New York Orphans and Orphanages
In the late 1800s and early 1900s, New York had many orphans, particularly in New York City. "Orphan Train" riders were sent from New York City to western families for adoption. The largest groups came from the New York Foundling Hospital, and from the Children's Aid Society. The following books abstract several censuses taken by the federal and state government at these institutions.
Inskeep, Carolee R. The Children's Aid Society of New York: An Index to the Federal, State, and Local Census Records of Its Lodging Houses (1855–1925). Baltimore, Maryland: Clearfield, 1996. (Family History Library book 974.71 J3i.) Includes 1855, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1890 (police census), 1900, 1905, 1910, 1915, 1920, and 1925 censuses.
Inskeep, Carolee R. The New York Foundling Hospital: An Index to Its Federal, State and Local Census Records (1870–1925). Baltimore, Maryland: Clearfield, 1995. (Family History Library book 974.71 J3in.) Includes 1870, 1880, 1890 (police census), 1900, 1905, 1910, 1915, 1920, and 1925 censuses. Alphabetical list of children, sisters, and workers.
http://www.kancoll.org/articles/orphans/or_child.htm Index of children who rode the trains to Kansas.