Pawnee Indians

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Pawnee As-Sau-Taw-Ka-(White-Horse).jpg

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Ancestral Homeland: Kansas and Nebraska (on Platte River and the Republican Fork of the Kansas River)

The Pawnee Nation is primarily associated with the state of Oklahoma[1].

Linguistic Group: Caddoan

Tribal Headquarters

Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma
P.O. Box 470
Pawnee, OK 74058
Phone: 1.918.762.3621
Fax: 1.918.762.6446


A history of the Pawnee Nation is included in a National Historical Register .pdf file, p. 29ff., available on the internet (takes time to load).

The Pawnee consisted of four tribes:

  • Chaui or Grand Pawnee,
  • Kitkehahki or Republican Pawnee,
  • Pitahuerat or Tapage Pawnee,
  • Skidi or Skiri Pawnee

The Pawnee Nation was assigned to the following Agencies:Many of the records for the Pawnee tribe are listed on the Agency pages.

June 18-22, 1818:  St. Louis, Missouri Territory. Peace was concluded with the tribes of the region disturbed by the War of 1812.

These agencies were under the following Superintendencies: St. Louis Superintendency, Central Superintendency and Northern Superintendency

Brief Timeline

  • 1541: Spanish explorer Francisco Vasquez de Coronado made contact with the tribe
  • 1601: Juan de Onate a Spanish explorer
  • 1770: Southern Pawnee migrated northward near the Northern Pawnee (Skidi) Platte River, Loup River, and the Republican Fork of the Kansas River (Nebraska)
  • 1865-1885: Frank and Luther North organized a battalion (U.S. Army) of Pawnee scouts; they worked as guard for railroad construction crews
  • 1873: Massacre Canyon; Sioux war party ambushed a Pawnee hunting party killing 150.  The Sioux were tribal enemy of the Pawnee.
  • 1875-1876: left Nebraska and moved to Indian Territory (Pawnee County, Oklahoma)


Pawnee Reservation (Oklahoma)

Additional References to the History of the Tribe

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Pawnee tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details in David Bushnell's Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi.


Correspondence and Census

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records

Pre-1880 Correspondence

M234 RG 75 Rolls 962

Roll Numbers




Post-1885 Census

M595 RG 75 Rolls 693

Roll Numbers




Pawnee Upper Missouri Agency, 1824-37 Washington D.C. Rolls 883-88 1661613-1661618 Rolls 386-391 FHL film 579745-579753
Pawnee Council Bluffs Agency 1837-56 Kansas City Rolls 215-18 1660945-1660948 - -
Pawnee Pawnee (Ponca) Agency, 1859-1964

Washington D.C.and Fort Worth

Rolls 659-68, 670-77 1661389-1661398 Rolls 336-43, 386-91 580765-580770

Military Records

Vital Records

  • Pawnee Agency, M595, births and deaths 1924-1932, FHL Film: 579750


The treaties of 1833, 1848, and 1857 ceded all their lands in Nebraska.

  • June 18-22, 1818:  St. Louis, Missouri Territory. Peace was concluded with the tribes of the region disturbed by the War of 1812.
  • 1818 June 18, with the Grand Pawnee
  • 1818 June 19, with the Noisy Pawnee
  • 1818 June 20, with the Pawnee Republic
  • 1818 June 22, with the Pawnee Marhar
  • 1825 September 30, at Fort Atkinson, (Council Bluffs), Iowa, regulation of trade
  • 1833 October 9, at Grand Pawnee Village on the Platte River, land ceded "all land lying south of the Platte River: annuity: $4,600 in goods"
  • 1848  August 6, at Fort Childs, Nebraska ceded 60 mile strip on the Platte River and Grand Island
  • 1857 September 24, at Table Creek, Nebraska Territory, land ceeded, reservation. provision for half-breeds
  • 1892: land in severalty and became citizens of the U.S.

Also listed in Treaties with Marhar, Tappaye, Loups, Republic, Republicans Indians

Listed below in references:

Kappler, Charles J.Indian Treaties 1778-1883, Interland Publishing Inc. New York, NY. 1972

ISNB 0-87989-02508

Important Web Sites


  1. Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, Federal Register, Vol. 67, No. 134, 12 July 2002 Available online


  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  • Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006.
  • Kappler, Charles J.  Indian Treaties 1778-1883. Interland Publishing Inc. New York, NY 1972.  ISBN 0-87989-025-8; FHL book 970.1 K142i