Difference between revisions of "Norway Glossary"

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Revision as of 19:33, 21 March 2013


Alen 2 fot = 24 tommer = .63 meter
Auksjonsskjøte A deed of conveyannce by the auction agent (sorenskriveren) to the new owner by official auction.
Benefisert gods Land which the official has income from
Bondegods Land which the farmers owned
Bondelensmannen Lowest level in the local administration
Bruk, gårdsbrukc Farm or a part of a farm which is usually inhabited by a family
Bruksdeling Division of a farm into several parts (bruk)
Bubeite Grazing land for cattle in the forest
Bumerke A sign or figure used as signature or carved on the house and tools. The use of this dwindled as people learned to write.
A sawmill that from 1688-1818 could only be used for the local market
Bygdeting The lowest court in the country where from the 1600s the district judge (sorenskriver) presided. He was assisted by several magistrates (lagrettesmenn).
Bygsel Rental of land. The tenant farmer or lease-holder paid rent to the right to lease the land.
Bygselrett The authority to rent land to a tenant farmer. When the farm had several owners the owner of the largest part had the authority for the entire farm.
Byttestreng Boundary
Daler See riksdaler, riksbankdaler, speciedaler and skylddaler
Degn Deacon. In older usage the title of the parish clerk (klokker or kirkesanger) .
Endestav The corner marker of the boundary of a farm
Engelsk Measure of debt. The term came originally from the English mint sterling. 1 hud = 12 engelsk. Earlier there could be 18 or 20 engelsk in 1 hud. 1 engelsk equaled 1 calf skin.
Favn 3 alen = 6 fot = 1.88 meters.
Festebrev or Bygselbrev A document issued by the landowner, which regulated the contract between the owner and the renter of real estate.
Flomsag A sawmill which could only be used in times of high water
Fogd or fut Originally the bailiff’s servant who administered for him. The most important task was to demand the taxes. The Fogd acted also as the grand jury in punishment cases. In the 1600’s the fogd was directly responsible to the royal rule in Copenhagen. At the same time his responsibilities were lessened.
Folkevandringstida About 400-600 A.D.
Follaug An agreement that the previous owners would be provided for in exchange for the farm. It was most used when the parents were passing the farm to their children similar to a life estate.
Fot ½ alen = 12 tommer = 0.31 meter
Fullgard A farm which paid full tax. It is a taxation term from the middle ages and the 1600’s.
Føderåd The same as Follaug
Førstebygsel Rent paid at the time of renting a farm.
Geitskinn A measure of debt equal to 3 engelsk
Giftingsgods Land which was obtained through marriage
Gotisk skrift Gothic Script was the handwriting which was used in Norway from the 1200’s to the last of the nineteenth century.
Gård The entity which was designated with a name. From the 1800’s it was also designated with a farm number. One farm could be subdivided into several parcels called bruk.
Halvgård A farm which paid ½ of the full tax.
Hud A measure of debt which was used until 1838, but sometimes longer. 1 hud = 4 geitskinn = 12 engelsk. Originally used for payment of land taxes.
Husmann A person who lived on land without a farm number. Could often use a parcel of land by paying the landowner.
Husmannsplass The designation of the parcel of land where the husmann lived.
Inderst A person who rented a room from others and had his own household.
Kakkelovn From the 1700’s a somewhat misused term for an iron stove. Actually it is a heating stove lined with tile.
Kalemank Wool, often used to make vests and trousers.
Kirkegods Land which was reserved for the clergy or which was owned by local or central religious institutions.
Kirkeverger A couple of farmers in each parish which should control or supervise the local church estate.
Kledning Usual description of a man’s clothing consisting of trousers, undershirt, and tunic.
Koppskatt Person tax.
Krongods Land which belonged to the crown or state.
Kvern A machine which would mill grain often called a bekkekvern (brook mill). A water wheel was used to turn the mill. If the brook was suitable 3 or 4 mills could be built. There were also smaller hand mills.
Lagmann Judge at the high court which was an appeals court over the local court.
Lagrettemenn Farmer who after taking an oath could function as judges or witnesses.
Landskyld Yearly rent which the renter paid to the land owner.
Ledstø A stone boundary marker between to outer markers
Legd A group of farms which together were responsible for a portion of the community obligations such as taxes, providing soldiers, or taking care of the poor.
Leidang A sea military defense ordinance in Viking times. Later it was made an annual tax.
Leiermål Unlawful and punishable sexual union outside of marriage
Leilending The person who rented land from the land owner
Lensmannen Lowest level official in the local administration
Lensmann/lensherre Nobleman who had received a district from the king
Løpenummer The number given to a parcel of a farm. See more under Matrikkel.
Makeskifte Trade of one residence with another residence
Manntall record of grown men. The oldest is from the 1660’s. Can also be used as a record of those who owe taxes.
Mark As a coin = 1 ort whose weight is about 250 grams
Markegang Boundary line
Matrikkel Official register of real estate used as the foundation for taxation. In the first part of the 1600’s the farms were divided into full farms, half farms, and uninhabited farms and taxed accordingly. In the 1600’s the matrikkel commissions attempted to register all the property in Norway and to justify the tax burden for them. This resulted in the matrikkelen of 1688. Then they used the old terms of hud, geitskinn, og engelsk. This was the official matrikkelen until 1838 although there was a new matrikkel in 1723 which was never used. In 1818 work was started on a new matrikkelen which was put into effect in 1838. Each farm received a new number and each parcel (bruk) received a sub-number (løpenummer). These sub-numbers were a continuous number series for the entire registration as the farms were divided in 1820. With further divisions the numbers were followed by a letter of the alphabet, for example, 279a, 279b, etc. It was a difficult process because so many farms were continuously subdivided or the two parcels were once again united. In 1838 the debt was categorized as skylddaler = 5 ort = 120 schillings. In the 1860’s work was begun on a new matrikkel. Each farm received, once again, a new number and limitless bruksnummer beginning with 1. At the same time the debt values were used as 1 skyldmark = 100 øre. A revised version of this matrikkelen was instituted in 1906. Printed copies of the matrikkelen of 1838, 1889 and 1906 are available. They show the farm and the bruk name, owner, or tenant and the tax value.
Matrikkelnummer The number assigned to identify property for taxation purposes.
Odelsgods Property which someone has right to by inheritance. It is also used on all privately owned property except privileged noble estates.
Odelsskatt Tax on private property paid by a certain part of the property tax based on the amount of land which they didn’t used themselves. This term is a bit misleading because this tax was not only paid on private property, but also on purchased and mortgaged property.
Oppgivelsesskifte A probate held before the property was turned over to heirs when receiving a life estate. Also for the one which probated is deceased.
Ort as money 1 ort = 24 skilling. Also used as a measure of debt.
Overhoffretten The highest court in Norwayfrom 1666-1797.
Pantegods Property which is mortgaged. From the beginning of the 1700’s the mortgage holder had the right to all the properties income. He must also pay taxes on this income. In the 1700’s the mortgage holder collected yearly interest while the mortgagee kept the right of disposition of the property.
Plass see Husmannsplass
Prestegods The property which supported the priest and which he had income from as part of his salary.
Prestemanntall Count or census of the priests
Riksbankdaler Main currency in Norway 1813-1816. 1 riksbankdaler = 6 mark = 96 riksbankskilling. At that time a very large amount of riksbankdaler were issued such that the value of them quickly decreased.
Riksdaler main currency in Norway 1544-1813. From 1625 1 rikdaler = 4 ort = 96 skilling.
Rulle A record of soldiers
Sagskjærer Sawmill worker who cut with a handsaw
Sakefall Term for both fines and property confiscation of a condemned person which was paid to the authorities in the 1600’s.
Salig Often used to designate a deceased person
Selveier A farmer which owned his own land in contrast to one who rented land.
Skilling Currency like 1/96 of a daler until 1816, later 1/120 speciedaler.
Skinn Calf skin. In about 1200 each farm paid the tax of one calf skin. In 1661 this tax was combined with Biskops- and Olavstax and then was revised to be assessed by the size of the farm so that the tax value varied between 1 and 3 skins per farm.
Skipreide Administrative unit originally tied to leidangsvesenet. In the middle ages it was revised to be a district which paid rent to the crown. Later used as designation of jurisdiction, see tinglag
Skoskatt Personal tax in 1711 of all who had shoes
Skyld/Landskyld Yearly rent the lessee should pay to the landowner. In older times it was at the same time a set measurement for the property at purchase, sale, or probate. From the 1600’s the tax was aligned with the debt. All independent farms were taxed, whether it was rented or self-owned.
Skylddaler 1 skylddaler = 5 ort = 120 skilling
Skylddeling Division of the debt when a farm was subdivided
Skyssplikt the farmers had the obligation to take care of the horse and horseman for travelers
Skysskaffer Person who had the assignment to obtain a horse and horseman for travelers
Sorenskriver The office of sorenskriver was created by royal proclamation 31 July 1591. The sorenskriver was to be the secretary of the local court. But by the early 1600’s he had progressed to be the judge at the local court and after a time he became the sole judge. He also had obligations as a probate manager, auction manager, court attendant, notary public, etc.
Speciedaler Main currency in Norway 1816-1875. 1 speciedaler = 5 ort = 120 skilling. With the switch to the crown (krone) in 1875 a speciedaler was to equal 4 crowns.
Stervbo The deceased’s dwelling (from the german “sterben”)
Strandsitter Husmann who lived on the seacoast
Tiende Originally a payment to the church of 1/10 of increase. In the 1600’s it was paid annually
Tinglag Area of court jurisdiction for a local court.
Tredjeårstake Lease payment which was due every three years
Utskiftning Dissolution and redistribution of the several parcels of land making up the farm to make it more evenly distributed
Utskyld Yearly payment to the crown in the southwest of Norway. Probably it was originally a duty of the farms along a road to support the king before the unification of Norway
Vikingtida About 800-1000 years after Christ
Ødegård From the late 1500’s this was also a classification of a farm for tax purposes and was used for all farms in the lowest classification. 1 ødegård = a quarter farm.
Øre After 1889 taxes owed, 100 øre = 1 skyldmark
Åmage It was usual when one wanted to preserve the inheritance in property but did not have the economic ability to pay by a certain time that they announced their rights to the land in the court to retain their inheritance.
Årgangssag Sawmill which had a large enough water supply to operate throughout the year.
Åsetesrett Right to take over an undivided landed property.