New Mexico Census

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Portal:United States Census >New Mexico


1850-1930--The Family History Library has the U.S. federal censuses for New Mexico.

1885--Special 1885 territorial census.

1890--Census was destroyed, but the 1890 Union veterans schedule and index are available at the National Archives and at the Family History Library.

Historical Background

1598--San Juan was founded as the first permanent Spanish colony in New Mexico.  The capital was established at Santa Fe in 1610.

1706--Albuquerque was founded and became a center of settlement.

1821--When Mexico achieved independence from Spain, New Mexico became a Mexican province, and trade with the United States was opened over the Santa Fe Trail.

1848--Mexico ceded New Mexico to the United States.  The Santa Fe Trail soon became a favorite route of those heading to the California gold fields.

1850-1863--Congress created the New Mexico Territory in 1850 and the first counties were established.  The territory was enlarged somewhat with the Gadsden Purchase from Mexico in 1853, but greatly reduced by the creation of Colorado Territory in 1861 and Arizona Territory in 1863.

1912--New Mexico became a state.


Book Indexes

1850, 1860, 1910--The Family History Library has state-wide indexes for the censuses in book format.


1880, 1900, 1920-- Soundex (phonetic) indexes are available on microfilm.

Special Censuses

Colonial Censuses

Spanish and Mexican Colonial Censuses

Spanish and Mexican colonial censuses exist for 1750, 1790, 1802, 1816, 1822, 1823, 1826, 1827, 1830 and 1845. The colonial censuses include the wife's maiden name. These censuses are incomplete and do not include all families in New Mexico.

The colonial censuses are available at the New Mexico Records Center and Archives, the University of New Mexico Library, and the Family History Library. They have been transcribed and indexed in:

Olmsted, Virginia L. Spanish and Mexican Colonial Censuses of New Mexico: 1790, 1823, 1845. Albuquerque, New Mexico: New Mexico Genealogical Society, 1975. (FHL book 978.9 X2o.)

Olmsted, Virginia L. Spanish and Mexican Censuses of New Mexico: 1750-1830. Albuquerque, New Mexico: New Mexico Genealogical Society, 1981. (FHL book 978.9 X2ov 1750-1830.)

Mortality Schedules

1850, 1860, 1870--The New Mexico State Historical Society in Santa Fe has mortality schedules. These records are not at the Family History Library.

Web Sites


Heritage Quest Online:

Census Online:

Genealogy Today:

Access Genealogy:

National Archives:

Historical Society of New Mexico:

University of New Mexico Libraries:

Bibliographic Citations

New Mexico Research Outline. Salt Lake City, Utah: Intellectual Reserve, Inc., Family History Department, 1998, 2001.