Difference between revisions of "Netherlands Languages"

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[[The Netherlands|Netherlands Homepage]] <br>Netherlands Language and Languages Most materials used in Dutch research are written in Dutch, but actually two languages are spoken in the Netherlands; in the province of Fryslân (Friesland) the Frisian language (not a dialect!) is spoken. You do not need to speak or read Dutch to do research in records of the Netherlands. However, you will need to know some key words and phrases to understand the records.
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== Netherlands Languages  ==
''See the 3 FamilySearch Tutorials on ''[https://www.familysearch.org/learningcenter/results.html?fq=place%3A%22Netherlands%22 ''"Reading Dutch Written Records"&nbsp;'']  
This list summarizes what languages are used in different records. For word lists and help with using Dutch in genealogical records, see [[Dutch Genealogical Word List]]
Because of the presence of several different religions, including Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Walloon (French Reformed) and Portuguese Jewish, you will find several other languages in Dutch records. These include Latin, German, French, and Portuguese.
Click on the languages for a Word List:
Dutch grammar and customs may affect the way names appear in genealogical records. For example, your ancestor’s name may vary between records in Dutch. For help in understanding name variations, see [[Netherlands Names, Personal]].&nbsp; Dutch also exhibits a tremendous amount of variation in its spelling.&nbsp; Click here to see an article on [https://www.familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Spelling_Variations_in_Dutch_Documents Spelling Variations in Dutch Documents].
'''[[Dutch Genealogical Word List|Dutch]]''': Used in Dutch Reformed Church records and [[Netherlands Civil Registration|Civil Registration]] after 1813. Used for any other government records. In most of the country except Frisian it was the commonly spoken  language. <br>'''Frisian''': This was the commonly spoken language in the province of Friesland and some neighbouring areas. Some records in those areas will use Frisian but often Dutch will still be used. <br>'''[[Latin Genealogical Word List|Latin]]''': Used in Catholic Church records <br>'''[[German Genealogical Word List|German]]''': Used in Lutheran Church records <br>'''[[French Genealogical Word List|French]]''': Used in Wallonia Reformed Church records, and in pre-1813 Civil Registration <br>'''[[Portuguese Genealogical Word List|Portuguese]]''': Used in some Sephardi Jewish records
=== Language Aids ===
For word lists and the basic grammar needed for genealogical research using documents of these languages, click on the links for each language, which will bring a page on the wiki devoted to that language.  
On the following Internet address [http://gtb.inl.nl/ Integrated Language Bank] you can find: a modern Dutch dictionary, old, early Middle Ages and later Middle Ages Dutch dictionaries and a Frisian dictionary.
The Family History Library has genealogical word lists for Dutch, [[French Wordlist|French]], [[German Word List|German]], [[Latin Genealogical Word List|Latin]], and [[Portuguese Genealogical Word List|Portuguese]]. The Dutch Word list is found below at the end of this section.
The [[Image:German Gothic Handwriting Guide.pdf|Gothic Handwriting Guide]]includes an example of the German (Gothic) alphabet in print and handwriting. Also go to [[Germany Handwriting]].
''See the 3 FamilySearch Tutorials on ''[https://www.familysearch.org/learningcenter/results.html?fq=place%3A%22Netherlands%22 ''"Reading Dutch Written Records"&nbsp;'']
The following books and English–Dutch dictionaries can also aid your research. You can find these and similar material at many research libraries.
''Cassell’s English–Dutch Dutch–English Dictionary.'' 36th ed. New York: Macmillan, 1981. (FHL book 439.31321 Ca272.)
Stierp–Impink, A. C. ''Practisijns Woordenboekje, of Verzameling van Meest alle de Woorden in de Rechtskunde Gebruikelijk (Lawyer’s Dictionary, or List of Most Words Used in Legal Documents).'' Alkmaar: A. C. Stierp–Impink, 1985. (FHL book 949.2 P26s.) This legal dictionary, originally created in 1785, identifies words found in court, land, notarial, and guardianship records.
Verdam, J. ''Middelnederlandsch Handwoordenboek (Middle Dutch Dictionary).'' ’s-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff, 1964. (FHL book 439.317 V582m; film 1045404 item 2.) This dictionary will help with most archaic words found in documents before 1811.
Additional language aids, including dictionaries of various dialects and time periods, are listed in the Place search of the Family History Library Catalog under:
or in the "Subject Search" under:
=== Dutch Word List  ===
This list contains Dutch words with their English translations. The words included here are those that you are likely to find in genealogical sources. If the word you are looking for is not on this list, please consult a Dutch-English dictionary. (See the "Additional Resources" section below.)
Dutch (like English and German), is a Germanic language derived from Old Low Franconian and Old Saxon. Many of the words resemble English and German words. Latin also sometimes appears in older Dutch records. See the [[Latin Genealogical Word List]] . For a time, Dutch records were written in French. See the [[France Language and Languages|France Language and Languages]].
Dutch is spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium, the Netherlands Antilles in the Caribbean, and Suriname. Flemish, which is spoken in Belgium, is a major dialect (regional variation) of Dutch. It uses words similar to the words on this list. Afrikaans, a separate language spoken in South Africa, is descended&nbsp; from Dutch and preserves many older and dialect features of Dutch, but contains many German and English words as well . <br>Frisian, which is spoken in the Dutch province of Friesland, is a different language from Dutch. <br>The "Additional Resources" section below will tell you how to use the Family History Library Catalog to find dictionaries of the various dialects and related languages.
In addition, Dutch is found in some early records of the United States (mostly in New York, New Jersey, Michigan, and Iowa) and in South Africa, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Brasil and Taiwan.
Dutch, along with German, English, Frisian, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, and Afrikaans, is a Germanic language. It is very closely related to the dialects of northern Germany known as [https://www.familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Low_German_Language_in_German_Research Low German].&nbsp; Indeed, the traditional dialects along the Dutch-German border are virtually the same.&nbsp; You may want to read about the linguistic situation in the [https://www.familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Languages_in_the_Lower_Rhine_Area_of_Germany lower Rhine ]area or about [https://www.familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Spelling_Variants_in_the_Northern_Rheinland spelling variations] there.
Dutch words for nouns (persons, places, and things) are classified as either common or neuter.
[https://www.familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Spelling_Variations_in_Dutch_Documents '''Variant Forms of Words''']
In Dutch, as in English, the forms of some words will vary according to how they are used in a sentence. Who—whose—whom, or marry—marries—married are examples of words in English with variant forms. This word list gives the standard form of each Dutch word. As you read Dutch records, you will need to be aware that some words vary with usage.
The prefix '''t''is equal to the Dutch word ''het'', which means the. The prefix'''''<i>s</i>- is a part of many place-names and means ''des ''(of the). All prefixes are disregarded in alphabetized lists, except in Flemish records.
The endings of words in a document may differ from what you find in this list. For example, the document may use the word ''jonger'', but you will find it in this word list as ''jong''. In addition, the suffixes ''-je, -tje,-tien'', or -''ke ''are often added to words to indicate "little." These suffixes can also indicate the feminine version of a name. Therefore, the word ''zoontje ''means "little" or "young (tje) son (zoon)." The ending -''sdr ''means "daughter of."
Plural forms of Dutch words usually add -''en ''or -''s ''to the singular word. Thus ''boer'' (farmer) becomes ''boeren'' (farmers), and ''tafel'' (table or index) becomes ''tafels'' (tables or indexes).
In Dutch, many words are formed by joining two or more words. Very few of these compound words are included in this list. You will need to look up each part of the word separately. For example, ''geboortedag'' is a combination of two words, ''geboorte ''(birth) and ''dag'' (day).
'''Alphabetical Order'''
In the Dutch language, the letter combination ij is considered a single letter. It has the same value as y, and it is usually alphabetized as if it were a y. Some Dutch dictionaries and indexes use the following alphabetical order:
a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, ij (or y), z
Some Dutch dictionaries alphabetize the letter ij under i then j. Just remember, when a name or town starts with the letter IJ, that you capitalize BOTH the I and the J. In the Netherlands the IJ or ij is ONE letter, not 2 and seeing that you can hardly split one letter when you capitalize it, you really have to capitalize the whole letter - IJ not Ij!
This word list follows the standard English alphabetical order. However, when working with alphabetized Dutch records, use the Dutch alphabetical order.
When the Dutch alphabetize names of places or surnames, prefixes such as ''van der, de, ''or ''ter ''are not considered in the alphabetization.
ten '''B'''rock
van der '''G'''raf
van '''H'''ijden
de '''J'''ong
van '''L'''eeuwen
ter '''P'''elkwijk
van '''IJ'''lst
't '''Z'''andt
Spelling rules were not standardized in earlier centuries. Writers often failed to dot the ij, so that it looks like a y. The letter y was not used in older records. In Dutch, the following spelling variations are common.
y used for ij
g used for ch
d and t used interchangeably
j and i used interchangeably
echt spelled as egt
overlijden spelled as overlyden
Arie spelled as Arij
Marietje spelled as Marietie
This word list includes only the words most commonly found in genealogical sources. For further help, use a Dutch-English dictionary. Several Dutch-English dictionaries are available at the Family History Library. These are in the European collection. Their call numbers begin with 439.31321.
The following dictionary is available on microfilm for use in Family History Centers:
''Dutch-English, English-Dutch Van Goor Dictionary''. 's-Gravenhage: G. B. Van Goor, 1938. (FHL film 1183584 item 2.)
Additional dictionaries are listed in the Subject search of the Family History Library Catalog under DUTCH LANGUAGE - DICTIONARIES or in the Place search under NETHERLANDS - LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGES. These include dictionaries of various dialects and time periods.
=== KEY WORDS  ===
To find and use specific types of Dutch records, you will need to know some key words in Dutch. This section lists key genealogical terms in English and the Dutch words with the same or similar meanings.
For example, in the first column you will find the English word marriage. In the second column you will find Dutch words with meanings such as marry, marriage, wedding, wedlock, unite, legitimate, joined, and other words used in Dutch records to indicate marriage.
{| class="plain FCK__ShowTableBorders"
| '''English'''
| '''Dutch'''
| baptism
| dopen, doop, gedoopt
| birth
| geboren, geboorte
| burial
| begraven, begraaf
| Catholic
| rooms katholiek, oud katholiek
| census
| volkstelling, bevolking
| child, children
| kind, kinderen
| christening (see baptism)
| <br>
| civil registry
| burgerlijke stand
| death
| overleden, overlijden, gestorven
| father
| vader
| husband
| echtgenoot, man
| index
| tafel, klapper, fiche
| Jewish
| joods
| marriage(s)
| huwelijk(en), trouwen, echt, gehuwden, getrouwd
| military
| militaire, landweer, krijgsmacht
| month
| maand
| mother
| moeder
| name, given
| voornaam, eerste naam
| name, surname
| achternaam, familienaam, bijnaam, toenaam
| parents
| ouders
| parish
| parochie, gemeente
| Protestant
| protestant
| supplement
| bijlage
| town, village
| stad, gemeente, dorp
| wife
| huisvrouw, vrouw, echtgenote
| year
| jaar
=== NUMBERS  ===
In some genealogical records, numbers are written out. This is especially true with dates. The following list gives the cardinal (1, 2, 3) and the ordinal (1st, 2nd, 3rd) versions of each number. Days of the month are written in ordinal form.
Cardinal   Ordinal
1 een 1st eerste
2 twee 2nd tweede
3 drie 3rd derde
4 vier 4th vierde
5 vijf 5th vijfde
6 zes 6th zesde
7 zeven 7th zevende
8 acht 8th achtste
9 negen 9th negende
10 tien 10th tiende
11 elf 11th elfde
12 twaalf 12th twaalfde
13 dertien 13th dertiende
14 veertien 14th veertiende
15 vijftien 15th vijftiende
16 zestien 16th zestiende
17 zeventien 17th zeventiende
18 achttien 18th achttiende
19 negentie 19th negentiende
20 twintig 20th twintigste
21 eenentwintig 21st eenentwintigste
22 tweeëntwintig 22th tweeëntwintigste
23 drieentwintig 23th drieentwintigste
24 vierentwintig 24th vierentwintigste
25 vijfentwintig 25th vijfentwintigste
26 zesentwintig 26th zesentwintigste
27 zevenentwintig 27th zevenentwintigste
28 achtentwintig 28th achtentwintigste
29 negenentwintig 29th negenentwintigste
30 dertig 30th dertigste
31 eenendertig 31th eenendertigste
40 veertig 40th veertigste
50 vijftig 50th vijftigste
60 zestig 60th zestigste
70 zeventig 70th zevenstigte
80 tachtig 80th tachtigste
90 negentig 90th negentigste
100 honderd 100th honderdste
101 honderd(en)een 101st honderd(en)eerste
200 tweehonderd 200th tweehonderdste
1000 duizend 1000th duizendste
=== <br>DATES AND TIME  ===
In Dutch records, dates are often written out. For example:
Donderdag, drie en twintig maart in het jaar van onse heer een duizend acht hondert en zesendertig [Thursday, three and twenty March in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and six and thirty].
To understand Dutch dates, use the following lists as well as the preceding "Numbers" section.
'''English''' '''Dutch'''         '''Archaic Form'''
January Januari   louwmaand
February Februari   sprokkelmaand
March         Maart           lentemaand
April         April            grasmaand
May         Mei           bloeimaand
June         Juni           zomermaand
July         Juli           hooimaand
August         Augustus   oogstmaand
September September (7ber)  herfstmaand
October October (8ber)   wijnmaand
November November (9ber)  slachtmaand
December December (10ber)  wintermaand
<br>'''Days of the Week'''
'''English''' '''Dutch'''
  Sunday Zondag
Monday Maandag
Tuesday Dinsdag
Wednesday Woensdag
Thursday Donderdag
Friday Vrijdag
Saturday Zaterdag
<br>'''Times of the Day'''
Dutch birth and death records often indicated the time of day when the birth or death occurred. This is usually written out.
    '''Dutch'''                      '''English'''
des avonds ('s avonds)     in the evening
des middags ('s middags)        in the afternoon
des morgens ('s morgens)        in the morning
des nachts ('s nachts)     in the night
in de namiddag             in the mid-afternoon
in de voormiddag             in the mid-morning
=== Alphabetical  ===
==== A  ====
*'''aan''' - upon, to
*'''aangenomen naam - '''named, alias, also known as, assumed name, accepted surname
*'''afwezig''' - absent<br>
*'''angiften - '''intentions (marriage), declarations
*'''aannemen''' to adopt (a child), to assume, to take on
*'''aanneming''' confirmation
*'''aannemingsdag''' day of confirmation
*'''aanstaande''' next, toward, following, expectant, future, impending
*'''aanval''' stroke, attack
*'''aarde''' earth (buried in), ground
*'''aardrijkskundig woordenboek''' gazetteer
*'''acht''' eight
*'''achtenswaardig''' respectable, honorable
*'''achtentwintig''' twenty-eight
*'''achtentwintigste''' twenty-eighth
*'''achterkleindochter''' great-granddaughter
*'''achterkleinzoon''' great-grandson
*'''achternaam''' surname, last name
*'''achtste''' eighth
*'''achttien''' eighteen
*'''achttiende''' eighteenth
*'''adel''' nobility
*'''adellijk''' noble, titled
*'''aderlating''' bleeding, bloodletting
*'''adresboek''' directory
*'''advocaat''' notary, lawyer
*'''afkondigen''' to post banns
*'''afkondigingen''' proclamations, banns
*'''afschrift(en)''' extract, duplicate record, transcript, certified copy
*'''akte''' certificate, deed, license
*'''alhier''' here, at this place, locally
*'''alle''' all, every
*'''alleen''' alone, single, only
*'''altijd, steeds''' always
*'''ambt''' office, function, post
*'''ambtelijk''' official, professional&nbsp;
*'''ambtenaar''' official, registrar, civil servant, clerk
*'''ander(s)''' other
*'''anders genoemd''' alias, also known as
*'''Apostolisch''' Apostolic
*'''April, april''' April
*'''arbeider''' laborer
*'''archief''' archive
*'''archieven''' archives
*'''Augustus, augustus''' August
*'''avond ('s avonds)''' evening, (in the evening)
*'''Avondmaal''' communion, sacrament
==== B  ====
*'''bad(plaats)''' resort, spa, bath
*'''baker''' dry nurse
*'''bakker''' baker
*'''bedelaar''' beggar
*'''bedrag''' fee, amount (of money)
*'''bedrijf '''trade, business, concern
*'''begraafplaats''' cemetery
*'''begrafenis''' funeral
*'''begraven''' to bury
*'''behoeftigden''' needy, indigent
*'''behoren''' to belong to
*'''beide''' both
*'''bejaard''' aged
*'''bekende''' acquaintance
*'''belasting''' taxation
*'''Belg(isch)''' Belgian
*'''België''' Belgium
*'''bemerking''' remarks
*'''benadering''' approximation
*'''berg''' mountain
*'''beroep''' trade, occupation
*'''beschrijving''' description
*'''beslagnemen''' to seize
*'''besnijdenis''' circumcision
*'''bet-overgrootvader''' second great-grandfather
*'''bet-bet-overgrootvader''' third great-grandfather
*'''betrekking''' in relation to, relatives
*'''betuiging''' declaration, expression
*'''bevolking''' population
*'''bevolkingsregister''' population register
*'''bewaarder''' guardian, warden
*'''bewijs''' certificate, proof
*'''bewijs van overlijden''' proof of death, death certificate
*'''bewijs van trouwen''' proof of marriage, marriage certificate
*'''bidden''' to pray, to request
*'''bijlagen''' supplemental documents
*'''bijna''' almost, nearly
*'''bijnaam''' surname, nickname
*'''bijzit''' mistress, concubine
*'''binnenkant''' inside
*'''biografie''' biography
*'''bisdom''' diocese
*'''bladzijde (blz.)''' page
*'''bloedverwant''' blood relative
*'''bloeimaand''' blossoming month, May
*'''boek''' book
*'''boer''' farmer
*'''boerenarbeider''' cottager, farmhand, worker
*'''boerenknecht''' farm worker
*'''bos''' woods, forest
*'''bosbaas''' forester
*'''bosch''' woods, forest (old&nbsp;spelling of the word)
*'''boswachter''' forester
*'''boven''' above, over, upstairs
*'''braaf '''honest, worthy, good
*'''broeder, broer''' brother
*'''brouwer''' brewer
*'''brug''' bridge
*'''bruid''' bride
*'''bruidegom''' bridegroom
*'''buiten(kant)''' outside
*'''buitenechtelijk''' illegitimate
*'''burgemeester''' mayor
*'''burgelijke administralie''' civil administration
*'''burger''' citizen
*'''burgerboek''' citizenship book
*'''burgerlijke ambtenaar''' civil registrar
*'''burgerlijke stand''' civil registration, civil administration
*'''burgerschap''' citizenship
*'''buurman''' neighbor
*'''buurtschap''' neighborhood<br>
==== C  ====
*'''communicanten''' members, communicants
*'''comparant''' one who appeared
*'''compareerde''' appeared before
*'''confirmatie''' confirmation<br>
==== D  ====
*'''daar(heen)''' there
*'''dag '''day
*'''dag der begravenis '''day of the burial, burial day
*'''dagelijks '''daily
*'''dagloner '''day worker, day laborer
*'''dagteekening '''document date
*'''dal '''valley
*'''dat '''that
*'''datum '''date
*'''de '''the
*'''December, december&nbsp;'''December
*'''deden '''done
*'''deed '''did
*'''deel '''volume, part of
*'''Deen '''Dane
*'''Deens '''Danish
*'''degenen '''those
*'''Denemarken '''Denmark
*'''derde '''third
*'''dertien '''thirteen
*'''dertiende '''thirteenth
*'''dertig '''thirty
*'''dertigste '''thirtieth
*'''des '''of the
*'''dewelke '''of which, the which
*'''deze '''this, these
*'''diarree '''diarrhea
*'''die '''those, that
*'''dienst '''service, employment
*'''dienstbode '''servant
*'''dienstmeisje '''servant girl
*'''dienstsmeid '''maid
*'''dinsdag '''Tuesday
*'''diocees '''diocese
*'''dit '''this
*'''dochter(tje)''' (little) daughter
*'''doen '''to do
*'''dominee '''minister
*'''donderdag '''Thursday
*'''dood '''dead
*'''dood '''geboren stillborn
*'''doodgraver '''sexton, grave digger
*'''doop '''baptism, christening
*'''doopdag '''day of baptism
*'''doopregister '''baptismal register
*'''Doopsgezinde '''Mennonite, Baptist
*'''doopvader '''godfather, baptismal sponsor
*'''door '''through, by
*'''dopen '''to baptize
*'''dorp '''village
*'''drie '''three
*'''drieëntwintig '''twenty-three
*'''drieëntwintigste '''twenty-third
*'''drupped '''gout
*'''duits '''German (language)
*'''duitser '''German (person)
*'''Duitsland '''Germany
*'''duizend '''thousand
*'''duizendste '''thousandth
*'''duplicaat '''duplicate
*'''dysenterie '''dysentery <br>
==== E  ====
*'''echt '''marriage
*'''echtbreker '''adulterer
*'''echtelieden '''spouses
*'''echtgenoot '''husband
*'''echtgenote '''wife
*'''echtgenoten '''husband and wife, spouses
*'''echtscheiding '''divorce
*'''echtverbintenis '''marriage
*'''edel(man) '''noble(man)
*'''een '''a, an, one
*'''eenendertig '''thirty-one
*'''eenendertigste '''thirty-first
*'''eenentwintig '''twenty-one
*'''eenjarig '''annual, yearly
*'''eerder '''before, previously, earlier
*'''eergisteren '''day before yesterday
*'''eerlijk '''honest
*'''<span style="display: none" id="1277776595285S">&nbsp;</span>eerste <span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1277776594859_178" />first'''
*'''eertijds formerly'''
*'''eeuw century'''
*'''ehelieden spouses'''
*'''eigenaar owner, proprietor'''
*'''eigengeërfde yeoman, freeholder'''
*'''eiland, eilant island'''
*'''elf eleven'''
*'''elfde eleventh'''
*'''elk each, every'''
*'''emigrant emigrant'''
*'''emigranten register emigration file'''
*'''emigratie papieren emigration records'''
*'''en and'''
*'''enig only, single'''
*'''erfenis inheritance'''
*'''ervan of it'''
*'''ervoor for it'''
*'''Evangelisch evangelical <br>'''
==== F  ====
*'''fabriek '''factory, mill
*'''familie-geschiedenis''' family history
*'''familieleden '''family members,relatives
*'''familielijst '''family list, group sheet
*'''familienaam '''family name, surname
*'''familiewapen '''familycoat of arms
*'''Februarij, februari'''&nbsp;February
*'''feestdag '''feast day, holiday
*'''fiches '''index cards
*'''florijn '''guilder
*'''Frankrijk '''France
*'''frans '''French
==== G  ====
*'''gangbaar '''current
*'''geboorte '''birth
*'''geboorteakte '''birth certificate
*'''geboortebewijs '''proof of birth,birth certificate
*'''geboorteplaats '''place of birth
*'''geboortetijd '''time of birth
*'''geboortig '''born at, native of
*'''geboren '''born, maiden name, née
*'''gedelegeerden''' delegate, delegates, delegates to<br>
*'''gedoopt '''baptized, christened
*'''geelzucht '''jaundice
*'''geen '''no, none, without
*'''geestelijke '''priest, clergyman
*'''gegeven '''given, gave
*'''gehucht '''hamlet
*'''gehuwd '''married
*'''geld '''money
*'''gelegitimeerd''' legitimized
*'''gelijk '''same, alike, similar
*'''gemeenschap '''community, township
*'''gemeente '''town, municipality, parish
*'''gemeenteraadslid '''councilman, town councilor
*'''genaamd '''named
*'''genaamt '''named
*'''genealogie '''genealogy
*'''genoemden''' named, mentioned
*'''gerechtelijk(e)''' court, judicial
*'''gerechtshof '''judicial court
*'''Gereformeerd(e) '''Calvinist Reformed
*'''gering '''small
*'''gescheiden '''divorced
*'''geschenk '''deed, gift, present
*'''geschiedenis '''history
*'''geslacht '''sex, gender
*'''geslachtsboom '''pedigree, family tree
*'''gestorven '''died
*'''gestorven zonder nageslacht''' died without issue
*'''geteekend '''signed, drew<br>
*'''getranscribeerd''' transcribed
*'''getrouwd '''married
*'''getuigen '''witnesses
*'''gewesen '''former
*'''gezegend '''blessed, the deceased
*'''gezin '''immediate family
*'''gezindheid '''religious affiliation
*'''gezinslijst '''family group sheet
*'''gezwel, gezwollenheid''' swelling, tumor
*'''gezworene '''juryman, person under oath
*'''gisteren '''yesterday
*'''Godsbeschikking '''dispensation, God's will
*'''godsdienst '''religion
*'''goed '''good, right, correct
*'''graaf '''count, earl
*'''graafschap '''county, shire
*'''graf '''grave, tomb
*'''grasmaand '''gras month,April
*'''grens '''border (between countries)
*'''grensgebied '''border, region
*'''groen '''green
*'''groet '''greet, greeting
*'''grondeigenaren '''property owners
*'''groot '''large, big, great
*'''groothandelaar '''trader, merchant
*'''grootmoeder '''grandmother
*'''grootvader '''grandfather
*'''gulden '''guilder (unit of money) <br>
==== H  ====
*'''haar, hare''' hair, her, hers
*'''had(den)''' had
*'''half '''half
*'''halfbroeder '''half brother
*'''halfzuster '''half sister
*'''handel '''trade, occupation
*'''handtekening '''signature
*'''handwerksgezel '''journeyman
*'''hebben '''to have
*'''heden '''today
*'''heel '''all, whole, entire, complete
*'''heer '''master, gentleman, Mr.
*'''Heer '''the Lord
*'''heerschappen '''gentry, lords
*'''hem '''him
*'''hen, hun '''them, their, theirs
*'''herbergier '''innkeeper
*'''herder '''shepherd
*'''herfst '''autumn, fall
*'''herfstmaand '''fall month''', '''September
*'''Hernhutter '''Moravian
*'''hertog '''duke
*'''hertogdom '''duchy
*'''hertogin '''duchess
*'''Hervormd(e) '''Dutch reformed
*'''Hessisch '''Hessian
*'''het '''it, the
*'''heuvel '''hill
*'''hij '''he
*'''hoe '''how
*'''hoer '''harlot, immoral woman
*'''hoesten '''cough
*'''hoger '''upper, higher
*'''hollands '''Dutch
*'''honderd '''hundred
*'''honderdste '''hundredth
*'''hoofdplaats''' capital
*'''hoog '''high
*'''hooimaand '''hay month, July
*'''houtvester '''forester
*'''huidziekte '''measles
*'''huis '''house
*'''huisgezin '''immediate family
*'''huishoudster''' housekeeper
*'''huisland '''home, native country, homeland
*'''huisvrouw '''housewife
*'''huizenkant '''inside, side of a house&nbsp;
*'''hun '''their
*'''huwelijksaangiften '''marriage intention
*'''huwelijk '''marriage
*'''huwelijksaf(aan)-kondigingen''' marriage banns
*'''huwelijksbijlagen '''marriage supplements
*'''huwelijksdag '''day of marriage
*'''huwelijksfeest '''wedding
*'''huwen '''to marry <br>
==== I  ====
*'''immigrant '''immigrant
*'''in '''in
*'''ingekomen '''arrival, immigration
*'''ingezetenen '''citizen, occupants
*'''inhoud '''contents
*'''inwoner '''inhabitant, citizen
*'''is '''is
*'''italiaans '''Italian
*'''Italië '''Italy <br>
==== J  ====
*'''jaar, jaren''' year, years
*'''jaarlijks '''annual, yearly
*'''jager '''hunter
*'''Januarij, januari'''&nbsp;January
*'''j.d. (jonge dochter) '''unmarried daughter
*'''j.g. (jong gezel)''' young man, bachelor
*'''jicht '''gout
*'''j.m. (jonge man)''' young man, bachelor
*'''jong(e) '''young
*'''jongeling '''a youth, unmarried man
*'''jongen '''boy
*'''Jood '''Jew
*'''joods(e) '''Jewish
*'''juffrouw '''Miss, Madame
*'''Julij, juli'''&nbsp;July
*'''Junij, juni&nbsp;'''June <br>
==== K  ====
*'''kamer '''room (in a house)
*'''kan '''can
*'''kanaal '''canal
*'''kanker '''cancer
*'''kantwerkster''' lacemaker<br>
*'''karman '''coachman
*'''kasteel '''castle
*'''Katholiek '''Catholic
*'''keizerlijk '''imperial
*'''keizerrijk '''empire
*'''kerk '''church
*'''kerkboek '''church book,parish register
*'''kerkelijk(e) '''church (pertaining to church)
*'''kerkelijk ambt''' parish office
*'''kerkeraads-handelingen''' church minutes
*'''kerkgenootschap '''religious affiliation
*'''kerk meester''' church warden
*'''kerk voogt''' church warden
*'''kil '''stream, brook
*'''kind, kinderen''' child, children
*'''kinkhoest '''whooping cough
*'''klapper '''index
*'''kledinghandelaar '''clothier
*'''kleermaker '''tailor
*'''klein '''little, small
*'''kleindochter '''granddaughter
*'''kleiner '''smaller, lesser
*'''kleinzoon '''grandson
*'''klompenmaker '''wooden shoemaker
*'''km. '''kilometer
*'''knecht '''servant, laborer, journeyman
*'''kohier(en)''' register(s), ledger(s)
*'''koning '''king
*'''koningin '''queen
*'''koninklijk '''royal
*'''koninkrijk '''kingdom
*'''koopman '''buyer, seller, vendor, trader, merchant
*'''kopen '''to buy
*'''koperslager '''coppersmith
*'''koster '''sexton
*'''kraambed '''childbed
*'''kraambed gestorven '''died in childbirth
*'''kraambedkoorts '''puerperal fever, childbed fever
*'''kramer '''seller, vendor, peddler
*'''krampachtig '''convulsions
*'''krampen '''cramps, convulsions
*'''krijgen '''to receive
*'''kuiper '''cooper
*'''kunnen '''could
*'''kwaal '''disease, complaint
*'''kwaliteit''' status, quality
*'''kwartierstaat '''pedigree, family tree <br>
==== L  ====
*'''laat, laatste tijd''' late (in the day), lately
*'''laatste '''latter, last
*'''lakenvoller (-volder)''' clothier, fuller
*'''land '''land, country
*'''landbouwer '''farmer
*'''landgoed, landbezit '''estate
*'''landkaart '''map
*'''landlieden '''farmers
*'''landman '''cottager, farmer
*'''land verlatend''' emigrant
*'''laten '''to let, leave, allow
*'''leeftijd '''age
*'''leerjongen '''apprentice
*'''leerling '''student, apprentice, pupil
*'''leggen '''to place, put, impose, to lay
*'''lente '''spring (season)
*'''lentemaand '''spring month,March
*'''leven '''to live
*'''levend '''living
*'''levenloos '''without life, stillborn
*'''levens-beschrijving''' biography
*'''lidmaten '''members, membership
*'''linker hand''' left hand
*'''links '''left (direction)
*'''linnenwever '''linen weaver
*'''logementhouder '''innkeeper
*'''longontsteking '''pneumonia
*'''longtering '''consumption, tuberculosis
*'''looier '''tanner
*'''louwmaand '''January
*'''Lutheraan, Luthers&nbsp;'''Lutheran
*'''lijk '''corpse
*'''lijnslager '''rope maker <br>
==== M  ====
*'''maagd '''virgin, maid, servant girl
*'''maand '''month
*'''maandag '''Monday
*'''maar '''but
*'''Maart '''March
*'''mag '''may (might)
*'''makelaar registers''' real estate registers
*'''man '''husband, man
*'''mannelijk '''male
*'''markt '''market
*'''mazelen '''measles
*'''meer '''lake, more
*'''meerderjarige '''of legal age
*'''Meij, mei'''&nbsp;May
*'''meier '''tenant farmer, bailiff
*'''meisje '''girl
*'''melkerij '''milk factory, dairy
*'''melkfabriek '''milk factory, dairy
*'''mengel (mingel)''' liquid measure, about one to two quarts
*'''met '''with
*'''met name''' named, alias
*'''metselaar '''mason, bricklayer
*'''meu''' aunt
*'''meubelmaker '''furniture maker
*'''middag ('s middags)''' afternoon (in the afternoon)
*'''middernacht '''midnight
*'''mijnheer '''Mr.
*'''mijnwerker '''miner
*'''militaire '''military
*'''minderjarige '''minor, below legal age
*'''misschien '''maybe, perhaps
*'''missen '''to miss, lack
*'''mocht '''might
*'''moeder '''mother
*'''moet(en)''' must
*'''mogen '''may (might have), to allow
*'''molen '''mill
*'''mondig verklaring''' declaration of being of legal age
*'''morgen '''unit of land area, about two acres
*'''morgen ('s morgens)''' morning, tomorrow (in the morning)
*'''mijl '''mile (varying lengths, up to 5.5 km.) <br>
==== N  ====
*'''na '''after
*'''naaister '''seamstress
*'''naam '''name
*'''naar '''to, toward, for, according to
*'''naar gelang van''' to, after, according to
*'''naast '''beside, following, next (to)
*'''nabijkomen '''approach, approximate
*'''nabuur '''neighbor
*'''nacht ('s nachts)''' night (in the night)
*'''namen '''names
*'''namiddag, ('s namiddags)''' afternoon (in the afternoon)
*'''neder '''low, lower (directional)
*'''Nederland''' the Netherlands
*'''nederlands '''Dutch
*'''neef '''nephew, male cousin
*'''neefje '''nephew, young male cousin
*'''negen '''nine
*'''negende '''ninth
*'''negenentwintig '''twenty-nine
*'''negenentwintigste '''twenty-ninth
*'''negentien '''nineteen
*'''negentiende '''nineteenth
*'''negentig '''ninety
*'''negentigste '''ninetieth
*'''neger '''Negro
*'''nicht '''niece, female cousin
*'''nichtje '''niece, young female cousin
*'''niet(s)''' no, none, not
*'''niets '''nothing
*'''nieuw '''new
*'''nimmer '''never
*'''noemen '''to christen, call, name
*'''nog '''still, yet, other
*'''nog in leven''' still living, surviving
*'''nommer, nummer '''number
*'''nooit '''never
*'''noor(s)''' Norwegian
*'''noord '''north
*'''Noorwegen '''Norway
*'''notaris '''notary
*'''november '''November <br>
==== O  ====
*'''october '''October
*'''of '''or
*'''om '''for, because of, at, round
*'''oma '''grandma
*'''omstreeks '''about, around&nbsp;
*'''on-''' un- (prefix)
*'''onbekend '''unknown
*'''onder '''under
*'''ondergetekende '''the undersigned
*'''ondertrouw '''betrothal (already registered)
*'''ondertrouw '''betrothal (already registered)
*'''onderwijzer '''(school) teacher
*'''onderwijzeres '''female teacher
*'''onecht kind''' illegitimate child
*'''ongehuwd '''unmarried
*'''ongetrouwd '''single, unmarried
*'''ongeveer '''almost, approximately
*'''onkunde''' inability, incompetence, ignorance, ignorance of<br>
*'''onmiddellijk '''right away, immediately
*'''onmondigen '''minor, under age
*'''ons, onze''' us, our
*'''ontvangen '''to receive, received&nbsp;
*'''ontvanger '''tax collector
*'''onwettig '''illegitimate, illegal
*'''onze, ons''' us, our
*'''oogstmaand harv'''est month,August
*'''ook '''also
*'''oom '''uncle
*'''oorkonden '''records, documents
*'''oost '''east
*'''op '''on, upon
*'''opa '''grandpa
*'''opgetreden '''appeared
*'''op heden''' today, on this day
*'''op hoge leeftijd''' at a great (old) age
*'''opnemen '''to receive
*'''opper '''upper
*'''oprecht '''honest
*'''optreden '''to appear
*'''opziener '''overseer, inspector, guardian
*'''organisatie '''organization, society
*'''oud '''old (age)
*'''ouder '''older, elder
*'''ouderdom '''age
*'''ouders '''parents
*'''oudoom '''great-uncle
*'''oudste '''eldest
*'''oudtante '''great-aunt
*'''over '''above, over, via
*'''overeenkomst '''contract, agreement
*'''overgrootmoeder '''great-grandmother
*'''overgrootvader '''great-grandfather
*'''overleden '''dead, deceased
*'''overledene, de''' the deceased
*'''overlevenden '''survivors
*'''overlijden '''to die
*'''overnemen '''to take over, adopt (an action)
*'''overschrijven '''to extract <br>
==== P  ====
*'''pachter '''tenant farmer, leaser, one who leases
*'''pachter (van belastingen)''' publican, tax collector
*'''Palts, de''' the Palatinate
*'''Paltsgraafschap '''count palatine (the place)
*'''paltsgrafelijk''' (from the) palatinate
*'''parochie '''parish
*'''parochieregisters '''parish registers
*'''Pasen '''Easter, Passover
*'''Pascha''' Paasover
*'''pastoor '''pastor,&nbsp;priest (Roman Catholic church)
*'''patroon '''manor lord, patron, employer
*'''peet '''godfather, godparent, sponsor
*'''peetoom '''godfather
*'''peettante '''godmother
*'''pensionering '''retirement
*'''pest '''plague, pestilence
*'''petemoei '''godmother
*'''peten '''godparents
*'''plaag '''plague, scourge
*'''plaats '''place
*'''planter '''planter, farmer
*'''pokken '''smallpox
*'''Polen&nbsp;'''Poland, Poles
*'''pools '''Polish
*'''poorter '''citizen, freeman
*'''poortersboeken '''burgher registers
*'''portugees '''Portuguese
*'''predikant '''minister, clergyman (Protestant church)
*'''prins '''prince
*'''prinses '''princess
*'''protestant '''protestant
*'''protocol '''document, register
*'''provinciaal '''provincial
*'''provincie '''provinces
*'''Pruis(isch)''' Prussian
*'''Pruissen '''Prussia <br>
==== Q  ====
==== R  ====
*'''raad '''council, counsel
*'''recht '''right (correct), straight, law, justice
*'''rechter '''judge, magistrate
*'''rechter(zijde)''' right side
*'''rechter hand''' right hand
*'''rechterlijk '''legal, court (judicial)
*'''rechtmatig '''rightful, right (correct)
*'''rechts '''right (direction)
*'''regering '''government, administration
*'''rekeningen '''accounts, bills
*'''rentenier '''retired tradesperson, man of means
*'''rivier '''river
*'''roede '''rod (unit of length, about twelve feet or 3.6 meters)
*'''rond '''around, about
*'''rood '''red
*'''roodvonk '''scarlet fever
*'''Rooms Katholiek''' Roman Catholic
*'''ruim''' [ruim 80 = eighty plus years old] large, broad, wide, upwards of
*'''Rus(sisch)''' Russian
*'''Rusland '''Russia
*'''rijk '''empire, kingdom, rich, wealthy
*'''rijksarchief '''national and/orstate archive, public record office <br>
==== S  ====
*''''s = des''' of the
Sakser Saxon
*'''samen '''together
*'''schaapherder '''shepherd
*'''scheeps '''of a ship (the ship's)
*'''schenking '''donation, gift
*'''schepen '''alderman, magistrate, ships
*'''schepenakten '''city council records
*'''schilder '''painter
*'''schip '''ship
*'''schipper '''barge man, boatman, skipper
*'''schlepel '''unit of measure, about .7 to 1.3 bushels
*'''schoenmaker '''shoemaker
*'''school '''school
*'''schoondochter '''daughter-in-law
*'''schoonzoon '''son-in-law
*'''schoonzuster '''sister-in-law
*'''schriftgeleerde '''scribe
*'''schrijnwerker '''cabinet maker, joiner
*'''schrijver '''scribe, writer, author
*'''schuit '''barge, boat
*'''September '''September
*'''sinds(dien)''' since
*'''slachter, slager''' butcher
*'''slachtmaand '''slaughter month,November
*'''slag '''hit, stroke, blow
*'''slager, slachter''' butcher
*'''slechts '''but, only, merely
*'''sloot '''ditch
*'''slot '''lock, castle
*'''slotenmaker '''locksmith
*'''smid '''(black)smith
*'''soldaat '''soldier
*'''soms '''sometimes, besides, in addition to&nbsp;
*'''spaans '''Spanish
*'''Spanjaard '''Spaniard
*'''Spanje '''Spain
*'''spoedig '''quickly, soon, speedy
*'''sprokkelmaand '''wood gathering month, February
*'''staat '''state
*'''staats '''of the state
*'''staatsburger '''citizen
*'''stad '''city, town
*'''stamboeken '''lineage books, genealogical register
*'''stamboom '''pedigree
*'''steeds '''always, still
*steenbakker brick maker, stone mason
*'''stellen '''to place, put, impose
*'''sterven '''to die
*'''stief-''' step-
*'''straat '''street
*'''stroom '''stream,'''&nbsp;'''river
==== T  ====
*''''t = het''' the
*'''taal '''language
*'''tachtig '''eighty
*'''tachtigste '''eightieth
*'''tafel '''index, table
*'''tanden krijgen''' getting teeth, teething
*'''tante '''aunt
*'''te '''at, to
*'''tegelijk '''together, at the same time
*'''tegen(over)''' against, across
*'''tegenwoordigheid '''presence, the presence of
*'''te huis''' at home
*'''teraardebestelling '''burial, interment
*'''testament '''last will, testament
*'''thuis '''at home
*'''tien '''ten
*'''tiende '''tithing
*'''tiende '''tenth
*'''tienjarige tafels''' ten-year (decennial) index
*'''tiental''' [tiental dagen = about ten days] decade
*'''timmerman '''carpenter
*'''toekomend '''future, next
*'''toekomstig '''future, prostpective
*'''toenaam '''surname
*'''toestaan '''to let, grant, allow
*'''toestemmen '''to consent
*'''touwslager '''rope maker
*'''trouwboek '''marriage book
*'''trouwdag '''wedding day
*'''trouwen '''to marry
*'''tuberculose '''consumption, tuberculosis
*'''tuin '''garden, yard
*'''tuinman, tuinier''' gardener
*'''tussen '''between
*'''twaalf '''twelve
*'''twaalfde '''twelfth
*'''twee '''two
*'''tweede '''second
*'''tweeëntwintig '''twenty-two
*'''tweeëntwintigste '''twenty-second
*'''tweeling '''twins
*'''twintig '''twenty
*'''twintigste '''twentieth
*'''tyfus '''typhoid fever
*'''tyfuslijder '''typhoid patient
*'''tijd '''time
*'''tijdelijk '''temporary
*'''tijdschrift '''periodical <br>
==== U  ====
*'''uit '''out of, from
*'''uiterlijk '''outward, external, appearance, at the latest
*'''uitgeven '''to publish
*'''uittrekken '''extract
*'''uur '''hour, o'clock <br>
==== V  ====
*'''vaak '''often
*'''vader '''father
*'''vallende ziekte''' epilepsy
*'''van '''from, of
*'''veehoeder '''herdsman
*'''veertien '''fourteen
*'''veertiende '''fourteenth
*'''veertig '''forty
*'''veertigste '''fortieth
*'''veld '''field
*'''verdrinking '''drowning
*'''vergunning '''permission
*'''verjaardag '''birthday
*'''verklaard '''declared
*'''verklaren '''to declare
*'''verklaring '''declaration, affidavit, sworn statement
*'''verkondigen '''publish (as in banns), proclaim
*'''verlamming '''paralysis, stroke
*'''verlaten '''to leave, left
*'''verleden '''past
*'''verlof '''leave (soldier's), permission
*'''verloofd '''betrothed, engaged
*'''verloofde(n)''' engaged person(s), fiancée, fiancé
*'''verloving '''betrothal, engagement
*'''verpandings-kohieren''' tax ledger
*'''verscheiden '''to pass away or die, various, different
*'''verschijnt '''appears
*'''verstopping '''obstruction, blockage
*'''vertering '''consumption, tuberculosis
*'''vertrokken '''departed, moved, gone away
*'''verver '''dyer, house painter
*'''verwantschap '''relationship
*'''verwijderen '''to remove, to withdraw
*'''vestigen '''to settle, establish
*'''vesting '''fortress
*'''vier '''four
*'''vierde '''fourth
*'''vierentwintig '''twenty-four
*'''vierentwintigste '''twenty-fourth
*'''visser '''fisherman
*'''vleeshouwer '''butcher
*'''vlij '''marsh, swamp
*'''V.O.C.''' Dutch East Indies Company
*'''voerman '''coachman
*'''volbracht '''performed, completed, finished
*'''volbrengen '''to finish, complete
*'''volgend '''following, next
*'''volgende dag''' (the) following day
*'''volgens '''to, after, according to, follows
*'''volkstelling '''census, population records
*'''volmacht '''authorization
*'''voltooien '''to finish, complete
*'''voltrekkingen '''solemnization
*'''vondeling '''foundling
*'''voogd '''guardian
*'''voor '''for, in front of, before
*'''vooraf(gang)''' previous, preceding
*'''voorafgaand '''former
*'''voorafgaande dag''' the previous day
*'''voorbij [voorbij gaan''' = gone by] past, beyond, over
*'''voorgaand '''previous, preceding
*'''voorheen '''previous, formerly, in former days&nbsp;
*'''voorjaar '''spring (season)
*'''voorlezing '''reading, reading aloud<br>
*'''voormeld&nbsp; '''before mentioned, said, stated
*'''voormiddag '''morning, forenoon (in the morning)
*'''voornaam '''given name
*'''voornoemde''' above-mentioned, aforesaid<br>
*'''voorouder '''ancestor
*'''voortekening '''over his signature
*'''voorvader '''ancestor, forefather
*'''vorig '''previous, preceding
*'''vorige dag''' previous day
*'''vormer '''framer, molder
*'''vormsel '''Catholic confirmation
*'''vorst '''monarch, sovereign, ruler
*'''vorstendom '''principality
*'''vreemd''' foreign, strange
*'''vriend '''friend
*'''vrijboer&nbsp;'''farmer owner&nbsp;
*'''vrijdag '''Friday
*'''vrijgezel '''bachelor
*'''vroedmeester '''man who assists in childbirth
*'''vroedvrouw '''midwife
*'''vroeg(tijdig)''' early (a.m.), prematurely, untimely
*'''vroeger '''formerly, earlier
*'''vrouw '''woman''', '''wife, Mrs.
*'''vrouw(spersoon)''' wife, woman, female
*'''vrouwelijk '''female
*'''V.W.C.''' Dutch West Indies Company
*'''vijf '''five
*'''vijfde '''fifth
*'''vijfentwintig '''twenty-five
*'''vijfentwintigste '''twenty-fifth
*'''vijftien '''fifteen
*'''vijftiende '''fifteenth
*'''vijftig '''fifty
*'''vijftigste '''fiftieth <br>
==== W  ====
*'''waar '''where
*'''waarheen '''where to
*'''waarom '''why
*'''wagenmaker '''cartwright, wagon builder, coach builder
*'''wanneer '''when
*'''wapen '''heraldic crest, coat of arms
*'''waren '''were, goods
*'''was '''was
*'''wat '''what, how
*'''waterzucht '''dropsy
*'''weduwe '''widow
*'''weduwnaar '''widower
*'''week '''week
*'''weeskamer '''orphan's court
*'''weeskind '''orphan
*'''wegens '''because of
*'''weinig '''little, small, few&nbsp;
*'''welk(e)''' which
*'''wellicht '''maybe, perhaps
*'''werkman '''laborer
*'''west '''west
*'''wet '''law
*'''wethouder '''alderman
*'''wettelijk '''legal
*'''wettelijk kind''' legitimate child
*'''wettig '''lawful, legal
*'''wever '''weaver
*'''wie '''who
*'''wieldraaijer '''wheelwright
*'''wil '''will, desire, wish, consent
*'''wilde(n)''' Indian(s) (in New York), savage(s)
*'''willen '''to want to
*'''winkelier(ster)''' shopkeeper male (female)
*'''winter '''winter
*'''wintermaand '''winter month,December
*'''wit '''white
*'''woensdag '''Wednesday
*'''wonende '''residing
*'''woonachtig '''resident, living at
*'''woonplaats '''residence, domicile, dwelling place
*'''woordenboek '''dictionary
*'''worden '''to become, be
*'''woud '''forest
*'''wij '''we
*'''wijk '''district, area, section, ward
*'''wijlen '''late (deceased), the late, blessed
*'''wijnmaand '''wine month, October <br>
==== X  ====
==== Y  ====
==== IJ  ====
*'''ijs''' ice
*I'''Jsland''' Iceland
*'''ijzer '''iron
*'''ijzer smelterij '''iron foundry
*'''ijzersmid '''smith, blacksmith
*'''ijzerwaren''' hardware
*'''ijzerwerker''' ironworder
==== Z  ====
*'''zaken '''trade, business, case, affairs
*'''zaterdag '''Saturday
*'''ze '''they, she
*'''zeeman '''sailor
*'''zeepzieder '''soap maker
*'''zelfde '''the same
*'''zes '''six
*'''zesde '''sixth
*'''zesentwintig '''twenty-six
*'''zesentwintigste '''twenty-sixth
*'''zestien '''sixteen
*'''zestiende '''sixteenth
*'''zestig '''sixty
*'''zestigste '''sixtieth
*'''zetten '''to place, put, impose
*'''zeven '''seven
*'''zevende '''seventh
*'''zevenentwintig '''twenty-seven
*'''zevenentwintigste '''twenty-seventh
*'''zevenstigte '''seventieth
*'''zeventien '''seventeen
*'''zeventiende '''seventeenth
*'''zeventig '''seventy
*'''zie '''see
*'''ziekte '''disease, illness
*'''zomer '''summer
*'''zomermaand '''summer month, June
*<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1277835331915_861" />'''zondag''' Sunday
*'''zonder '''without
*'''zoon '''son
*'''zoontje '''little son, small son
*'''zou '''should
*'''zuid '''south
*'''zuigeling '''baby, suckling
*'''zuivelboer '''dairy farmer
*'''zuster '''sister
*'''zwager '''brother-in-law
*'''zwakheid '''weakness
*'''zwakte '''weak
*'''zwanger '''pregnant
*'''zwart '''black
*'''zwarten '''Negroes, blacks
*'''Zweden '''Sweden
*'''zweeds '''Swedish
*'''zwelling '''swelling, tumor
*'''Zwitserland '''Switzerland
*'''zwitsers '''Swiss
*'''zij '''she, they
*'''zijn '''its, his, to be, are
*'''zijrivier '''tributary, river, stream <br>
[[Category:Netherlands]] [[Category:Word_List]]

Latest revision as of 21:22, 9 March 2018

Netherlands Topics
Flag of The Netherlands.png
Beginning Research
Record Types
The Netherlands Background
Local Research Resources

The FamilySearch moderator for The Netherlands is Daniel Jones.


Netherlands Languages

This list summarizes what languages are used in different records. For word lists and help with using Dutch in genealogical records, see Dutch Genealogical Word List

Click on the languages for a Word List:

Dutch: Used in Dutch Reformed Church records and Civil Registration after 1813. Used for any other government records. In most of the country except Frisian it was the commonly spoken language.
Frisian: This was the commonly spoken language in the province of Friesland and some neighbouring areas. Some records in those areas will use Frisian but often Dutch will still be used.
Latin: Used in Catholic Church records
German: Used in Lutheran Church records
French: Used in Wallonia Reformed Church records, and in pre-1813 Civil Registration
Portuguese: Used in some Sephardi Jewish records

For word lists and the basic grammar needed for genealogical research using documents of these languages, click on the links for each language, which will bring a page on the wiki devoted to that language.