Difference between revisions of "Ponca Tribe"

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'''[[Image:Ponca -White-Eagle--Standing-Bear.jpg|thumb|right|Ponca -White-Eagle--Standing-Bear.jpg]]'''
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To get started in [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]]<br>
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'''Various Spellings: '''Ponca Tribe''', '''Ponca, Poncar, Poncarar, Ponka, Puncahs
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The Ponca Tribe was located in villages along Ponca Creek near the Niobrara River in what is now northeastern Nebraska when they first encountered the European settlers.  
 
The Ponca Tribe was located in villages along Ponca Creek near the Niobrara River in what is now northeastern Nebraska when they first encountered the European settlers.  
  
The Ponca Tribe today is primarily associated with the states of Nebraska and Oklahoma<ref>Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, Federal Register, Vol. 67, No. 134, 12 July 2002 [http://www.thepeoplespaths.net/lists/FederallyRecognized2002.pdf Available online]</ref>.
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The Ponca Tribe today is primarily associated with the states of Nebraska and Oklahoma.
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== Tribal Headquarters  ==
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'''Ponca Tribe of Nebraska<br>'''PO Box 288<br>Niobrara NE 68760
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voice 402.857.3391<br>fax 402.857.3736
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 +
official website of the Nebraska/Northern [http://www.poncatribe-ne.org/ Ponca Tribe]
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<br>'''Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma<br>'''20 White Eagle Drive<br>Ponca City OK 74601
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voice 580.762.9567<br>fax 580.762.2743
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 +
official website of the Oklahoma/Southern [http://www.ponca.com/ Ponca Tribe]  
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<br>
  
 
== History  ==
 
== History  ==
  
==== Brief Timeline  ====
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The Ponca Tribe signed four treaties with the United States government -- the first in 1817, the second in 1825, the third in 1858, the fourth in 1865. Each was an attempt to affirm their peaceful intent and to regulate trade in the area in which they lived.
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Treaties between the government and the Sioux/Lakota in 1868 gave the land claimed by the Ponca to the Sioux. As a result, in 1877, the Ponca were forced by the U.S. to remove to Indian Territory, specifically to the Quapaw Reservation. Two groups were removed that year, for a total of just under 700 tribal members. The following year, the Ponca established their own settlement from land on both sides of the Salt Fork River, from the west bank of the Arkansas River. An agency was established on the Salt Fork River, two miles from where it joined with the Arkansas.
 +
 
 +
In the 1880s, the Ponca split into two -- the Northern Ponca Tribe on the Niobrara River in Nebraska and the Southern Ponca Nation in what is now Oklahoma.
  
:1789 -- First contact with Europeans
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<br>
:1817 -- First Treaty with the U.S. government
 
:1825 -- Second Treaty with the U.S. government
 
:1858 -- Third Treaty with the U.S. government
 
:1877 -- Forced Removal to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) of 681 Ponca.
 
:1878 -- Reservation established on Salt Fork River west of the Arkansas River in Indian Territory
 
:1878 -- Chief Standing Bear left the reservation in Indian Territory to take his son's body back to the tribe's traditional grounds for burial. His arrest resulted in a famous trial that recognized Indians as "persons."
 
  
==== Brief History ====
+
==== Brief Timeline ====
  
The Ponca Tribe signed three treaties with the United States government -- the first in 1817; the second in 1825; and the third in 1858. Each was an attempt to affirm their peaceful intent and to regulate trade in the area in which they lived.
+
:1789 -- First contact with Europeans
  
Treaties between the government and other tribes gave the land claimed by the Ponca to the Sioux. As a result, in 1877, the Ponca were forced to remove to Indian Territory, specifically to the Quapaw Reservation. Two groups were removed that year, for a total of just under 700 tribal members. The following year, the Ponca established their own settlement from land on both sides of the Salt Fork River, from the west bank of the Arkansas River. An agency was established on the Salt Fork River, two miles from where it joined with the Arkansas.  
+
:1817 -- First treaty with the U.S. government  
 +
:1825 -- Second treaty with the U.S. government
 +
:1858 -- Third treaty with the U.S. government<br>1865 -- Fourth treaty with the U.S. government<br>1868 -- U.S. treaty with the Sioux/Lakota that included all Ponca lands<br>1877 -- Forced Removal to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) of 681 Ponca  
 +
:1878 -- Reservation established on Salt Fork River west of the Arkansas River in Indian Territory, now Oklahoma
 +
:1878 -- Chief Standing Bear left the reservation in Indian Territory to take his son's body back to the tribe's traditional grounds for burial. His arrest resulted in a famous trial that recognized Indians as legal persons<br>1881 -- lands returned to Ponca in Nebraska; half of tribe returned
  
In the 1880s, the Ponca split into two -- the Northern Ponca Tribe on the Niobrara River in Nebraska and the Southern Ponca in what is now Oklahoma.  
+
:1966 -- Ponca Tribe of Nebraska ("Northern Ponca") terminated in U.S. policy to terminate tribes (tribal membership 442, 838&nbsp;acres tribal land)<br>1990 -- U.S. Congress approved Ponca Restoration Bill, created Ponca Tribe of Nebraska
  
==== Additional References ====
+
==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe<br> ====
  
 
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'', gave a more complete [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ponca/poncaindianhist.htm history of the Ponca tribe], with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/nebraska/index.htm#Ponca ''The Indian Tribes of North America''] and in David Bushnell's [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/scripts/data/database.cgi?file=Data&report=SingleArticle&ArticleID=0017326 ''Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi''].  
 
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'', gave a more complete [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ponca/poncaindianhist.htm history of the Ponca tribe], with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/nebraska/index.htm#Ponca ''The Indian Tribes of North America''] and in David Bushnell's [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/scripts/data/database.cgi?file=Data&report=SingleArticle&ArticleID=0017326 ''Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi''].  
  
For additional history of the tribe, [http://www.ponca.com/752.html read more....]
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For additional history of the tribe, [http://www.ponca.com/752.html read more....]  
  
== Tribal Headquarters  ==
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<br>
  
'''Ponca Tribe of Nebraska'''
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==== Reservations  ====
  
<br> '''Ponca Nation'''<br> 20 White Eagle Drive<br> Ponca City, OK 74601<br>
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The Poncas are historically associated with two reservations -- the [[Ponca Indian Reservation (Nebraska)|Ponca Reservation in Nebraska]] and the [[Ponca Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Ponca Reservation in Oklahoma]].
  
Tribe phone -- 580-762-9567<br> Tribe fax -- 580-762-2743
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<br>
  
 
== Records  ==
 
== Records  ==
Line 41: Line 65:
 
=== Treaties  ===
 
=== Treaties  ===
  
:1817
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/pon0140.htm 1817] June 17,&nbsp;
 
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/pon0225.htm 1825] June 9, Poncar Village, &nbsp;
:1825
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/pon0772.htm 1858] March 12, Washington D.C., reservation, annuities&nbsp;
 
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/pon0875.htm 1865]&nbsp; March 10, Washington D.C.&nbsp;
:1858
 
  
 
=== Ponca Agency  ===
 
=== Ponca Agency  ===
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Many of the earlier records kept by the Ponca Agency (later the Winnebago Agency) in Nebraska have been transferred to the Kansas City Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Adminstration. Included among the records housed in this facility are copies of the Indian census rolls 1880-1928, family record books 1886-1891, vital statistics records 1885-1906 and 1937-1947, marriage registers, 1900, copies of birth and death certificates 1938-1945, annuity payrolls 1884-1907, and allotment rolls 1869.  
 
Many of the earlier records kept by the Ponca Agency (later the Winnebago Agency) in Nebraska have been transferred to the Kansas City Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Adminstration. Included among the records housed in this facility are copies of the Indian census rolls 1880-1928, family record books 1886-1891, vital statistics records 1885-1906 and 1937-1947, marriage registers, 1900, copies of birth and death certificates 1938-1945, annuity payrolls 1884-1907, and allotment rolls 1869.  
  
Some records for the Ponca are included in the collections of the Pawnee Agency in Oklahoma which are now housed in the Fort Worth Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Administration. A brief inventory of records available at this facility is [http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html#75.19.80 available online].<br>  
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Some records for the Ponca are included in the collections of the Pawnee Agency in Oklahoma which are now housed in the Fort Worth Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Administration. A brief inventory of records available at this facility is [http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html#75.19.80 available online].<br>
  
 
==== Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs from the Ponca Agency, 1859-1880  ====
 
==== Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs from the Ponca Agency, 1859-1880  ====
  
Copies of [[Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880|Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs]] from the Ponca Agency for the years 1859-1880 are included in Microcopy 234 of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), Rolls 670-677. Copies of those rolls are also available at the [[American Indian Research in the Family History Library|Family History Library]] (their microfilm numbers [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?first=770&display=titlefilmnotes&titleno=403528&disp=Letters%2Breceived%252C%2B1824%252D1881%253B%2Bregis%2B%2B&last=869&columns=*%2C0%2C0 1661400 - 1661407]).  
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Copies of [[Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880|Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs]] from the Ponca Agency for the years 1859-1880 are included in Microcopy 234 of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), Rolls 670-677. Copies of those rolls are also available at the [[American Indian Research in the Family History Library|Family History Library]] (their microfilm numbers {{FHL|403528|title-id|disp=1661400 - 1661407}}).  
  
 
==== Annual Census Rolls, 1885-1939  ====
 
==== Annual Census Rolls, 1885-1939  ====
  
Census records for the Ponca Tribe in Nebraska are included in the rolls for the Santee Agency, 1888-1917, the Yankton Agency, 1918-1931, and the Winnebago Agency, 1934-1939.  
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Census records for the Ponca Tribe in Nebraska are included in the rolls for the Santee Agency, 1888-1927,(FHL Films 580765-580779)&nbsp;the Yankton Agency, 1918-1931, (FHL films 583130-583138)&nbsp;and the Winnebago Agency, 1934-1939 (583128-583129).  
  
Census records for the Ponca Tribe in Oklahoma are included in the rolls for the Ponca Agency, 1886-1927 and the Pawnee Agency, 1920-1939.  
+
Census records for the Ponca Tribe in Oklahoma are included in the rolls for the Ponca Agency, 1886-1927, (FHL films: 580765-580770)&nbsp;and the Pawnee Agency, 1920-1939, (FHL Films: 579747-579753).
  
 
==== Reports of Field Offices  ====
 
==== Reports of Field Offices  ====
  
Copies of the [[Reports of Inspection of the Field Jurisdictions of the Office of Indian Affairs, 1873-1900|Reports of Inspection]] of the Ponca Agency, 1874-1880 and of the Ponca, Pawnee, and Otoe Agency, 1881-1900, are included in Microcopy M1070 of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), Rolls 37-39. A copy of that roll is also available at the [[American Indian Research in the Family History Library|Family History Library]] in Salt Lake City (their microfilm number [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlefilmnotes&columns=*%2C0%2C0&titleno=403511&disp=Reports+of+inspection+of+the+field+juris++ 1617710 thru 1671712])  
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Copies of the [[Reports of Inspection of the Field Jurisdictions of the Office of Indian Affairs, 1873-1900|Reports of Inspection]] of the Ponca Agency, 1874-1880 and of the Ponca, Pawnee, and Otoe Agency, 1881-1900, are included in Microcopy M1070 of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), Rolls 37-39. A copy of that roll is also available at the [[American Indian Research in the Family History Library|Family History Library]] in Salt Lake City (their microfilm number {{FHL|403511|title-id|disp=1617710 thru 1671712}})  
  
 
== Important Web Sites  ==
 
== Important Web Sites  ==
  
The Official Web Site of the [http://www.ponca.com/home.html Ponca Nation ]  
+
*The Official Web Site of the [http://www.ponca.com/home.html Ponca Nation]  
 
+
*Indian Nations, Indian Territory, Archives -- [http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~usgenweb/ok/nations/ponca/index.htm Ponca Tribe]
Indian Nations, Indian Territory, Archives -- [http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~usgenweb/ok/nations/ponca/index.htm Ponca Tribe]  
+
*[http://thorpe.ou.edu/IRA/okponcons.html Constitution and By-Laws of the Ponca Tribe of Indians Oklahoma]
 +
*[http://www.poncatribe-ne.org/pdfs/Ponca%20constitution.pdf Constitution and By-Laws of the Ponca Tribe of Indians Nebraska]
 +
*Ponca Tribe [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ponca Wikipedia]
  
 
== References  ==
 
== References  ==
  
<references />  
+
<references />
  
 
==== Bibliography  ====
 
==== Bibliography  ====
Line 81: Line 106:
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view WorldCat 317923332]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1122745&disp=Reference+encyclopedia+of+the+American+I%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 R259e].  
+
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view WorldCat 317923332]; {{FHL|1122745|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 R259e}}.  
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=831087&disp=The+Gale+encyclopedia+of+Native+American%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 G131g].
+
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; {{FHL|831087|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 G131g}}.
  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
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:Volume 1 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 1 -- Not yet published  
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>  
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:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>  
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:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4].<br>  
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:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4}}.<br>
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5].<br>  
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:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5}}.<br>
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6].<br>  
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:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6}}.<br>
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>  
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:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8].<br>  
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:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8}}.<br>
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9].<br>  
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:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9}}.<br>
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10].  
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:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10}}.  
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11].<br>  
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:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11}}.<br>
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12].<br>  
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:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12}}.<br>
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>  
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:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15].<br>  
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:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15}}.<br>
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>  
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:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>
 
:Volume 18 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 18 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 19 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 19 -- Not yet published  
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*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1465222&disp=Encyclopedia+of+Native+American+tribes%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006].
+
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; {{FHL|1465222|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006}}.
  
[[Category:Indians_of_North_America]] [[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_North_America]]
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[[Category:Oklahoma_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Nebraska_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Oklahoma]] [[Category:Nebraska]]

Revision as of 15:57, 24 May 2012

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Various Spellings: Ponca Tribe, Ponca, Poncar, Poncarar, Ponka, Puncahs

The Ponca Tribe was located in villages along Ponca Creek near the Niobrara River in what is now northeastern Nebraska when they first encountered the European settlers.

The Ponca Tribe today is primarily associated with the states of Nebraska and Oklahoma.

Tribal Headquarters

Ponca Tribe of Nebraska
PO Box 288
Niobrara NE 68760

voice 402.857.3391
fax 402.857.3736

official website of the Nebraska/Northern Ponca Tribe


Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma
20 White Eagle Drive
Ponca City OK 74601

voice 580.762.9567
fax 580.762.2743

official website of the Oklahoma/Southern Ponca Tribe


History

The Ponca Tribe signed four treaties with the United States government -- the first in 1817, the second in 1825, the third in 1858, the fourth in 1865. Each was an attempt to affirm their peaceful intent and to regulate trade in the area in which they lived.

Treaties between the government and the Sioux/Lakota in 1868 gave the land claimed by the Ponca to the Sioux. As a result, in 1877, the Ponca were forced by the U.S. to remove to Indian Territory, specifically to the Quapaw Reservation. Two groups were removed that year, for a total of just under 700 tribal members. The following year, the Ponca established their own settlement from land on both sides of the Salt Fork River, from the west bank of the Arkansas River. An agency was established on the Salt Fork River, two miles from where it joined with the Arkansas.

In the 1880s, the Ponca split into two -- the Northern Ponca Tribe on the Niobrara River in Nebraska and the Southern Ponca Nation in what is now Oklahoma.


Brief Timeline

1789 -- First contact with Europeans
1817 -- First treaty with the U.S. government
1825 -- Second treaty with the U.S. government
1858 -- Third treaty with the U.S. government
1865 -- Fourth treaty with the U.S. government
1868 -- U.S. treaty with the Sioux/Lakota that included all Ponca lands
1877 -- Forced Removal to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) of 681 Ponca
1878 -- Reservation established on Salt Fork River west of the Arkansas River in Indian Territory, now Oklahoma
1878 -- Chief Standing Bear left the reservation in Indian Territory to take his son's body back to the tribe's traditional grounds for burial. His arrest resulted in a famous trial that recognized Indians as legal persons
1881 -- lands returned to Ponca in Nebraska; half of tribe returned
1966 -- Ponca Tribe of Nebraska ("Northern Ponca") terminated in U.S. policy to terminate tribes (tribal membership 442, 838 acres tribal land)
1990 -- U.S. Congress approved Ponca Restoration Bill, created Ponca Tribe of Nebraska

Additional References to the History of the Tribe

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Ponca tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America and in David Bushnell's Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi.

For additional history of the tribe, read more....


Reservations

The Poncas are historically associated with two reservations -- the Ponca Reservation in Nebraska and the Ponca Reservation in Oklahoma.


Records

Treaties

  • 1817 June 17, 
  • 1825 June 9, Poncar Village,  
  • 1858 March 12, Washington D.C., reservation, annuities 
  • 1865  March 10, Washington D.C. 

Ponca Agency

Many of the earlier records kept by the Ponca Agency (later the Winnebago Agency) in Nebraska have been transferred to the Kansas City Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Adminstration. Included among the records housed in this facility are copies of the Indian census rolls 1880-1928, family record books 1886-1891, vital statistics records 1885-1906 and 1937-1947, marriage registers, 1900, copies of birth and death certificates 1938-1945, annuity payrolls 1884-1907, and allotment rolls 1869.

Some records for the Ponca are included in the collections of the Pawnee Agency in Oklahoma which are now housed in the Fort Worth Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Administration. A brief inventory of records available at this facility is available online.

Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs from the Ponca Agency, 1859-1880

Copies of Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs from the Ponca Agency for the years 1859-1880 are included in Microcopy 234 of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), Rolls 670-677. Copies of those rolls are also available at the Family History Library (their microfilm numbers 1661400 - 1661407).

Annual Census Rolls, 1885-1939

Census records for the Ponca Tribe in Nebraska are included in the rolls for the Santee Agency, 1888-1927,(FHL Films 580765-580779) the Yankton Agency, 1918-1931, (FHL films 583130-583138) and the Winnebago Agency, 1934-1939 (583128-583129).

Census records for the Ponca Tribe in Oklahoma are included in the rolls for the Ponca Agency, 1886-1927, (FHL films: 580765-580770) and the Pawnee Agency, 1920-1939, (FHL Films: 579747-579753).

Reports of Field Offices

Copies of the Reports of Inspection of the Ponca Agency, 1874-1880 and of the Ponca, Pawnee, and Otoe Agency, 1881-1900, are included in Microcopy M1070 of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), Rolls 37-39. A copy of that roll is also available at the Family History Library in Salt Lake City (their microfilm number 1617710 thru 1671712)

Important Web Sites

References


Bibliography

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published