun: An Adventure in Imperialism. (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: The Military Service Publishing Co., 1939).
  • Titherington, Richard Handfield. A History of the Spanish-American War of 1898. (Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press, 1971).
  • Trask, David F. The War with Spain in 1898. (New York: Macmillan, 1981).
  • Venzon, Anne Cipriano. The Spanish-American War: An Annotated Bibliography. Vol. 11 of Wars of the United States. (New York: Garland Publishing, 1990). FHL book 973 M23b v. 11.
    • Contains sections on the U.S. Army and Navy which identify sources on regular and volunteer units and vessels. Also covers Black Americans in the war, relief efforts, and medical and sanitary conditions.
  • Werstein, Irving. Turning Point for America: The Story of the Spanish-American War. (New York: J. Messner, 1964).