Orange County, Virginia Genealogy

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Orange County, Virginia
Boundary map of Orange County, Virginia
Map of Virginia highlighting Orange County
Location in the state of Virginia
Map of the U.S. highlighting Virginia
Location of Virginia in the U.S.
Founded 1734
County Seat Orange
United States  Gotoarrow.png  Virginia  Gotoarrow.png  Orange County 

Northern Virginia county in the Piedmont region.

County Courthouse

Orange County Courthouse, Orange, Va.


Orange County Courthouse
109-A  W Main Street
Orange, Virginia 22960
Phone: 540-672-4066

Clerk Circuit Court has birth records 1860-1895,
marriage records from 1757 probate, court and
land records from 1734[1]

Beginning Dates for Orange County, Virginia Genealogy Government Records
Birth Marriage Death Census Land Probate
1853 1757 1853 1820 1734 1734


King William III of England (1650-1702)

The county was named after King William III of England (1650-1702). Before ruling England, he governed the Dutch Republic and was known as Stadtholder William III of Orange.

A large group of Germans settled in the area during the eighteenth century, while it was the frontier of European settlement.

Parent County

1734--Orange County was created 1 February 1734 from Spotsylvania County.
County seat: Orange [2]

Boundary Changes

Record Loss

  • Lost censuses: 1790, 1800, 1810, 1890


Populated Places

Neighboring Counties


Getting Started

Compiled genealogies are a good place to start research for this area, see Orange County, Virginia Genealogy.

If you are researching families who lived in Orange County, Virginia between the 1740s and 1840s, the Sparacios' books are a great time saver. They comprehensively index several publications covering that period:

  • Sparacio, Ruth Trickey and Sam Sparacio. Surname Index of Antient Press Publications. 14+ vols. McLean, Va.: R. & S. Sparacio, Antient Press, 1993-. FHL Collection 975.5 P22s v. 1-2; publisher's website: Antient Press. (Some of the index volumes have not been printed and it is necessary to contact the publishers to search them.)

Research Guides

  • "A Guide to the Counties of Virginia: Orange County," The Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 19, No. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 1975):283-286. FHL Collection; digital version at New England Ancestors ($).
  • Cortada, James W. A Select Bibliography on Orange County, Virginia. Orange, Virginia: Green Publishers, 1975. FHL Collection 975.5 A1 no. 158
  • Miller, Ann L. A Guide to Historical Research in Orange County, Virginia. Orange, Virginia: Orange County Historical Society (Virginia), 1988. FHL Collection 975.5372 H2m

African American

Bible Records

Images of the Virginia Historical Society's family Bible collection have been digitized:

Additional Bible records include:


  • Klein, Margaret C. Tombstone Inscriptions of Orange County, Virginia. Baltimore, MD, USA: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1979. FHL Collection 975.5372 V3k; digital versions at Ancestry ($); and World Vital Records ($).


For tips on accessing Orange County, Virginia Genealogy census records online, see: Virginia Census.

Historical populations
Census Pop.

1782 Enumeration

1785 Enumeration

1790 - Lost, but a subsitute is available, see Taxation.

1800 - Lost, but a subsitute is available, see Taxation.

1810 - Lost, but a subsitute is available, see Taxation.

1890 Union Veterans

Church Records


Early Baptist churches (with years constituted):

  1. Blue Run (1769).[3] Historical information was published in Orange County Historical Society Newsletter, Vol. 19, No. 6 (Jun. 1988).
  2. Chestnut Grove (1773). A bicentennial history was published: Virginia Baptist Register, Issue 12 (1973).
  3. N. Fork, Pamunkey (1774)[3]

The 10,000 name petition (dated 16 October 1776) has been digitized at the Library of Congress website. It was signed by people from all over Virginia who wanted an end to persecution of Baptists by the Established Church. Baptists and Baptist sympathizers alike signed the petition. To find your ancestor in this record, first check Hall's transcription in the Magazine of Virginia Genealogy (Vols. 35-38, with annotations in Vol. 39), which is available online at Ancestry ($). It is also available in book form at the Family History Library: FHL Book 975.5 B2vs v. 35-39. Then proceed to the Library of Congress website to see the original images.

Orange County fell within the bounds of the Culpeper Association and the Goshen Association.

Church of England

St. Mark's Parish was organized in 1730. St. Thomas' Parish was organized in 1740.[4]

Gotoarrow.png See also St. Mark's Parish
Gotoarrow.png See also St. Thomas Parish


  • Davis, Rosalie Edith Rogers, St. Mark's Parish (Culpeper County, Virginia: Episcopal), Bromfield Parish (Rappahannock and Madison Counties, Virginia: Episcopal). Saint Mark Parish Vestry Book & Levies, 1730-1785: Spotslyvania, Orange and Culpeper counties, Virginia. Manchester, Missouri: Heritage Trails, 1983. FHL Collection


  • Papageorgiou, Lizabeth Ward. The Colonial Churches of St. Thomas' Parish, Orange County, Virginia: With Notes on Sites in Orange, Greene, and Madison Counties. Baltimore, Maryland: Clearfield, 2008. FHL Collection
German Reformed
  • Braun, Johannes, Klaus Wust and Joseph H. Meyerhoeffer. Shenandoah Valley Family Data, 1799-1813: From the Memorandum Book of Pastor Johannes Braun. Edinburg, Va.: Shenandoah History Publishers, 1978. FHL Collection 975.5 K2bjo

Early monthly meetings (with years of existence):

  • Douglas's Monthly Meeting (1748-1806)[5]

In the 1700s and 1800s, Friends from Orange County, Virginia Genealogy also attended the Cedar Creek Meeting House in Hanover County, Virginia.[6]


Chancery Court

  • Sparacio, Ruth Trickey and Sam Sparacio. Chancery Suits (Superior Court of Law & Chancery), Orange County, Virginia, 1831-1845. McLean, Virginia: R. & S. Sparacio, 1988. FHL Collection

District Court of Fredericksburg

The District Court of Fredericksburg and later the Superior Court of Chancery had jurisdiction over certain Orange County court cases. An index has been compiled:

  • Indexes of Court Records in the Clerk's Office, Fredericksburg, Virginia, 1782-1904. Original records, Fredericksburg City Courthouse, Fredericksburg, Va., microfilmed reproduction: FHL Collection [Indexes the following records: District Court law book v. 8, 1782-1792; District Court law books 1790-1793, v. A-F 1789-1811; Superior Court of Law law order books v. G-H 1812-1831; Superior Court of Chancery chancery order books 1814-1831; Hustings Court orders v. A-O 1782-1871; Circuit Superior Court of Law and Chancery law order books v. A-E 1831-1875; Circuit Superior Court of Law and Chancery chancery order books v. A-D 1831-1872; Circuit Court chancery order books v. A2, B-C 1875-1904; Fredericksburg District Court (1789-1808) had jurisdiction over the following counties: Spotsylvania (including Fredericksburg), Caroline, King George, Stafford, Orange, and Culpeper; Superior Court of Chancery (1802-1831) had jurisdiction over the following localities: city of Fredericksburg and the counties of Caroline, Culpeper, Fauquier, Fairfax, Lancaster, Northumberland, Madison, King George, Orange, Prince William, Richmond, Spotsylvania, Stafford, Essex, and Westmoreland.]

Superior Court of Chancery

See District Court of Fredericksburg


More than 320 genealogies have been published about Orange County families. To view a list, visit Orange County, Virginia Genealogy.

Historic Residences

  • Miller, Ann L. Antebellum Orange: The Pre-Civil War Homes, Public Buildings, and Historic Sites of Orange County, Virginia. Orange, Virginia: Orange County Historical Society, 1989. Reviewed by Calder Loth in The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 98, No. 4 (Oct., 1990), pp. 671-672. Review available at JSTOR ($).
  • Taylor, Jaquelin P. "'Meadowfarm' Orange County, Virginia," The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 46, No. 3 (Jul., 1938), pp. 231-233. Available at JSTOR ($).



Grants and Patents

  • [Map] Hildebrand, John R. The Beverley Patent, 1736: Including Original Grantees, 1738-1815 in Orange & Augusta Counties, Va. 1954. FHL Collection Map Case 975.5 E7hjr
  • Gray, Gertrude E. Virginia Northern Neck Land Grants 1694-1742. Vol. I. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1987. FHL Collection; digital version at Ancestry. [Includes an Orange County resident.]
  • Grymes, J. Randolph. The Octonia Grant in Orange and Greene Counties. Ruckersville, Va.: Seminole Press, 1977. FHL Collection 975.537 R2g
  • Hildebrand, John R. The Beverley Patent, 1736: Including Original Grantees, 1738-1815 in Orange & Augusta Counties, Va. 1954. FHL Collection Map Case 975.5 E7hjr
  • Hudgins, 390 patents dated 1713-1815 in what is now Orange County, Virginia placed on a map. DeedMapper, 2004. [Names of those who received land patents, dates, land descriptions, and references may be viewed free of charge (click "Index" next to the county listing); however, in order to view the maps, it is necessary to purchase Direct Line Software's DeedMapper product.]
  • Joyner, Ulysses P. Orange County Land Patents. [Orange, Va.]: Orange County Historical Society (Virginia), 1985. FHL Collection 975.5372 R2j

Local Histories

  • Gwathmey, John Hastings. Twelve Virginia Counties, Where the Western Migration Began. Richmond: Dietz Press, 1937. FHL Collection 1320669 Item 13
  • Hurst, Patricia J. The History and People of Clark Mountain, Orange County, Virginia. Rapidan, Virginia: P.J. Hurst, 1989. FHL Collection
  • Joyner, Ulysses P. The First Settlers of Orange County, Virginia: A View of the Life and Times of the European Settlers of Orange County, Virginia, and Their Influence Upon the Young James Madison, 1700-1776. Baltimore, Maryland: Gateway Press, 1987. FHL Collection
  • Mansfield, James Roger. A History of Early Spotsylvania. Berryville, Virginia: Virginia Book Co., 1977. FHL Collection
  • Moffatt, L. G., J. M. Carrière and J. G. Moffatt. "A Frenchman Visits Norfolk, Fredericksburg and Orange County, 1816," The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 53, No. 2 (Apr., 1945), pp. 101-123; Vol. 53, No. 3 (Jul., 1945), pp. 197-214. Available at JSTOR ($).
  • Scott, W.W. A History of Orange County: From Its Formation in 1734 (O.S.) to the End of Reconstruction in 1870; Compiled Mainly from Original Records. Richmond, Virginia: Everett Waddey Co., 1907. Original edition: FHL Collection; 1974 reprint: FHL Collection; digital versions of original edition at Ancestry ($), Google Books, and World Vital Records ($). Reviewed in The Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 6, No. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 1962):181. Review: FHL Collection; digital version of review at New England Ancestors ($).
  • Thomas, William H.B. Orange, Virginia: Story of a Courthouse Town. Verona, Virginia: McClure Press, 1972. Reviewed by James T. Moore in The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 81, No. 1 (Jan., 1973), pp. 116-117. Review available at JSTOR ($).


  • Hildebrand, John R. The Beverley Patent, 1736: Including Original Grantees, 1738-1815 in Orange & Augusta Counties, Va. 1954. Available at FHL Collection


French and Indian War
  • Bockstruck, Lloyd DeWitt. Virginia's Colonial Soldiers. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1988. FHL Collection [Identifies some Orange County militia officers, soldier enlistments, and veterans; see place name index.]
  • Boogher, William F. Gleanings of Virginia History: An Historical and Genealogical Collection, Largely from Original Sources. Washington: n.p., 1903. FHL Collection; digital version at Google Books. [Includes a chapter titled "Legislative Enactments connecting the preceding historic sketch [French and Indian War, Lord Dunmore's War] with the adjudication of the resulting accounts that follow; with the list of officers, soldiers and civilians entitled to compensation for military and other services rendered." For Orange County, see p. 112.]
Revolutionary War

Regiments. Service men in Orange County served in various regiments. Men often joined a company (within a regiment) that originated in their county. Orange County supplied soldiers for the:

- 7th Virginia Regiment
- 10th Virginia Regiment
- Culpeper Minute Men[7]

Additional resources:

  • Thomas, William H.B. Patriots of the Upcountry: Orange County, Virginia in the Revolution. Orange, Virginia: Orange County Bicentennial Commission, 1976. FHL Collection
  • A Census of Pensioners for Revolutionary or Military Services: With their Names, Ages, and Places of Residence, as Returned by the Marshalls of the Several Judicial Districts, Under the Act for Taking the Sixth Census]. 1841. Digital versions at U.S. Census Bureau and Google Books et. al. 1967 reprint: FHL Collection 973 X2pc 1840. [See Virginia, Eastern District, Orange County on page 132.]
  • Rejected or Suspended Applications for Revolutionary War Pensions. Washington, D.C., 1852. Reprinted by Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1969, and 1991. Reprints include "an Added Index to States." FHL Collection 973 M24ur; digital version at Ancestry ($). [Includes veterans from this county; Virginia section begins on page 238.]
War of 1812

Orange County men served in the 3rd Regiment.[8]

  • List of Pensioners on the Roll, January 1, 1883; Giving the Name of Each Pensioner, the Cause for Why Pensioned, the Post-Office Address, the Rate of Pension Per Month, and the Date of Original Allowance... Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1883. FHL Collection 973 M2Lp v. 5; digital versions at Google Books and Internet Archive. [See Vol. 5, Virginia, Orange County, p. 96. Identifies War of 1812 veterans living in this county in 1883.]
Civil War

Regiments. Service men in Orange County, Virginia Genealogy served in various regiments. Men often joined a company (within a regiment) that originated in their county. Listed below are companies that were specifically formed in Orange County, Virginia Genealogy:

- 6th Regiment, Virginia Cavalry (Confederate). Company I (Orange Rangers).[9]
- 13th Regiment, Virginia Infantry (Confederate). Company A (The Montpelier Guard), Company C (The Gordonsville Grays), and Company F (The Barboursville Guards).[10]

Records and histories are available, including:

  • Virginia, Civil War Service Records of Confederate Soldiers 1861-1865
  • Virginia, Civil War Service Records of Union Soldiers 1861-1865
  • Hurst, Patricia J. Soldiers, Stories, Sites and Fights, Orange County, Virginia 1861-1865 and the Aftermath. Rapidan, Virginia: P.J. Hurst, 1998. FHL Collection
  • Virginia. Office of Comptroller and Library of Virginia. Confederate Pension Applications, Virginia, Acts of 1888, 1900, 1902; Index, 1888-1934. 220 microfilms, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia; also available as FHL Collection [Includes Spotsylvania County veterans.]
  • Watkins, Raymond Wesley. Deaths of Confederate Soldiers in Orange County, Virginia Hospitals, 1861-1864. MSS., 1979, FHL Collection




Indexed images of the Virginia Gazette (1736-1780) are available online through the Colonial Williamsburg website. In addition, Professor Tom Costa and The Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia have created a database of all runaway advertisements for slaves, indentured servants, transported convicts, and ship deserters listed in this source and other Virginia newspapers (1736-1803), see: The Geography of Slavery in Virginia. These newspapers are valuable resources for all regions of Virginia.

Private Papers

  • Buni, Andrew. "Reconstruction in Orange County, Virginia: A Letter from Hannah Garlick Rawlings to Her Sister, Clarissa Lawrence Rawlings, August 9, 1865," The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 75, No. 4 (Oct., 1967), pp. 459-465. Available at JSTOR ($).
  • Redwine, Lucy Leah, J.E. Hays, and Daughters of the American Revolution. Elijah Clarke Chapter (Athens, Georgia). Family Bible Records. MSS., Department of Archives and History, Atlanta, Georgia; microfilm: FHL Collection [Includes records from Orange County.]
  • Virginia, Historical Society Papers, 1607-2007

Probate Records

A free index to Orange County, Virginia Genealogy wills and administrations (1735-1800) is available at the Library of Virginia website.

Local Court

  • Wiggins, Mrs. Joseph P. "Will of Robert Terrill, of Orange County, Virginia," (and family notes) [1786] The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 31, No. 2 (Apr., 1923), pp. 175-180. Available at JSTOR ($).

London Courts

  • Coldham, Peter Wilson. North American Wills Registered in London 1611-1857. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2007. [Includes will of a resident of Orange County proved in London. These records often help establish an immigrant's place of origin.]


How can Virginia tax lists help me?

  • [1730-1754] Joyner, Peggy Shomo. Abstracts of Virginia's Northern Neck Warrants and Surveys. Vol. 1 [Orange & Augusta counties, with tithables, delinquents, petitioners, 1730-1754]. Portsmouth, Virginia: P.S. Joyner, 1985. FHL Collection
  • [1734, 1738-1739] Hoppin, Charles Arthur. "Orange County Tithe Lists," [1734, 1738 Delinquents, 1739] The William and Mary Quarterly, 1st Series, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Jul., 1918):19-27. FHL Collection; reprinted in Virginia Tax Records. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1983, which is also available as FHL Collection; digital version at JSTOR ($).
  • [1734-1782] Little, Barbara Vines. Orange County, Virginia, Tithables 1734-1782. 2 vols. [Orange, Virginia?]: Dominion Market Research Corp., 1988. FHL Collection
  • [1736-1782] Orange County, Virginia Tithables, 1736-1782. Original records, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia; microfilm: FHL Collection
  • [1739] German Tithables, 1739, Beyond Germanna, Vol. 2, No. 4 (Jul. 1990).
  • [1756, 1782] Sparacio, Ruth Trickey and Sam Sparacio. Deed Abstracts of Orange County, Virginia. [1743-1802] 9 vols. McLean, Virginia: R.L. and S. Sparacio, 1985-1995. FHL Collection [Volume 2. Deed abstracts 1759-1778 (Deed books 13-16; tithable list of Benjamin Cave's precinct, 1756; and land tax book, 1782).]
  • [1785] Tithables, 1785, Orange County Historical Society Newsletter. Vol. 19, No. 4 (Apr. 1988).
  • [1787] Schreiner-Yantis, Netti and Florene Speakman Love. The 1787 Census of Virginia: An Accounting of the Name of Every White Male Tithable Over 21 Years, the Number of White Males Between 16 & 21 Years, the Number of Slaves over 16 & Those Under 16 Years, Together with a Listing of Their Horses, Cattle & Carriages, and Also the Names of All Persons to Whom Ordinary Licenses and Physician's Licenses Were Issued. 3 vols. Springfield, Va.: Genealogical Books in Print, 1987. FHL Collection [The source of this publication is the 1787 personal property tax list. Orange County is included in Vol. 2.]
  • [1790] Indexed images of the 1790 Personal Property Tax List of Orange County, Virginia are available online, courtesy: Binns Genealogy.
  • [1800] Tax List, 1800, Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 47, No. 3 (2003); Vol. 47, No. 4 (Oct. 2003); Vol. 48, No. 1 (Jan. 2004). FHL Collection
  • [1800] Images of the 1800 Personal Property Tax List of Orange County, Virginia  are available to browse online, courtesy: Binns Genealogy.
  • [1810] Schreiner-Yates, Netti. A Supplement to the 1810 Census of Virginia: Tax Lists of the Counties for which the Census is Missing. Springfield, Va.: Genealogical Books in Print, 1971. FHL Collection [The source for this publication is the 1810 personal property tax list. Orange County is included because the 1810 Census for that county has been destroyed.]
  • [1810] Personal Property Tax 1810, Genealogical Forum of Portland Oregon Bulletin, Vol. 15, No. 8 (Apr. 1966).
  • [1815] Ward, Roger D. 1815 Directory of Virginia Landowners (and Gazetteer). 6 vols. Athens, Georgia: Iberian Pub. Co., 1997-2000. FHL Collection [The source for this publication is 1815 land tax. Orange County is included in Vol. 4.]

Vital Records

Indexes to Orange County, Virginia Genealogy births, marriages, and deaths are available online. These collections are incomplete, but are easy to search. Most records can also be ordered electronically online as well. Courtesy: FamilySearch - free. See also How to order Virginia Vital Records

  • King, George H.S. "Some Orange County Virginia Birth Records," [1750s-1770s] The William and Mary Quarterly, Second Series, Vol. 22, No. 3 (Jul., 1942), p. 317. Available at JSTOR ($). [Found at the back of Orange County, Virginia Deed Book 17; King may have omitted births of black children.]
  • Boogher, William F. Gleanings of Virginia History: An Historical and Genealogical Collection, Largely from Original Sources. Washington: n.p., 1903. FHL Collection; digital version at Google Books. [Includes a chapter titled "Early Marriages, Orange County, Virginia, 1770-1800," see p. 383.]
  • Fisher, Therese A. Marriage Records of the City of Fredericksburg, and of Orange, Spotsylvania, and Stafford Counties, Virginia 1722-1850. Bowie, Maryland: Heritage Books, 1990. FHL Collection
  • Grinnan, A.G. "Some of the Early Marriage Licenses of Orange County," The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 1 (Jul., 1895), pp. 59-61. Available at JSTOR ($).
  • Knorr, Catherine L. Marriages of Orange County, Virginia, 1747-1810. Pine Bluff, Arkansas: C.L. Knorr, 1959.
  • Scott, W.W. "A List of Marriages Recorded in the Back Part of Deed-Book No. 17, Orange County," [1770s-1810] The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 26, No. 2 (Apr., 1918), pp. 190-200; Vol. 26, No. 3 (Jul., 1918), pp. 297-302; Vol. 26, No. 4 (Oct., 1918), pp. 401-404; Vol. 27, No. 1 (Jan., 1919), p. 68; Vol. 27, No. 3/4 (Jul. - Oct., 1919), pp. 345-348; Vol. 28, No. 2 (Apr., 1920), pp. 152-160; Vol. 28, No. 3 (Jul., 1920), pp. 256-265; Vol. 28, No. 4 (Oct., 1920), p. 360. Available at JSTOR ($). Alternative titles: "A List of Marriages in Orange County," "List of Marriages in Orange County," and "Orange County Marriages."
Vital Record Substitutes

The Virginia Historical Society's Marriage and Obituary Index, 1736-1820 (newspaper abstracts) is available for free online. Images of the original index cards are browseable, arranged alphabetically by surname.

Societies and Libraries


  • The Orange County Historical Society
    130 Caroline Street
    Orange, Virginia 22960-1533
    Phone: (540) 672-5366


Learning How to Edit our Wiki Sites

Hands on keyboard.png Genealogy courses: Learn how to research from an expert in Fun Five Minute Genealogy Videos.


  1. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Orange County, Virginia. Page 718 At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002.
  2. The Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America,10th ed. (Draper, UT:Everton Publishers, 2002).
  3. 3.0 3.1 Robert Baylor Semple and George William Beale, A History of the Rise and Progress of the Baptists in Virginia (Pitt and Dickinson, 1894), 186, 229-230. Digital version at Google Books.
  4. Freddie Spradlin, "Parishes of Virginia," VAGenWeb, accessed 20 Dec 2010.
  5. Jay Worrall, The Friendly Virginians: America's First Quakers (Athens, Ga.: Iberian Publishing Company, 1994), 537-539. FHL Book 975.5 K2wj.
  6. Mary Marshall Brewer, Quaker Records of Cedar Creek Monthly Meeting, Virginia, 1739-1793 (Lewes, De.: Colonial Roots, 2002), Introduction. FHL Book 975.5462 K2b.
  7. "A Brief History of Orange County, Virginia," The Orange County Historical Society, accessed 13 June 2011.
  8. Stuart Lee Butler, A Guide to Virginia Militia Units in the War of 1812 (Athens, Ga.: Iberian Pub. Co., 1988), 165. FHL Book 975.5 M2bs.
  9. Michael P. Musick, 6th Virginia Cavalry (Lynchburg, Va.: H.E. Howard, c1990). FHL Book 975.5 M2vr v. 66.
  10. David F. Riggs, 13th Virginia Infantry (Lynchburg, Va.: H.E. Howard, 1988). FHL Book 975.5 M2vr v. 49.