Difference between revisions of "Mandan Indians"

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[[Image:Mandan Indians - Bundesarchiv Bild Interessengemeinschaft .jpg|thumb|right|232x231px]]  
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{{infobox ethnic group
 +
|group = Mandan
 +
|image = [[Image:Mandan Indians - Bundesarchiv Bild Interessengemeinschaft .jpg|232x231px]]
 +
|poptime = '''Full-blooded''':
 +
<table style="background: none; width: 100%;" rules="rows">
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>1971</td>
 +
<td style="text-align: right;">30</td><td style="width: 2px;">{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>1905</td>
 +
<td style="text-align: right;">249</td><td>{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}<ref>Frederick Webb Hodge. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'']. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.</ref></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>1871</td>
 +
<td style="text-align: right;">450</td><td>{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}<ref>Frederick Webb Hodge. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'']. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.</ref></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>1837</td>
 +
<td style="text-align: right;">≈1,600</td><td>{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}<ref>Frederick Webb Hodge. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'']. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.</ref></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<td>1804</td>
 +
<td style="text-align: right;">≈1,250</td><td>{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}<ref>Frederick Webb Hodge. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'']. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.</ref></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
</table>
 +
'''Descendants''':<br>
 +
<small>Last full-blooded Mandan died in 1971; many part-blood descendants on and off-reservation</small>
 +
|popplace = '''Ancestral Homelands''':<br> Missouri River near North Dakota, Northwest United States
 +
'''Descendants''':<br>
 +
[[Fort_Berthold_Indian_Reservation_(North_Dakota)|Fort Berthold Reservation]], North Dakota
 +
|status = Federally recognized
 +
|linguistic = Siouan
 +
|cultural = Mandan
 +
|related = [[Hidatsa Indians|Hidatsa Tribe]], [[Arikara Indians|Arikara Tribe]]
 +
}}
  
'''Ancestral Homeland:''' Missouri River near North Dakota, Northwest United States
+
'''Alternate Names and Spellings: '''"the People of the First Man"
  
== History  ==
+
=== History  ===
 +
 
 +
The '''Mandan''' are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the banks of the Missouri River and two of its tributaries—the Heart and Knife Rivers in present-day North and South Dakota.
 +
 
 +
Their first recorded contact with non-Indians was with the French explorer Sieur de la Verendrye in 1738. During the winter of 1804-05, the Lewis and Clark Expedition wintered with the Mandan tribe<ref>Frederick Webb Hodge. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'']. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.</ref>. In 1834-35, Karl Bodmer, traveling with German Prince Maximilian zu Wied, painted portraits of the Mandan.
 +
 
 +
The Mandans signed three treaties with the United States government -- the 1825 at the Mandan Village, the 1851 treaty at Laramie (Wyoming), and the unratified 1866 Treaty of Fort Berthold (see links to copies of the treaties under Records below)<ref>Frederick Webb Hodge. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'']. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.</ref>.
 +
 
 +
The Mandan suffered a smallpox epidemic in 1837, when an estimated 1600 died. Some estimates state that only 125-150 survived and joined with the Hidatsa Tribe<ref>Frederick Webb Hodge. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'']. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.</ref>. By 1845, the Mandan survivors joined with the Hidatsa at Like-A-Fishhook Village near Fort Berthold. They remained at this village until it was abandoned in 1888.
 +
 
 +
A reservation for the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Tribes was set apart on 12 April 1870 by Executive Order<ref>Frederick Webb Hodge. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'']. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.</ref>. The reservation was located primcipally in present-day North Dakota, with a small portion in Montana. The Fort Berthold Reservation was later reduced to its present size.
 +
 
 +
Under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Tribes merged and incorporated under their constitution and bylaws as the Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation<ref>[http://lib.fbcc.bia.edu/FortBerthold/TATbylaws.asp By-Laws] of the Three Affiliated Tribes.</ref>.
  
 
==== Brief Timeline  ====
 
==== Brief Timeline  ====
Line 12: Line 58:
 
*'''1833-34: '''Karl Bodmer, traveling with German Prince Maximilian zu Wied, painted portraits of the Mandan  
 
*'''1833-34: '''Karl Bodmer, traveling with German Prince Maximilian zu Wied, painted portraits of the Mandan  
 
*'''1837:''' Smallpox epidemic - estimated 1,600 died. Only 125 survived, these 125 joined the Hidatsa Tribe and settled on the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota  
 
*'''1837:''' Smallpox epidemic - estimated 1,600 died. Only 125 survived, these 125 joined the Hidatsa Tribe and settled on the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota  
*'''1845:''' merge wtih the Hidatsa at Like-A-Fishhook Village near to Fort Berthold  
+
*'''1845:''' merge with the Hidatsa at Like-A-Fishhook Village near to Fort Berthold  
 
*'''1851: '''Treaty  
 
*'''1851: '''Treaty  
 
*'''1866:''' Treaty  
 
*'''1866:''' Treaty  
*'''1870: '''Fort Berthold agency and reservation established for the tribes of: Mandan, [[Hidatsa Indians|Hidatsa]], and [[Arikara Indians|Arikara]]. The Three Affiliated Tribes are the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara.  
+
*'''1870: '''Fort Berthold agency and reservation established for the tribes of: Mandan, [[Hidatsa Indians|Hidatsa]], and [[Arikara Indians|Arikara]].  
 
*'''1888:''' Like-A-Fishhook Village is abandoned  
 
*'''1888:''' Like-A-Fishhook Village is abandoned  
 +
*'''1936:''' The Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Tribes consolidated as the Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation
 
*'''1951-1954:''' The Tribe is relocated for construction of Garrison Dam and reservoir
 
*'''1951-1954:''' The Tribe is relocated for construction of Garrison Dam and reservoir
 
==== Reservations  ====
 
 
The Mandan Tribe is primarily associated with the [[Fort Berthold Indian Reservation (North Dakota)|Fort Berthold Reservation]] in western North Dakota
 
  
 
==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe  ====
 
==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe  ====
Line 28: Line 71:
 
*A history of the Mandan Indians is also included in a [http://freepages.family.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~bowen/mandans.html Bowen Family web history] page, including letters written by George Catlin regarding Mandan history and culture.
 
*A history of the Mandan Indians is also included in a [http://freepages.family.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~bowen/mandans.html Bowen Family web history] page, including letters written by George Catlin regarding Mandan history and culture.
  
== Tribal Headquarters  ==
+
=== Tribal Headquarters  ===
  
 
Three Affiliated Tribes<br>404 Frontage Road <br>New Town, ND 58763<br>Phone: 701.627.4781<br>Fax: 701.627.3503  
 
Three Affiliated Tribes<br>404 Frontage Road <br>New Town, ND 58763<br>Phone: 701.627.4781<br>Fax: 701.627.3503  
  
== Records  ==
+
=== Records  ===
  
'''Agencies'''
+
==== Agencies ====
  
*[[Upper Missouri Indian Agency|Upper Missouri Agency]]  
+
The following [[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs]] had jurisdiction over the Mandan for the time periods indicated. BIA agencies werre responsible to keep such records as census rolls, allotment (land) records, annuity rolls, school records, correspondence, and other records of individual Indians under their jurisdiction. For details, see the page for the respective agency.
*[[Fort Berthold Indian Agency (North Dakota)|Fort Berthold Agency]]
 
  
'''Correspondence and Census'''
+
*[[Upper Missouri Indian Agency|Upper Missouri Agency]], 1824-1866
 +
*[[Fort Berthold Indian Agency (North Dakota)|Fort Berthold Agency]], 1867-present
  
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
+
==== Treaties  ====
|-
 
! scope="col" | Tribe
 
! scope="col" | Agency
 
! scope="col" | Location of Original Records
 
! scope="col" |
 
Pre-1880 Correspondence
 
 
 
M234 RG 75&nbsp;Rolls 962
 
 
 
Roll Number
 
 
 
! scope="col" |
 
FHL
 
 
 
Film
 
 
 
Number
 
 
 
! scope="col" |
 
Post-1885 Census
 
  
M595 RG 75 Rolls 693
+
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/man0242.htm 1825] at the Mandan Village
 +
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sio0594.htm 1851] Fort Laramie with Sioux, etc.
 +
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/for1052.htm 1866] at Fort Berthold (unratified)
  
Roll Number
+
==== Tribal Office Records  ====
  
! scope="col" |
+
The Tribal Office is responsible for such records as enrollment records, tribal police records, tribal court records,
FHL
 
  
Film Number
+
=== Important Web Sites  ===
 
 
|-
 
| Mandan
 
| Upper Missouri Agency, 1824-66
 
| Washington D.C.
 
| Rolls 883-88
 
| -
 
| -
 
| -
 
|-
 
| Mandan
 
| Fort Berhold,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 1889-1939
 
| Kansas City
 
| Rolls 292-99
 
| -
 
| Rolls 132-36
 
| 576487-491
 
|-
 
| Mandan
 
| Bismark Indian School, 1904-38
 
| Kansas City
 
| -
 
| -
 
| -
 
| -
 
|}
 
 
 
==== Treaties  ====
 
 
 
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/man0242.htm 1825]
 
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sio0594.htm 1851] Fort Laramie with Sioux Etc.,&nbsp;
 
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/for1052.htm 1866] at Fort Berthold&nbsp;
 
 
 
== Important Web Sites  ==
 
  
 
*[http://www.mhanation.com/main/contact.html MHA Nation-Three Affiliated Tribes] Website  
 
*[http://www.mhanation.com/main/contact.html MHA Nation-Three Affiliated Tribes] Website  
Line 110: Line 100:
 
*[http://lib.fbcc.bia.edu/FortBerthold/TATbylaws.asp By-Laws] of the Three Affiliated Tribes
 
*[http://lib.fbcc.bia.edu/FortBerthold/TATbylaws.asp By-Laws] of the Three Affiliated Tribes
  
== References  ==
+
=== References  ===
  
 
<references />  
 
<references />  
  
==== Bibliography ====
+
=== Bibliography  ===
 +
 
 +
==== Mandan Tribe  ====
 +
 
 +
==== General ====
  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view WorldCat 317923332]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1122745&disp=Reference+encyclopedia+of+the+American+I%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 R259e].  
+
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. {{WorldCat|317923332}}; {{FHL|970.1 R259e|book}}; [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1122745&disp=Reference+encyclopedia+of+the+American+I%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 R259e].  
 
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=831087&disp=The+Gale+encyclopedia+of+Native+American%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 G131g].
 
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=831087&disp=The+Gale+encyclopedia+of+Native+American%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 G131g].
  

Revision as of 04:42, 17 March 2010

{{#if: Hidatsa Tribe, Arikara Tribe|
Mandan
Mandan Indians - Bundesarchiv Bild Interessengemeinschaft .jpg
Population
Full-blooded:
1971 30 
1905 249 [1]
1871 450 [2]
1837 ≈1,600 [3]
1804 ≈1,250 [4]

Descendants:
Last full-blooded Mandan died in 1971; many part-blood descendants on and off-reservation

Regions with significant populations
Ancestral Homelands:
Missouri River near North Dakota, Northwest United States

Descendants:
Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota

Status

Federally recognized

Linguistic Group

Siouan

Cultural Group

Mandan

Other Related Ethnic Groups

Hidatsa Tribe, Arikara Tribe

Alternate Names and Spellings: "the People of the First Man"

History

The Mandan are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the banks of the Missouri River and two of its tributaries—the Heart and Knife Rivers in present-day North and South Dakota.

Their first recorded contact with non-Indians was with the French explorer Sieur de la Verendrye in 1738. During the winter of 1804-05, the Lewis and Clark Expedition wintered with the Mandan tribe[5]. In 1834-35, Karl Bodmer, traveling with German Prince Maximilian zu Wied, painted portraits of the Mandan.

The Mandans signed three treaties with the United States government -- the 1825 at the Mandan Village, the 1851 treaty at Laramie (Wyoming), and the unratified 1866 Treaty of Fort Berthold (see links to copies of the treaties under Records below)[6].

The Mandan suffered a smallpox epidemic in 1837, when an estimated 1600 died. Some estimates state that only 125-150 survived and joined with the Hidatsa Tribe[7]. By 1845, the Mandan survivors joined with the Hidatsa at Like-A-Fishhook Village near Fort Berthold. They remained at this village until it was abandoned in 1888.

A reservation for the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Tribes was set apart on 12 April 1870 by Executive Order[8]. The reservation was located primcipally in present-day North Dakota, with a small portion in Montana. The Fort Berthold Reservation was later reduced to its present size.

Under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Tribes merged and incorporated under their constitution and bylaws as the Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation[9].

Brief Timeline

  • 1738: First contact was with the French explorer Sieur de la Verendrye
  • 1804-05: Lewis and Clark Expedition wintered with the Mandan tribe
  • 1825: Treaty
  • 1833-34: Karl Bodmer, traveling with German Prince Maximilian zu Wied, painted portraits of the Mandan
  • 1837: Smallpox epidemic - estimated 1,600 died. Only 125 survived, these 125 joined the Hidatsa Tribe and settled on the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota
  • 1845: merge with the Hidatsa at Like-A-Fishhook Village near to Fort Berthold
  • 1851: Treaty
  • 1866: Treaty
  • 1870: Fort Berthold agency and reservation established for the tribes of: Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara.
  • 1888: Like-A-Fishhook Village is abandoned
  • 1936: The Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Tribes consolidated as the Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation
  • 1951-1954: The Tribe is relocated for construction of Garrison Dam and reservoir

Additional References to the History of the Tribe

  • Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Mandan tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods.
  • A history of the Mandan Indians is also included in a Bowen Family web history page, including letters written by George Catlin regarding Mandan history and culture.

Tribal Headquarters

Three Affiliated Tribes
404 Frontage Road
New Town, ND 58763
Phone: 701.627.4781
Fax: 701.627.3503

Records

Agencies

The following agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs had jurisdiction over the Mandan for the time periods indicated. BIA agencies werre responsible to keep such records as census rolls, allotment (land) records, annuity rolls, school records, correspondence, and other records of individual Indians under their jurisdiction. For details, see the page for the respective agency.

Treaties

  •  1825 at the Mandan Village
  •  1851 Fort Laramie with Sioux, etc.
  •  1866 at Fort Berthold (unratified)

Tribal Office Records

The Tribal Office is responsible for such records as enrollment records, tribal police records, tribal court records,

Important Web Sites

References

  1. Frederick Webb Hodge. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.
  2. Frederick Webb Hodge. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.
  3. Frederick Webb Hodge. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.
  4. Frederick Webb Hodge. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.
  5. Frederick Webb Hodge. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.
  6. Frederick Webb Hodge. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.
  7. Frederick Webb Hodge. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.
  8. Frederick Webb Hodge. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.
  9. By-Laws of the Three Affiliated Tribes.

Bibliography

Mandan Tribe

General

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL 970.1 R259e; WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  • Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006