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Ancestral Homeland: Kansas and Nebraska (on Platte River and the Republican Fork of the Kansas River )
The Pawnee Nation is primarily associated with the state of Oklahoma.
Linguistic Group: Caddoan
Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma
P.O. Box 470
Pawnee, OK 74058
- Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Official Website
A history of the Pawnee Nation is included in a National Historical Register .pdf file, p. 29ff., available on the internet (takes time to load).
The Pawnee consisted of four tribes:
- Chaui or Grand Pawnee,
- Kitkehahki or Republican Pawnee,
- Pitahuerat or Tapage Pawnee,
- Skidi or Skiri Pawnee
The Pawnee Nation was assigned to the following Agencies:
- 1824-37: Upper Missouri Agency
- 1837-56: Council Bluffs Agency
- 1856-59: Otoe Agency
- 1859-80: Pawnee Agency
- 1873-75: Wichita Agency
These agencies were under the following Superintendencies: St. Louis Superintendency, Central Superintendency and Northern Superintendency
- 1541: Spanish explorer Francisco Vasquez de Coronado made contact with the tribe
- 1601: Juan de Onate a Spanish explorer
- 1770: Southern Pawnee migrated northward near the Northern Pawnee (Skidi) Platte River, Loup River, and the Republican Fork of the Kansas River (Nebraska)
- 1865-1885: Frank and Luther North organized a battalion (U.S. Army) of Pawnee scouts; they worked as guard for railroad construction crews
- 1873: Massacre Canyon; Sioux war party ambushed a Pawnee hunting party killing 150.
- 1876: left Nebraska and moved to Indian Territory (Oklahoma)
Additional References to the History of the Tribe
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Pawnee tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details in David Bushnell's Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi.
Correspondence and Census
|Tribe||Agency||Location of Original Records||
M234 RG 75 Rolls 962
M595 RG 75 Rolls 693
|Pawnee||Upper Missouri Agency, 1824-37||Washington D.C.||Rolls 883-88||-||Rolls 386-391||579745-579753|
|Pawnee||Council Bluffs Agency 1837-56||Kansas City||Rolls 215-18||-||-||-|
|Pawnee||Pawnee (Ponca) Agency, 1859-1964||
Washington D.C. and Fort Worth
|Rolls 659-68, 670-77||-||Rolls 336-43, 386-91||
- 1861-1869 Pawnee Scouts of Nebraska; list of Pawnee's who served as scouts for the military www.ancestry.com
- Pawnee Agency, M595, births and deaths 1924-1932, FHL Film: 579750
The treaties of 1833, 1848, and 1857 ceded all their lands in Nebraska.
- June 18-22, 1818: St. Louis, Missouri Territory. Peace was concluded with the tribes of the region disturbed by the War of 1812.
- 1818 June 18, with the Grand Pawnee
- 1818 June 19, with the Noisy Pawnee
- 1818 June 20, with the Pawnee Republic
- 1818 June 22, with the Pawnee Marhar
- 1825 September 30, at Fort Atkinson, (Council Bluffs), Iowa, regulation of trade
- 1833 October 9, at Grand Pawnee Village on the Platte River, land ceded "all land lying south of the Platte River: annuity: $4,600 in goods
- 1848 August 6, at Fort Childs, Nebraska ceded 60 mile strip on the Platte River and Grand Island
- 1857 September 24, at Table Creek, Nebraska Territory, land ceeded, reservation. provision for half-breeds
- 1892:land in severalty and became citizens of the U.S.
Also listed in Treaties with Marhar, Tappaye, Loups, Republic, Republicans.
Listed below in references:
Kappler, Charles J.Indian Treaties 1778-1883, Interland Publishing Inc. New York, NY. 1972
Important Web Sites
- Constitution of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma
- Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Official Website
- Pawnee Tribe Wikipedia
- Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, Federal Register, Vol. 67, No. 134, 12 July 2002 Available online
- Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
- Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
- Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
- Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
- Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published
- Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
- Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006.
- Kappler, Charles J. Indian Treaties 1778-1883. Interland Publishing Inc. New York, NY 1972. ISBN 0-87989-025-8; FHL book 970.1 K142i