Difference between revisions of "Salish Indians"

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m (Created page with '''Indians of Montana > Salish Indians'' {{infobox ethnic group |group = Salish |image = [[Image:|232x231px]] |poptime = <table style="background: non…')
 
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<td>???</td>
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<td>1990</td>
<td style="text-align: right;">???</td><td style="width: 2px;">{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}<ref>Frederick Webb Hodge. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'']. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.</ref></td>
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<td style="text-align: right;">10,246</td><td style="width: 2px;">{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}<REF>U.S. Census, 1990</REF></td>
 
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</tr>
 
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<tr>
<td>???</td>
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<td>1930</td>
<td style="text-align: right;">???</td><td>{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}</td>
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<td style="text-align: right;">9,000</td><td>{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}</td>
 
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</table>
 
</table>
 
<small></small>
 
<small></small>
|popplace = '''Ancestral Homelands''': <br>  
+
|popplace = '''Ancestral Homelands''': Montana, Idaho. Oregon, Washington and Canada <br>  
 
'''Descendants''':<br>
 
'''Descendants''':<br>
 
[[Blackfeet Indian Reservation (Montana)|Blackfeet Reservation]] in Montana.<br>
 
[[Blackfeet Indian Reservation (Montana)|Blackfeet Reservation]] in Montana.<br>
 
|status = Federally recognized
 
|status = Federally recognized
|linguistic = not yet researched
+
|linguistic = Salishan
 
|cultural = not yet researched
 
|cultural = not yet researched
 
|related-c = other tribes
 
|related-c = other tribes
 
}}  
 
}}  
  
'''Alternate Names and Spellings:'''  
+
'''Alternate Names and Spellings:''' Salish, Selis, Sqelix <br>'''See also:''' [[Confederated Salish & Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation, Montana|Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes]]
  
=== History ===
+
=== Tribal Headquarters ===
  
-- Brief History of the Tribe --
+
The Salish in Montana are under the jurisdiction of:
  
==== Brief Timeline  ====
+
Confederated Salish &amp; Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation <br>P. O. Box 278<br>Pablo, MT 59855<br>Phone: 406.675.2700<br>Fax: 406.675.2806 <br>Website: www.cskt.org
  
*'''1700s and 1800s:''' Living in Canada
+
Other parts of the Salish are in Washington and British Columbia.  
*'''1837, 1845, 1857, 1869-70:''' Smallpox epidemics
 
*'''Prior to 1850:''' moved west and south to the Rocky Mountains and the Missouri River areas
 
*:They raided the camps of the Crow, Assiniboin, Cree, Kutenai, Kalispel (or Pend d'Oreille) and Flathead in search of horses
 
*'''1855:''' Treaty (Lame Bull's Treaty)<br>
 
*'''1865:''' Treaty at Fort Sully involving the Blackfeet Band of Sioux, often mistaken for the Blackfeet Tribe<br>
 
*'''1870:''' Colonel E. M. Baker attacked the Blackfeet winter camp on the Marias River in Montana, killing 173 men, women and children and taking more that 140 prisoners.  
 
*'''1877:''' ceded land in Canada
 
*'''1880s:''' settled on reservations in the United States and Canada
 
*'''1886:''' ceded land
 
*'''1888:''' gathered to Blackfeet Reservation
 
*'''1895:''' ceded land
 
*'''1907-1911''': land on the Blackfeet Reservation was allotted to individual members of the tribe
 
*'''1935:''' Adopted Constitution and By-Laws
 
  
==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe  ====
 
  
*Frederick Webb Hodge, in his ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'', gave a more [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/blackfeet/blackfeetindiantribe.htm complete history of the Blackfeet tribe], with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods.
 
*For additional history of the tribe, [http://www.neokistomi.com/blackfeet.html read more....]
 
*For a history of the Blackfeet, told from their own perspective, see their [http://www.blackfeetnation.com/about-the-blackfeet/our-history.html history from the tribal website].
 
  
=== Tribal Headquarters ===
+
=== History ===
  
Blackfeet Nation<br>1 Agency Square<br>Browning, MT 59417<br>Phone: 406.338.7521<br>Fax: 406.338.7530
+
The Salish acquired horses in the 1700's, which made them a target of raiding parties of Blackfeet and other enemies.  
  
=== Records  ===
+
The tribe assisted the Lewis and Clark Expedition with food and horses. The expedition was a catalyst for the fur trade which brought goods to make life easier, as well as diseases, alcohol and guns.
  
==== Agencies  ====
+
In the early 1840's one of their leaders had a "vision" of the "Blackrobes" who would come with spiritual teaching. The tribe was desirous to search out the "Blackrobes" and in 1840-1841 sent a group in search of them. At St. Joseph's Mission on the Potawatomi Reservation in Council Bluffs, Iowa, the group located Father Pierre-Jean DeSmet, who left with them for the Bitterroot Valley, where he established the St. Mary's Mission. Later the Catholics also established schools.
  
The following [[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs]] had jurisdiction over the Blackfeet for the time periods indicated. BIA agencies were responsible to keep such records as census rolls, allotment (land) records, annuity rolls, school records, correspondence, and other records of individual Indians under their jurisdiction. For details, see the page for the respective agency.  
+
The Salish, along with many of their Indian neighbors, were in attendance at the Hellgate Treaty in 1855. Over twenty-two million acres of land was ceded to the U.S.  
  
The agencies which had jurisdiction over a major portion of the Blackfeet in the United States were:
+
In 1872 many were forced from Bitterroot Valley to the Jocko Reservation. The last group was removed in 1891 to the Flathead Reservation.
  
:[[Blackfeet Indian Agency (Montana)|Blackfeet Agency]], 1890-
+
The year 1935 marks the formation of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation, Montana.
:Blood Agency, 1890-1896, 1907-1913
 
:Piegan Agency, 1890-1913
 
:[[Rocky Boy's Indian Agency (Montana)|Rocky Boy's Agency]], 1907-1913
 
  
==== Census (a specific type of record kept by the BIA Agencies) ====
+
==== Brief Timeline ====
  
The Bureau of Indian Affairs compiled annual Indian Census Rolls on many of the reservations from 1885 to 1940. They list the names of individuals, their age, and other details about each person enumerated. For more information about these records, [[American Indian Census Rolls|click here]].  
+
'''1804-6:''' Lewis and Clark Expedition <br>'''1840-1841: '''a group traveled to St. Joseph's Mission on the Potawatomi Reservation at Council Bluffs, Iowa to meet the "Blackrobes" requesting they come and bring spiritual teaching. Father Pierre-Jean DeSmet left for the Bitterroot Valley, where he established the St. Mary's Mission <br>'''1855:''' Hellgate Treaty: ceded over 22 million acres to the U.S. <br>'''1864:''' Catholics established a boys and girls boarding school on the reservation <br>'''1872: '''The Salish were forced from their homeland in the Bitterroot Valley to the Jocko Reservation (later the Flathead Reservation) <br>'''1890: '''Ursuline nuns began a kindergarten which later grew into a grade school and then a high school. <br>'''1891:''' forced removal of last few tribal members from the Bitterroot Valley to the Flathead Reservation
  
The following table lists the census rolls for the Blackfeet Indians:  
+
'''1904: '''Flathead Allotment Act.
  
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
+
'''1910:''' as result of the Dawes Act, homesteaders became the majority landholders on the Flathead Reservation<br>'''1935: '''The Salish and Kootenai tribes of Montana joined to become The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes <br>
|-
 
! scope="col" | Agency
 
! scope="col" | Location of Original Records
 
! scope="col" |
 
Post- 1885 Census<br>M595 RG 75<br>693 Rolls<br>Roll Number
 
  
! scope="col" |
+
==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe  ====
FHL<br> Film Number
 
  
|-
+
<br>
| Blackfeet Agency, 1890-1939
 
| &nbsp;National Archives in Washington D.C.
 
| Rolls 3-11
 
| 573849-573857
 
|}
 
  
<br>
 
  
==== Correspondence ====
+
=== Records ===
  
There are several sets of correspondence between the supervising offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the local offices -- agencies, subagencies, etc. The correspondence is often historical in nature, including reports of the conditions among local groups of Indians, hostilities, plans for building facilities, activities of traders or missionaries, etc. Occasionally, there will be names of individuals but little detail about them. For more information about American Indian correspondence, [[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|click here]].
+
==== Agencies  ====
  
The following table lists some of the correspondence records relating to the Blackfeet Indians:
+
The following [[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs]] had jurisdiction over the Salish for the time periods indicated. BIA agencies were responsible to keep such records as census rolls, allotment (land) records, annuity rolls, school records, correspondence, and other records of individual Indians under their jurisdiction. For details, see the page for the respective agency.
  
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
+
The agencies which had jurisdiction over the Bitterroot Salish in Montana were:
|-
 
! scope="col" | BIA Field Office
 
! scope="col" | Location of Original Records
 
! scope="col" |
 
Pre-1880 Correspondence<br> M234, RG 75, 962 Rolls<br> Roll Number
 
  
! scope="col" |  
+
*[[Flathead Indian Agency (Montana)|Flathead Agency]], 1854-1935<br>
FHL <br> Film Number
+
*Confederated Salish &amp; Kootenai Agency, 1935-present
  
|-
+
==== Census  ====
| Upper Missouri Agency, 1824-1874
 
| National Archives in Washington D.C.
 
| Rolls 883-888
 
| 1661613-1661618
 
|-
 
| Upper Platte, 1846-1870
 
| National Archives in Washington D.C.
 
| Rolls 889-896
 
| 1661619-1661626
 
|-
 
| Blackfeet Agency, 1855-1869
 
| National Archives in Washington D.C.
 
| Roll 30
 
| 1660760
 
|-
 
| Montana Superintendency, 1864-1880<br>
 
| National Archives in Washington D.C. and Kansas City Regional Archives of NARA
 
| Rolls 488-518
 
| 1661218-1661248
 
|}
 
  
<br>Some correspondence for the following field offices may be included in the records of those offices preserved in the research facilities indicated.  
+
The Bureau of Indian Affairs compiled annual Indian Census Rolls on many of the reservations from 1885 to 1940. They list the names of individuals, their age, and other details about each person enumerated. For more information about these records, [[American Indian Census Rolls|click here]].  
 
 
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
 
|-
 
! scope="col" | BIA Field Office
 
! scope="col" | Location of Original Records
 
! scope="col" | General Agency Records<br>
 
! scope="col" |
 
FHL<br> Film Number
 
 
 
|-
 
| Cheyenne River/Standing Rock, 1862-1957
 
| Washington D.C. and Kansas City Regional Archives of NARA<br>
 
| -
 
| -
 
|-
 
| Blackfeet Agency, 1873-1927
 
| Washington D. C. and Denver Regional Archives of NARA<br>
 
| -
 
| -
 
|-
 
| Blackfeet Agency, 1875-1952
 
| Washington D.C. and Seattle Regional Archives of NARA<br>
 
| -
 
| -
 
|}
 
 
 
<br>
 
  
 
==== Treaties  ====
 
==== Treaties  ====
  
 
During the latter part of the 18th Century and most of the 19th Century, treaties were negotiated between the federal government and individual Indian tribes. The treaties provide helpful information about the history of the tribe, but usually only include the names of those persons who signed the treaty. For more information about treaties, [[American Indian Treaties with the United States|click here]].  
 
During the latter part of the 18th Century and most of the 19th Century, treaties were negotiated between the federal government and individual Indian tribes. The treaties provide helpful information about the history of the tribe, but usually only include the names of those persons who signed the treaty. For more information about treaties, [[American Indian Treaties with the United States|click here]].  
 
Treaties to which the Blackfeet Indians were a part were:
 
 
*September 17, 1851, referred to in treaty, at Fort Laramie
 
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/bla0736.htm 1855] October 17,
 
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/bla0898.htm 1865] October 19, at Fort Sully -- this treaty was with the Blackfeet band of Sioux Indians, not the Blackfeet Tribe. They are two different entities or groups.
 
*April 29, 1868, at Fort Laramie
 
  
 
==== Tribal Office Records  ====
 
==== Tribal Office Records  ====
  
 
The Tribal Office is responsible for enrollment records, vital records, tribal police records, tribal court records, employment records and many others. They are an entirely different set of records from those kept by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Most of them remain in the Tribal Office. For details, contact that office at the address for the Tribal Headquarters listed above.  
 
The Tribal Office is responsible for enrollment records, vital records, tribal police records, tribal court records, employment records and many others. They are an entirely different set of records from those kept by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Most of them remain in the Tribal Office. For details, contact that office at the address for the Tribal Headquarters listed above.  
 
==== Vital Records  ====
 
 
Prior to the Indian Reorganization Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, through their agencies, may have recorded some vital events. Some were recorded on health forms, such as the "[[American Indian Sanitary Record of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc.|Sanitary Record]] of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc." Others were recorded as supplements to the [[American Indian Census Rolls|"Indian Census Rolls."]] Some were included in the unindexed reports and other correspondence of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
 
 
Some vital records for the Blackfeet Indians include:
 
 
*Blackfeet Agency, M595, Births and Deaths 1924-1932, FHL Film: 573855 and 573856; 1916-1938, FHL film: 573857
 
  
 
=== Important Web Sites  ===
 
=== Important Web Sites  ===
 
*[http://www.blackfeetnation.com/ Official Web Site] of the Blackfeet Indians of Montana
 
*[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/blackfeet/blackfeetindiantribe.htm History of the Blackfeet] from Frederick Webb Hodge's ''Indians of North America...''
 
*[http://www.narf.org/nill/Constitutions/BlackfeetConst/bfconttoc.htm Constitution and By-laws] for the Blackfeet Tribe of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation of Montana, adopted in 1935 and subsequently amended.
 
*[http://www.tribalnations.mt.gov/blackfeet.asp State Office of Indian Affairs] website regarding the Blackfeet Indians
 
*Blackfoot Indians [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackfoot Wikipedia]
 
*[http://www.angelfire.com/ar/waakomimm/genealogy.html Genealogy website] for the Blackfoot Indians
 
  
 
=== References  ===
 
=== References  ===
  
<references />  
+
<references />
  
 
=== Bibliography  ===
 
=== Bibliography  ===
  
==== Blackfeet Tribe  ====
+
==== Tribe  ====
 
 
*DeMarce, Roxanne. Blackfeet Heritage, 1907-1908; Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Browning, Montana. Browning, Montana: Blackfeet Heritage Program, [1980]. FHL book 970.3 Si29b.
 
*Gilham, Robert C. (comp.) Blackfeet Nation Family History: A Compilation of Records of Members of the Blackfeet Nation and Some Non-Indian Relatives. Riverton, Utah: R.C. Gilham, [199-?]. 4 volumes. (All on FH film 2056034)
 
  
:Vol. 1 -- Joseph to Double Blaze, George
+
<br>
:Vol. 2 -- Double Blaze, Hamilton to Little Dog, Maggie
 
:Vol. 3 -- Little Dog, Mary to Running
 
:Vol. 4 -- Running After Buffalo to Ziegler
 
:Index
 
  
 
==== General  ====
 
==== General  ====
Line 221: Line 108:
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. {{WorldCat|317923332}}; {{FHL|970.1 R259e|book}}; [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1122745&disp=Reference+encyclopedia+of+the+American+I%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 R259e].  
+
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. {{WorldCat|317923332}}; {{FHL|970.1 R259e|book}}; [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; {{FHL|1122745|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 R259e}}.  
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=831087&disp=The+Gale+encyclopedia+of+Native+American%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 G131g].
+
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; {{FHL|831087|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 G131g}}.
  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
Line 232: Line 119:
  
 
:Volume 1 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 1 -- Not yet published  
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>  
+
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>  
+
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4].  
+
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4}}.  
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5].  
+
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5}}.  
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6].  
+
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6}}.  
 
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]  
 
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]  
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8].  
+
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8}}.  
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9].  
+
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9}}.  
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10].  
+
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10}}.  
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11].  
+
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11}}.  
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12].  
+
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12}}.  
 
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]  
 
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15].  
+
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15}}.  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]  
 
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]  
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*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1465222&disp=Encyclopedia+of+Native+American+tribes%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006].
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*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; {{FHL|1465222|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006}}.
  
[[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_North_America]]
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[[Category:Montana Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Idaho Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Oregon Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Washington Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Indians of Canada]]

Revision as of 06:48, 7 May 2012

Indians of Montana > Salish Indians

{{#if: other tribes|
Salish
[[Image:|232x231px]]
Population
1990 10,246 [1]
1930 9,000 
??? ??? 

Regions with significant populations
Ancestral Homelands: Montana, Idaho. Oregon, Washington and Canada

Descendants:
Blackfeet Reservation in Montana.

Status

Federally recognized

Linguistic Group

Salishan

Cultural Group

not yet researched

Other Related Ethnic Groups

other tribes

Alternate Names and Spellings: Salish, Selis, Sqelix
See also: Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

Tribal Headquarters

The Salish in Montana are under the jurisdiction of:

Confederated Salish & Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation
P. O. Box 278
Pablo, MT 59855
Phone: 406.675.2700
Fax: 406.675.2806
Website: www.cskt.org

Other parts of the Salish are in Washington and British Columbia.


History

The Salish acquired horses in the 1700's, which made them a target of raiding parties of Blackfeet and other enemies.

The tribe assisted the Lewis and Clark Expedition with food and horses. The expedition was a catalyst for the fur trade which brought goods to make life easier, as well as diseases, alcohol and guns.

In the early 1840's one of their leaders had a "vision" of the "Blackrobes" who would come with spiritual teaching. The tribe was desirous to search out the "Blackrobes" and in 1840-1841 sent a group in search of them. At St. Joseph's Mission on the Potawatomi Reservation in Council Bluffs, Iowa, the group located Father Pierre-Jean DeSmet, who left with them for the Bitterroot Valley, where he established the St. Mary's Mission. Later the Catholics also established schools.

The Salish, along with many of their Indian neighbors, were in attendance at the Hellgate Treaty in 1855. Over twenty-two million acres of land was ceded to the U.S.

In 1872 many were forced from Bitterroot Valley to the Jocko Reservation. The last group was removed in 1891 to the Flathead Reservation.

The year 1935 marks the formation of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation, Montana.

Brief Timeline

1804-6: Lewis and Clark Expedition
1840-1841: a group traveled to St. Joseph's Mission on the Potawatomi Reservation at Council Bluffs, Iowa to meet the "Blackrobes" requesting they come and bring spiritual teaching. Father Pierre-Jean DeSmet left for the Bitterroot Valley, where he established the St. Mary's Mission
1855: Hellgate Treaty: ceded over 22 million acres to the U.S.
1864: Catholics established a boys and girls boarding school on the reservation
1872: The Salish were forced from their homeland in the Bitterroot Valley to the Jocko Reservation (later the Flathead Reservation)
1890: Ursuline nuns began a kindergarten which later grew into a grade school and then a high school.
1891: forced removal of last few tribal members from the Bitterroot Valley to the Flathead Reservation

1904: Flathead Allotment Act.

1910: as result of the Dawes Act, homesteaders became the majority landholders on the Flathead Reservation
1935: The Salish and Kootenai tribes of Montana joined to become The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

Additional References to the History of the Tribe



Records

Agencies

The following agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs had jurisdiction over the Salish for the time periods indicated. BIA agencies were responsible to keep such records as census rolls, allotment (land) records, annuity rolls, school records, correspondence, and other records of individual Indians under their jurisdiction. For details, see the page for the respective agency.

The agencies which had jurisdiction over the Bitterroot Salish in Montana were:

  • Flathead Agency, 1854-1935
  • Confederated Salish & Kootenai Agency, 1935-present

Census

The Bureau of Indian Affairs compiled annual Indian Census Rolls on many of the reservations from 1885 to 1940. They list the names of individuals, their age, and other details about each person enumerated. For more information about these records, click here.

Treaties

During the latter part of the 18th Century and most of the 19th Century, treaties were negotiated between the federal government and individual Indian tribes. The treaties provide helpful information about the history of the tribe, but usually only include the names of those persons who signed the treaty. For more information about treaties, click here.

Tribal Office Records

The Tribal Office is responsible for enrollment records, vital records, tribal police records, tribal court records, employment records and many others. They are an entirely different set of records from those kept by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Most of them remain in the Tribal Office. For details, contact that office at the address for the Tribal Headquarters listed above.

Important Web Sites

References

  1. U.S. Census, 1990

Bibliography

Tribe


General

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL 970.1 R259e; WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published