Difference between revisions of "Pembina Band of Chippewa Indians"

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==== Brief Timeline  ====
 
==== Brief Timeline  ====
 +
 +
It is not known exactly how long the Pembina Chippewa's have lived from northwestern Minnesota, eastern North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, northwestern Ontario, southern Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. 19th century books and reports about the Pembina Chippewa's are helpful. A letter wriiten by Father Belcourt to Major Woods in 1849, described the district of these Chippewa people. Belcourt claimed from Pembina, North Dakota, the Pembina Chippewa District extended around 400 miles from north to south. That be about the mid point of Lake Winnipeg to the South Dakota border. 
 +
 +
Belcourt also told Woods that the Pembina Chippewa District extended over 500 miles from east to west. That be from Atikokan, Ontario, to near the Montana border. To their north and west were the Saulteaux Chippewa's. The Pembina are probably included under the Saulteaux Chippewa's who lived out on the plains and also in the boreal forest. 
 +
 +
Historians think the Chippewa's became attracted to the plains in the 18th century. And the fur trade was not as important to the Chippewa's as historians suggest. When the Chippewa's had the opportunity to trade they often did. However, they were prone to keep away from the white trading posts for a good reason. Trading companies knew it and lured the Chippewa's to the trading posts by offering alcohol. Chippewa leaders found it extremely difficult to stop their subjects from visiting the trading posts and were probably forced to use harsh measures to keep them away from the trading posts. All too often it failed.
 +
 +
By the late 18th century, the Pembina Chippewa's were living in the Devil's Lake region of North Dakota and also the Turtle Mountains region of North Dakota and Manitoba. To the south of Devil's Lake the Lakota, who had yet to be subjugated by the Pembina Chippewa's, used the guns they received from white trading posts to attack the Pembina Chippewa's. At the time the Chippewa soldiers could easily defeat the Lakota using only bows and arrows. The single shot musket guns were no match. Some Lakota people were always capable of not being subjugated by the Chippewa's. They tended to keep their villages located near white trading posts.
 +
 +
Some time in the 18th century the Pembina Chippewa's had forced their way into the east of South Dakota. They mixed their culture and language with the Lakota people they had subjugated. It is not known when the Pembina Chippewa's reached the Montana region. According to the Chippewa author Peter Jones, the Chippewa's had fought a war in far western Montana (around the Missoula and Bitterroot Valley region) many generations before his time which was the mid 19th century. Jones could only provide those details. 
 +
 +
Since Jones wrote the event occurred '''Many Generations''' before his time, that may indicate it was a period of more than 100 years. A few generations is maybe about 5. Many generations can actually add up to 10, 20 or even more. So the Chippewa war in far western Montana possibly occurred 200 to 300 years before Jones time which was the mid 19th century. That be the 1600s or 1500s. And Peter Jones was not the only author to write about the '''Chippewa's fighting a war in far western Montana'''.<br>
 +
 +
Around the time of the War of 1812, the whites launched an invasion into the south of Manitoba. They were stopped by the Pembina Chippewa's who defeated them and subjugated them. The whites who had settled in the few white forts and settlements in the south of Manitoba, were not numerous and were treated accordingly by the Pembina Chippewa's who subjugated them. The Pembina Chippewa's were a bit liberal with them. They allowed them '''Freedom of Religion'''
 +
 +
The Metis people are a part of Pembina Chippewa history. They liked the lifestyle of the Pembina Chippewa's who frequently hunted for buffalo. They are a mixture of Chippewa and white, or the descendants of the white settlers who invaded southern Manitoba between 1800 and 1820. They would cause problems as the 19th century progressed.
  
 
==== Brief History  ====
 
==== Brief History  ====
 +
 +
  
 
==== Reservations  ====
 
==== Reservations  ====
Line 21: Line 39:
 
== References  ==
 
== References  ==
  
<references />
+
<references />  
  
 
==== Bibliography  ====
 
==== Bibliography  ====
Line 38: Line 56:
  
 
:Volume 1 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 1 -- Not yet published  
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>
+
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>  
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>
+
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>  
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4}}.<br>
+
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4}}.<br>  
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5}}.<br>
+
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5}}.<br>  
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6}}.<br>
+
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6}}.<br>  
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>
+
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>  
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8}}.<br>
+
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8}}.<br>  
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9}}.<br>
+
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9}}.<br>  
 
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10}}.  
 
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10}}.  
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11}}.<br>
+
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11}}.<br>  
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12}}.<br>
+
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12}}.<br>  
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>
+
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15}}.<br>
+
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15}}.<br>  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>
+
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>  
 
:Volume 18 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 18 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 19 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 19 -- Not yet published  

Revision as of 11:21, 4 February 2013

Template:Indians of North America-stub

History

Brief Timeline

It is not known exactly how long the Pembina Chippewa's have lived from northwestern Minnesota, eastern North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, northwestern Ontario, southern Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. 19th century books and reports about the Pembina Chippewa's are helpful. A letter wriiten by Father Belcourt to Major Woods in 1849, described the district of these Chippewa people. Belcourt claimed from Pembina, North Dakota, the Pembina Chippewa District extended around 400 miles from north to south. That be about the mid point of Lake Winnipeg to the South Dakota border.&nbsp;

Belcourt also told Woods that the Pembina Chippewa District extended over 500 miles from east to west. That be from Atikokan, Ontario, to near the Montana border. To their north and west were the Saulteaux Chippewa's. The Pembina are probably included under the Saulteaux Chippewa's who lived out on the plains and also in the boreal forest.&nbsp;

Historians think the Chippewa's became attracted to the plains in the 18th century. And the fur trade was not as important to the Chippewa's as historians suggest. When the Chippewa's had the opportunity to trade they often did. However, they were prone to keep away from the white trading posts for a good reason. Trading companies knew it and lured the Chippewa's to the trading posts by offering alcohol. Chippewa leaders found it extremely difficult to stop their subjects from visiting the trading posts and were probably forced to use harsh measures to keep them away from the trading posts. All too often it failed.

By the late 18th century, the Pembina Chippewa's were living in the Devil's Lake region of North Dakota and also the Turtle Mountains region of North Dakota and Manitoba. To the south of Devil's Lake the Lakota, who had yet to be subjugated by the Pembina Chippewa's, used the guns they received from white trading posts to attack the Pembina Chippewa's. At the time the Chippewa soldiers could easily defeat the Lakota using only bows and arrows. The single shot musket guns were no match. Some Lakota people were always capable of not being subjugated by the Chippewa's. They tended to keep their villages located near white trading posts.

Some time in the 18th century the Pembina Chippewa's had forced their way into the east of South Dakota. They mixed their culture and language with the Lakota people they had subjugated. It is not known when the Pembina Chippewa's reached the Montana region. According to the Chippewa author Peter Jones, the Chippewa's had fought a war in far western Montana (around the Missoula and Bitterroot Valley region) many generations before his time which was the mid 19th century. Jones could only provide those details.&nbsp;

Since Jones wrote the event occurred Many Generations before his time, that may indicate it was a period of more than 100 years. A few generations is maybe about 5. Many generations can actually add up to 10, 20 or even more. So the Chippewa war in far western Montana possibly occurred 200 to 300 years before Jones time which was the mid 19th century. That be the 1600s or 1500s. And Peter Jones was not the only author to write about the Chippewa's fighting a war in far western Montana.<br>

Around the time of the War of 1812, the whites launched an invasion into the south of Manitoba. They were stopped by the Pembina Chippewa's who defeated them and subjugated them. The whites who had settled in the few white forts and settlements in the south of Manitoba, were not numerous and were treated accordingly by the Pembina Chippewa's who subjugated them. The Pembina Chippewa's were a bit liberal with them. They allowed them Freedom of Religion

The Metis people are a part of Pembina Chippewa history. They liked the lifestyle of the Pembina Chippewa's who frequently hunted for buffalo. They are a mixture of Chippewa and white, or the descendants of the white settlers who invaded southern Manitoba between 1800 and 1820. They would cause problems as the 19th century progressed.

Brief History

Reservations

Additional References to the History of the Tribe

Tribal Headquarters

Records

Treaties

Important Websites

References


Bibliography

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published