Difference between revisions of "Red Lake Indian Reservation (Minnesota)"

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Chief Bugonaygishig took over after the whites murdered the Chippewa leader who initiated the planned uprising. In 1898, chief Bugonaygishig led the Chippewa's during the Chippewa Rebellion of 1898. In 1898, the United States passed the Curtis Act and another Nelson Act. Both had intentions on Genocide.  
 
Chief Bugonaygishig took over after the whites murdered the Chippewa leader who initiated the planned uprising. In 1898, chief Bugonaygishig led the Chippewa's during the Chippewa Rebellion of 1898. In 1898, the United States passed the Curtis Act and another Nelson Act. Both had intentions on Genocide.  
  
In 1898, all Minnesota Reservations had been eradicated, except Red Lake and a small part of White Earth Reservation. After the 1898 Rebellion, the United States returned the Reservations which had been eradicated.  
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In 1898, all Minnesota Reservations had been eradicated, except Red Lake and a small part of White Earth Reservation. After the 1898 Rebellion, the United States returned the Reservations which had been eradicated.
 +
 
 +
In 1934, the Indian Reorganization Act was voted upon. Red Lake Reservation at first rejected the Indian Reorganization Act. They desired to continue on with hereditary chiefs. Another factor was, they held the entire Reservation in common. No individuals owned private land. However, they later accepted the Indian Reorganization Act. It was the policy of the Indian Reorganization Act to halt the allotment of Reservation land to individuals, to Terminate Indian Reservations, and relocate Indians to white communities. It's main goal was to terminate Indian Reservations and relocate Indians to white communities. Termination commenced on August 18, 1950, when the land the Chippewa's held in common ownership at Hill 57 near Great Falls, Montana, was auctioned off to the highest bidder.
 +
 
 +
In other words, any Reservation which voted to accept the Indian Reorganization Act, either knew what the intentions of the Indian Reorganization Act were, or they didn't. Reservation leaders did. They knew about the Indian Reorganization Acts real intentions. Those Reservations which did not accept the Indian Reorganization Act, are somewhat puzzling. Among them are Turtle Mountain, Coeur d'Alene, Fort Peck, Jemez, Nez Perce,
  
 
<ref>"Minnesota Indian Reservations," Handbook of Indians North of Mexico, by Frederick Webb Hodge [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/reservations/minnesotarez.htm Available online.]</ref>.  
 
<ref>"Minnesota Indian Reservations," Handbook of Indians North of Mexico, by Frederick Webb Hodge [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/reservations/minnesotarez.htm Available online.]</ref>.  

Revision as of 07:21, 7 May 2014

United States Gotoarrow.png American Indians Gotoarrow.png Minnesota Gotoarrow.png Indians of Minnesota Gotoarrow.png Red Lake Indian Reservation (Minnesota)

The Red Lake Reservation is a federally-recognized reservation in Minnesota.

Established -- 2 October 1863
Agency (BIA) -- Chippewa Agency (1851-1873) - Red Lake Agency (1874-1879) - White Earth Agency (1879-1899) - Leech Lake Agency (1899-1906) - Red Lake Agency (1906-?)
Principal tribes -- Red Lake and Little Shell Pembina bands of Chippewa's and the Lac Du Bois (Bois Forte) Chippewa's
Population -- 2010 census - 5,162

History

The Red Lake Reservation was established by Treaty of Oct. 2, 1863 (XIII, 667); act of Jan. 14,1889 (XXV, 642); agreement, July 8, 1889 (H. R. Ex. Doe. 247, 51st Cong., 1st sess., 27, 32); Executive order, Nov. 21, 1892; Act of Mar. 3, 1903 (XXXIII, 1009), and act of Feb. 20, 1904, ratifying agreement made Mar. 10. 1902 (XXXIII. 46), for sale of 258,152 acres. 

Though the October 2, 1863 Old Crossing Treaty, the Little Shell Pembina Chippewa's retained all unceded land. Instead of honoring treaty agreements, the United States illegally took the unceded land they promised through the October 2, 1863 Old Crossing Treaty. Click this

memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/S

link, to read the October 2, 1863 Old Crossing Treaty text. On the bottom of the page are links. Click the Minnesota 1 link. The Little Shell Pembina land has the numbers 445 (disputed) and 446 (unceded land). The Lac Du Bois Chippewa's (the Bois Forte Chippewa's) land is adjacent to the east where the number 482 is. They also lived north of the Red Lake Little Shell Pembina Chippewa's

The United States wanted to relocate the Chippewa's who  lived in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota and South Dakota, to one large Reservation in northern Minnesota. In the very early 1850s (1851), negotiations commenced but failed after the United States supposedly refused to ratify the treaty in which the Little Shell Pembina Chippewa's ceded 11,000,000 acres in northwestern Minnesota and northeastern North Dakota. History tells that is not the truth. Though the treaty was not accepted, further negotiations continued including in early 1855.

On February 22, 1855, a treaty agreement was agreed upon by certain groups of Chippewa's (not the Little Shell Pembina Chippewa's including from Red Lake) which established several small Chippewa Reservations. They include Mille Lac, Rabbit Lake, Gull Lake (the reduced Menominee and Winnebago Chippewa's Reservations), Pokagomin Lake, Sandy Lake, Rice Lake, Cass Lake, Lake Winnebagoshish, and Leech Lake Reservations. On this land cession map of Minnesota, Cass Lake has the number 360, Lake Winnebagoshish has the number 359, and Leech Lake 358. Click this

memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/S

link, to read the text of the February 22, 1855 Treaty. On the bottom of the page are links. Click on Minnesota 1. You'll find the Reservations where the numbers 358, 359, 360, 453, 455, 456, and 457 are located. Click on Minnesota 2 to find Mille Lac Reservation. It has the number 454

On May 7, 1864, another treaty was agreed upon which established the large Little Shell Pembina Chippewa Reservation. It is better known as the Leech Lake Reservation. It includes Red Lake Reservation including the Bois Forte (aka Nett Lake Chippewa's). It is no coincidence that 2 days earlier, the October 2, 1863 Old Crossing Treaty was proclaimed. Of course, that happened on May 5, 1864. Both the October 2, 1863 Old Crossing Treaty and May 7, 1864 Treaty, are the same treaty. It created the large Little Shell Pembina Chippewa Reservation.

American leaders had wanted to relocate the Chippewa's of Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota and South Dakota, to a large Reservation in northern Minnesota. After the 1862 Minnesota Indian War, Little Shell Pembina Chippewa leaders agreed to accept the creation of the large Reservation in northern Minnesota. It includes Fond Du Lac, Leech Lake, Nett Lake, Red Lake, and White Earth Reservations.

After the May 7, 1864 Treaty was formalized, the Chippewa Reservations of Mille Lac, Rabbit Lake, Gull Lake, Pokagomin Lake, Sandy Lake, Rice Lake, Cass Lake, Lake Winnebagoshish, and Leech Lake were eradicated and the new and very large Little Shell Pembina Chippewa Reservation was created.

On March 3, 1873, Little Shell Pembina Chippewa leaders again proved their fidelity by agreeing to adhere to the October 2, 1863 Old Crossing Treaty and May 7, 1864 Treaty. Many Little Shell Pembina Chippewa's moved from eastern North Dakota and eastern South Dakota, to the large Little Shell Pembina Chippewa Reservation in northern Minnesota afterwards.

In 1889, the United States conspired to illegally eradicate the large Little Shell Pembina Chippewa Reservation. It was done through the 1889 Nelson Act. Soon after, Chippewa leaders became agitated after learning large numbers of illegal white settlers were settling down on the large Little Shell Pembina Chippewa Reservation. They went about tearing down the forest and killing off wild game. A Chippewa leader commenced to organize for a war. The United States learned about the planned uprising and hired Indians to murder the Chippewa leader.

Chief Bugonaygishig took over after the whites murdered the Chippewa leader who initiated the planned uprising. In 1898, chief Bugonaygishig led the Chippewa's during the Chippewa Rebellion of 1898. In 1898, the United States passed the Curtis Act and another Nelson Act. Both had intentions on Genocide.

In 1898, all Minnesota Reservations had been eradicated, except Red Lake and a small part of White Earth Reservation. After the 1898 Rebellion, the United States returned the Reservations which had been eradicated.

In 1934, the Indian Reorganization Act was voted upon. Red Lake Reservation at first rejected the Indian Reorganization Act. They desired to continue on with hereditary chiefs. Another factor was, they held the entire Reservation in common. No individuals owned private land. However, they later accepted the Indian Reorganization Act. It was the policy of the Indian Reorganization Act to halt the allotment of Reservation land to individuals, to Terminate Indian Reservations, and relocate Indians to white communities. It's main goal was to terminate Indian Reservations and relocate Indians to white communities. Termination commenced on August 18, 1950, when the land the Chippewa's held in common ownership at Hill 57 near Great Falls, Montana, was auctioned off to the highest bidder.

In other words, any Reservation which voted to accept the Indian Reorganization Act, either knew what the intentions of the Indian Reorganization Act were, or they didn't. Reservation leaders did. They knew about the Indian Reorganization Acts real intentions. Those Reservations which did not accept the Indian Reorganization Act, are somewhat puzzling. Among them are Turtle Mountain, Coeur d'Alene, Fort Peck, Jemez, Nez Perce,

[1].

Records

References

  1. "Minnesota Indian Reservations," Handbook of Indians North of Mexico, by Frederick Webb Hodge Available online.

Bibliography

  • Confederation of American Indians. Indian Reservations: A State and Federal Handbook. Jefferson, North Caroline: McFarland & Co., c1986. WorldCat 14098308; FHL book 970.1 In2.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30, 1906. This publication lists the 22 states which had reservations in 1908. Available online.
  • Kappler, Charles J. Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1902. 7 volumes. WorldCat 74490963; FHL book 970.1 K142iAvailable online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Prucha, Francis Paul. Atlas of American Indian Affairs. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1991 WorldCat 257331735; FHL book 970.1 P95aa
  • Prucha, Francis Paul, ed. Documents of United States Indian Policy. 3rd Edition. Lincoln, Nebraska: Univeresity of Nebraska Press, 2000. WorldCat 50416280; FHL book 970.1 P95d.
  • Prucha, Francis Paul. Guide to the Military Posts of the United States, 1789-1895. Madison, Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, c1964. WorldCat 522839; FHL book 973 M2pf.
  • Schmeckebier, Laurance F. The Office of Indian Affairs: Its History, Activities, and Organization. Service Monographs of the United States Government; no. 48. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1927. Reprint. New York: AMS Press, 1972.  WorldCat 257893; FHL book 973 B4b v. 48.
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published
  • Tiller, Veronica E. Velarde. American Indian Reservations and Trust Areas. [Washington, DC]: Economic Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1996. WorldCat 35209517; FHL book 970.1 T463a.
  • United States Department of Commerce, Frederick B. Dent, Secretary. Federal and State Reservations and Trust Areas. 1974. FHL book 970.1 Un3fe/1974.
  • United States Department of the Interior. Executive Orders Relating to Indian Reservations. Washington: [United States] Government Printing Office, 1912 (v. 1), 1922 (v. 2). Vol. 1 – May 14, 1855 to July 1, 1912. Vol. 2 – July 1, 1912 to July 1, 1922. FHL film 1440543 Items 8-9.
  • United States Federal and State Indian Reservations, Map. Available online.
  • Waldman, Carl. Atlas of the North American Indian. New York: Facts on File, 2009. 3rd ed. WorldCat 244771132; FHL book 970.1 W146a 2009.
  • Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006.