Difference between revisions of "Philippine Insurrection, 1899 to 1902"

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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[United States Military Records|U.S. Military]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]'' '''Philippine Insurrection'''
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During the Philippine Insurrection, more than 125,000 American soldiers were sent to the Philippines, and over 4,000 deaths occurred during this conflict. This was also known as the Philippine-American War and the War of Philippine Independence.[[Image:Gen Aguinaldo, Philippines.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Gen Aguinaldo, Philippines.jpg]]  
 
During the Philippine Insurrection, more than 125,000 American soldiers were sent to the Philippines, and over 4,000 deaths occurred during this conflict. This was also known as the Philippine-American War and the War of Philippine Independence.[[Image:Gen Aguinaldo, Philippines.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Gen Aguinaldo, Philippines.jpg]]  
  
=== History ===
+
=== History ===
  
 
After the Spanish-American War (1898), the Philippines were given to the US. President McKinley felt Germany would take over the Philippines if the US did not. Many Filipinos wanted independence, and fighting began in 1899 and continued until 1902.  
 
After the Spanish-American War (1898), the Philippines were given to the US. President McKinley felt Germany would take over the Philippines if the US did not. Many Filipinos wanted independence, and fighting began in 1899 and continued until 1902.  
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*[http://www.historyguy.com/PhilipineAmericanwar.html The History Guy]
 
*[http://www.historyguy.com/PhilipineAmericanwar.html The History Guy]
  
==== Timeline of Major Events ====
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==== Timeline of Major Events ====
 
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{| class="wikitable"
{| width="600" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="2"
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! Date !! Event
 +
|-
 +
| 1898 || Throughout the Spanish-American War, the Filipinos and the Americans worked as allies. There were various communications between Filipino insurgents, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, and American leaders. Aguinaldo was led to believe by the American military officers that the Philippine Islands would be given independence at the end of the Spanish-American War. No written agreements were made.
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1898'''<br>
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| 1 May 1898 || Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, Philippines.
| Throughout the Spanish-American War, the Filipinos and the Americans worked as allies. There were various communications between Filipino insurgents, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, and American leaders. Aguinaldo was led to believe by the American military officers that the Philippine Islands would be given independence at the end of the Spanish-American War. No written agreements were made.<br>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 1 May 1898<br>
+
| May-Jun 1898 || U.S. forces continued to maintain possession of the city of Manila. Filipino troops withdrew from the city in August.
| Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, Philippines.<br>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''May-Jun 1898'''<br>
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| 12 Jun 1898 || Philippine Declaration of Independence (''Pagpapahayag ng Kasarinlan ng Pilipinas'') proclaimed.
| U.S. forces continued to maintain possession of the city of Manila. Filipino troops withdrew from the city in August.<br>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 12 Jun 1898<br>
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| 10 Dec 1898 || The Treaty of Paris ends the Spanish-American War. At the treaty meeting, the United States purchased the Philippine Islands from Spain for $20 million.
| Emilio Aguinaldo and his forces established the Malolos Republic, which made the Philippine Islands an independent nation.<br>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''10 Dec 1898'''<br>
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| 21 Dec 1898 || United States President, William McKinley, published the "Benevolent Assimilation" Proclamation which stated that the purpose of the U.S. presence in the Islands was to "assert its sovereignty."
| The treaty of Paris ended the Spanish-American War. At the treaty meeting, the United States purchased the Philippine Islands from Spain for $20 million.<br>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 21 Dec 1898<br>
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| 21 January 1899 || The Malolos Constitution is promulgated creating the First Philippine Republic.  
| United States President, William McKinley, published the “Benevolent Assimilation” Proclamation which stated that the purpose of the U.S. presence in the Islands was to “assert its sovereignty.”<br>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''4 Feb 1899'''<br>
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| 4 Feb 1899 || Armed hostilities began between the Americans and the Filipinos. There were very few major military battles during the conflict. Guerrilla fighting was common.
| Armed hostilities began between the Americans and the Filipinos. There were very few major military battles during the conflict. Guerrilla fighting was common.<br>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 24 Nov 1899<br>
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| 24 Nov 1899 || U.S. troops secured control of central Luzon, the major island of the Philippines.
| U.S. troops secured control of central Luzon, the major island of the Philippines.<br>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''21 Jun 1900'''<br>
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| 21 June 1900 || General MacArthur announced an amnesty plan which pledged “complete immunity for the past and liberty for the future” to Filipinos who surrendered. Most Filipino insurgents did not accept.
| General MacArthur announced an amnesty plan which pledged “complete immunity for the past and liberty for the future” to Filipinos who surrendered. Most Filipino insurgents did not accept.<br>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 23 Mar 1901<br>
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| 23 March 1901 || Aguinaldo captured by Philippine Scouts led by General Frederick Funston.
| Emilio Aguinaldo was captured by the Americans.<br>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''19 Apr 1901'''<br>
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| 19 April 1901 || Aguinaldo pledges allegiance to the United States of America, ending the Philippine Insurrection.
| A proclamation was issued which ended the Philippine Insurrection.<br>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 4 Jul 1902  
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| 4 July 1902 || President Theodore Roosevelt issues unilateral amnesty formally ending the war. Guerrilla warfare between the insurgents and the Americans continued on and off for several years.  
| President Roosevelt declared that the war in the Philippines was over. Guerrilla warfare between the insurgents and the Americans continued on and off for several years.
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
=== Service Records  ===
 
=== Service Records  ===
 +
 +
*[https://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2000/summer/philippine-insurrection.html Trevor K. Plante "Researching Service in the  U.S. Army During the Philippine Insurrection" Prologue 32(Summer, 2000)]
 +
*[https://www.archives.gov/files/research/military/philippine-insurrection/service-records.pdf Military Service during the Philippine Insurrection, 1899-1901 NARA Reference Report #926]
  
 
'''Volunteers'''  
 
'''Volunteers'''  
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An index to service records for the Philippine Insurrection is listed below:  
 
An index to service records for the Philippine Insurrection is listed below:  
  
*''Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served during the Philippine Insurrection.'' National Archives Microfilm Publication M872. (FHL films [https://www.familysearch.org/search/search/index/catalog-search#searchType=catalog&filtered=true&collectionId=&fed=false&page=1&catSearchType=keywords&searchCriteria=Index+to+compiled+service+records+of+volunteer+soldiers+who+served+during+the+Philippine+Insurrection&placeName=&author_givenName=&author_surname= 1002559–82].) The index lists each volunteer’s name, rank, and unit.
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*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/347273?availability=Family%20History%20Library Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served during the Philippine Insurrection. National Archives Microfilm Publication M872. The index lists each volunteer’s name, rank, and unit.]
  
 
The service records have not been filmed and are only available at the National Archives.  
 
The service records have not been filmed and are only available at the National Archives.  
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*The "[[Historical Register and Dictionary of the US Army|Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army]]..." by Francis B. Heitman lists Regular Army and volunteer officers from 1789 to 1903 that were killed, wounded, or taken prisoner. See Vol.2 pp. 13-42.
 
*The "[[Historical Register and Dictionary of the US Army|Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army]]..." by Francis B. Heitman lists Regular Army and volunteer officers from 1789 to 1903 that were killed, wounded, or taken prisoner. See Vol.2 pp. 13-42.
  
 +
=== National Archives Collections Relating to the War with Spain and the Philippine Insurrection ===
 +
*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/654560 Carded Records Showing Military Service of Soldiers who Fought in Volunteer Organizations During the Philippine Insurrection, 1899-1927. NAID 654560]
 +
*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/654536 Carded Records Relating to Staff Officers of Volunteers in the Spanish American War and the Philippine Insurrection, 1899-1927. NAID 654536]
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*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/654657 Muster Rolls of Volunteer Organizations During the Philippine Insurrection, 1899-1901. NAID 654657]
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*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/654700 Regimental and Company Books of Philippine Insurrection Volunteer Organizations, 1899-1901. NAID 654700]
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*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/17401090 Record Book of Volunteer Involvement in the War with Spain and the Philippine Insurrection, 1929-1935. NAID 17401090]
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*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/7423821 Numerical Index Cards Concerning the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection, ca. 1898- ca. 1901 NAID 7423821]
 +
*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/5557967 Papers of Enlisted Men in the Hospital Corps During the War with Spain and the Philippine Insurrection. NAID 5557967]
 +
*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/655738 Field Records of Spanish American War and Philippine Insurrection Hospitals, 1898-1902. NAID 655738]
 +
*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/5558016 Papers of Individual Citizens Connected with the Philippine Insurrection and the War with Spain, 1898. NAID 5558016]
 +
*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/1200129 Index to Casualties, 1898-1901. NAID 1200129]
 +
*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/1200131 Records Relating to Civilians, 1898-1901. NAID 1200131]
 +
*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/1200130 Memoranda Relating to the Transportation of troops to and from the Philippine Islands, 1898-19019. NAID 1200130] 
 +
 
=== Bibliography of Historical Sources  ===
 
=== Bibliography of Historical Sources  ===
  

Latest revision as of 21:35, 9 October 2018

United States
U.S. Military
Philippine Insurrection
During the Philippine Insurrection, more than 125,000 American soldiers were sent to the Philippines, and over 4,000 deaths occurred during this conflict. This was also known as the Philippine-American War and the War of Philippine Independence.
Gen Aguinaldo, Philippines.jpg

History

After the Spanish-American War (1898), the Philippines were given to the US. President McKinley felt Germany would take over the Philippines if the US did not. Many Filipinos wanted independence, and fighting began in 1899 and continued until 1902.

The following have information about the Philippine Insurrection:

Timeline of Major Events

Date Event
1898 Throughout the Spanish-American War, the Filipinos and the Americans worked as allies. There were various communications between Filipino insurgents, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, and American leaders. Aguinaldo was led to believe by the American military officers that the Philippine Islands would be given independence at the end of the Spanish-American War. No written agreements were made.
1 May 1898 Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, Philippines.
May-Jun 1898 U.S. forces continued to maintain possession of the city of Manila. Filipino troops withdrew from the city in August.
12 Jun 1898 Philippine Declaration of Independence (Pagpapahayag ng Kasarinlan ng Pilipinas) proclaimed.
10 Dec 1898 The Treaty of Paris ends the Spanish-American War. At the treaty meeting, the United States purchased the Philippine Islands from Spain for $20 million.
21 Dec 1898 United States President, William McKinley, published the "Benevolent Assimilation" Proclamation which stated that the purpose of the U.S. presence in the Islands was to "assert its sovereignty."
21 January 1899 The Malolos Constitution is promulgated creating the First Philippine Republic.
4 Feb 1899 Armed hostilities began between the Americans and the Filipinos. There were very few major military battles during the conflict. Guerrilla fighting was common.
24 Nov 1899 U.S. troops secured control of central Luzon, the major island of the Philippines.
21 June 1900 General MacArthur announced an amnesty plan which pledged “complete immunity for the past and liberty for the future” to Filipinos who surrendered. Most Filipino insurgents did not accept.
23 March 1901 Aguinaldo captured by Philippine Scouts led by General Frederick Funston.
19 April 1901 Aguinaldo pledges allegiance to the United States of America, ending the Philippine Insurrection.
4 July 1902 President Theodore Roosevelt issues unilateral amnesty formally ending the war. Guerrilla warfare between the insurgents and the Americans continued on and off for several years.

Service Records

Volunteers

An index to service records for the Philippine Insurrection is listed below:

The service records have not been filmed and are only available at the National Archives.

Regiments of state volunteers came from California, Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

Officers

A list of volunteer officers is in Vol.2 pages 185–272 of the following:

Regular Army

Enlisted Men

The "Register of Enlistments in the U.S. Army, 1798-1914" (NARA M233) consists of U.S. Army registers that recorded the name and other information on soldiers that enlisted between 1798 and 1914. The collection includes enlistees from the time period of the Philippine Insurrection, however, it does not specify whether they served in the war or not. See US Army Enlistments, 1798-1914.

Officers

Pension Records

Indexes

Pensions were first granted in 1922 to veterans of the Philippine Insurrection. The General Index to Pension Files and the Organization Index to Pension Files are the two indexes to the pension files this war. The actual pension files have not been filmed and are available at the National Archives.

You will need to send form 85 to the National Archives to obtain copies of the pension file. The National Archives will mail you copies of the form if you will write to them or send them an e-mail request to:

National Archives and Records Administration
Attn: NWCTB
700 Pennsylvania Ave.
Washington, DC 20408-0001
Tel. 202-501-5400
http:www.nara.gov

See Military Records: Pre-WWI Pension Applications (16 minute online video) FamilySearch Research Classes Online, 2010.

Casualty Records

Regular Army Officers

Census Records

1900 U.S. Federal Census

The 1900 Federal Census (NARA T623) enumerated military personnel stationed overseas in places such as Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. The census gives the soldier’s name, rank, place of residence in the United States, birth date and place, company, regiment, and branch of service.

1930 U.S. Federal Census

The 1930 Federal Censusasked if a person was "A veteran of the U.S. military or naval forces mobilized for any war or expedition" and "What war or expedition" they served in.

1940 U.S. Federal Census

The 1940 Federal Census asked "Is this person a veteran of the United States military forces or the wife, widow, or under 18-year-old child of a veteran?" and "If child, is veteran-father dead?" and "War or Military" served in. These were only asked of persons which were recorded on 2 of the 40 lines per page, which would have covered about five percent of the population.

Prisoner of War Records

Regular Army Officers

National Archives Collections Relating to the War with Spain and the Philippine Insurrection

Bibliography of Historical Sources

  • Bain, David Howard. Sitting in Darkness: Americans in the Philippines. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1984.
  • Constantino, Renato. A History of the Philippines: From the Spanish Colonization to the Second World War. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1975.
  • Hahn, Emily. The Islands, America’s Imperial Adventure in the Philippines. New York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, 1981.
  • LeRoy, James A. The Americans in the Philippines: a History of the Conquest and First Years of Occupation. New York: AMS Press, 1970.
  • Miller, Stuart C. Benevolent Assimilation: the American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899-1903. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982.
  • Onorato, Michael P., ed. Philippine Bibliography, 1899-1946. Santa Barbara, California: American Bibliographical Center, 1969.
  • Sexton, William T. Soldiers in the Sun: an Adventure in Imperialism. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: The Military Service Publishing Co., 1939.
  • Stanley, Peter W. A Nation in the Making: the Philippines and the United States, 1899-1921. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1974.
  • Welch, Richard B. Response to Imperialism: the United States and the Philippine-American War, 1899-1902. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.
  • Wolff, Leon.Little Brown Brother: America’s Forgotten Bid for Empire Which Cost 250,000 Lives. London: Longmans, 1961.
  • Zaide, Gregorio F. The Philippine Revolution. Manila, Philippines: Modern Book, 1954.

Society Records

The United Spanish War Veterans was established in 1899. Its membership includes veterans with service in the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection to 4 July 1902. The following sources contain information on their members who were veterans of the two wars.

Kansas

Michigan

Utah

  • United Spanish War Veterans, Department of Utah. Muster Rolls of Members, 1929–1957. (FHL film 1666085) Lists the veteran’s name, age, residence, final discharge date, and unit. Some entries may contain additional data.

State Records of the Philippine Insurrection

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