Ohio Census

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United States > Ohio > Ohio Census


Federal Census

  • 1800 Census--Lists of territorial residents in 1800 also exist for Washington County.
  • 1810 Census--Returns for the 1810 were almost entirely destroyed. All that remains of the 1810 census are the returns for Washington County. See Burned Counties Research for tips.
  • 1820-1930 Census--The Family History Library has the U.S. Federal censuses of Ohio for 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1900, 1910, 1920, and 1930.
  • 1870 United States Census---A free internet index and images can be viewed on FamilySearch Record Pilot site. This index includes the full name, age, sex, race, birthplace, occupation, month if born in census year, month if married in census year, birth place of father and mother, if born in a foreign country.
  • 1890 Census--Returns for the 1890 were almost entirely destroyed. All that remains of the 1890 census are military schedules listing widows and pensioners from the Civil War. See Burned Counties Research for tips.

Census Substitute--Some early tax records have been compiled and indexed to substitute for the early censuses. [1]

Historical Background


Ancestry--All federal census years available for Ohio are indexed on Ancestry.

State Wide Indexes

Statewide indexes for the 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, and 1880 censuses are available in book format. Soundex (phonetic) indexes are on microfilm for the 1880, 1900, 1910, and 1920 censuses. Be aware that the 1880 soundex index is incomplete and includes only those families with children born between 1870 and 1880. Either check the 1880 index in book format or search the actual census for the place where your ancestors lived.

When indexes are not available or a name is omitted from an index you can still look for the name in the census. To find a person who lived in a large city, it helps to first find his or her address in the city directory for the same year as the census (see Ohio Directories). Then look for that address on the original census schedules.

The following reference tools help determine which census schedule microfilm and enumeration district to search for specific addresses:

  • A Handy Guide to Record- Searching in the Larger Cities of the United States [2]Includes ward maps and street indexes for Cincinnati, 1850 to 1855.

Census Descriptions of Geographic Subdivisions and Enumerations Districts.

1830 Family History Library [3]
1840 Family History Library [4]
1850 Family History Library [5]
1860 Family History Library [6]
1870 Family History Library [7]
1880 Family History Library [8]
1900 Family History Library [9]
1910 Family History Library [10]
1920 Family History Library [11]
1930 Family History Library [12]

  • United States. Bureau of the Census. Cross Index to Selected City Streets and Enumeration Districts, 1910 Census [13] Often referred to as the 39 Cities Index, it lists street addresses with corresponding census enumeration districts for Canton, Cleveland, Dayton, and Youngstown.

Special Censuses

Mortality Schedules

Mortality schedules (lists of deaths in the year preceding the census) exist for the years 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880. The 1850 schedule includes only counties beginning alphabetically with Hamilton through Wyandot. The 1860 schedule includes all counties, the 1870 includes only Seneca County, and the 1880 includes the counties Adams through Geauga. These records are available at the State Library of Ohio and at the Family History Library. Some have been indexed. For online mortality schedules see: Mortality Schedules 1850-1880

1850 United States Census Mortality Schedules—A free Internet index and images to the 1850 United States Census Mortality Schedules can be viewed on the FamilySearch Record Search - Pilot Site. Mortality schedules provided nationwide death statistics for the twelve months prior to the 1850 census.  Key genealogical facts found on the 1850 mortality schedule are: Name, age, sex, color, married or widowed, birthplace, month of death, occupation, cause of death.

Territorial Censuses

Web Sites


  1. Jackson, Ronald Vern, ed. Early Ohio Census Records. Second Edition. Bountiful, Utah: Accelerated Indexing Systems, 1974. (Family History Library book 977.1 X2p.)
  2. Kirkham, E. Kay. A Handy Guide to Record- Searching in the Larger Cities of the United States. Logan, Utah: Everton, 1974. (Family History Library book 973 D27kc; fiche 6010059-60.)
  3. film 1402857 item 1
  4. film 1402857 item 2
  5. film 1402858 item 1
  6. film 1402858 item 2
  7. film 1402859
  8. film 1402862
  9. film 1303025
  10. film 1374009
  11. film 1842715
  12. film 2261295-6
  13. (on 51 Family History Library fiche 6331481.)