Difference between revisions of "Kew with Petersham, Surrey Genealogy"

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''[[England]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[Surrey]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[Surrey Parishes|Surrey Parishes]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[Kew with Petersham, Surrey|Kew with Petersham]]''  
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''[[England]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[Surrey]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[Surrey Parishes|Surrey Parishes]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[Kew_with_Petersham,_Surrey|Kew with Petersham]]''  
  
== Parish History  ==
+
'''Kew with Petersham, Surrey''' family history and genealogy research page. Guide to parish registers (baptisms, christenings, marriages, and burials), civil registration (births, marriages, and deaths), census records, history, wills, cemetery, online transcriptions and indexes, an interactive map and website resources.
 
 
'KEW (St. Anne), a parish, in the union of Richmond, Second division of the hundred of Kingston, E. division of Surrey, 6½ miles (W. by S.) from London; containing 923 inhabitants; It is pleasantly situated on the southern bank of the Thames, over which a handsome stone bridge of seven arches, replacing a former structure of wood, was erected in the year 1789, connecting it with Brentford. The village is lighted with gas. George III., who resided for a considerable time at Kew Palace, greatly improved and extended the gardens, which he united to those of Richmond; and began to erect a new royal palace in the ancient English style, which, after remaining for several years in an unfinished state, was taken down in 1828. The royal gardens are tastefully laid out, and embellished with temples of the various orders of Grecian architecture, and with a Chinese pagoda, from the summit of which a most extensive prospect is obtained of the scenery on the banks of the Thames, and of the surrounding country. The Botanic Gardens here contain the most complete collection of exotic plants in Europe, and comprise fifteen conservatories, one of which was erected in 1837, by His Majesty William IV., at an expense of about £5000, and is in the Grecian style, with Doric columns. Up to 1841 these gardens belonged to the crown as private gardens; but in that year Her Majesty assigned them to the Commissioners of Woods, at the same time giving 45 acres in addition, from the royal pleasure-grounds; and in 1846 a further grant of land was made, making a total of about 70 acres. The gardens are entered by beautiful gates of wrought iron, 13 feet high, with piers of Portland stone. The royal grounds are open to the public on Thursday and Sunday; and the Botanic portion everyday, Sunday excepted. The King of Hanover and Duke of Cambridge have residences on Kew green, and in the environs are several handsome villas.
 
 
 
<br>'Kew was a chapelry to Kingston, but was constituted a separate parish by act of parliament, in 1770: it comprises by measurement 231 acres of land, chiefly laid out in pasture; about 25 or 30 acres are woodland and ozier-beds. The living is a vicarage, with that of Petersham annexed; net income, £401; patrons, the Provost and Fellows of King's College, Cambridge; impropriator, Edward Kent, Esq. The church was built by subscription in 1714, on a site given by Queen Anne, as a chapel of ease to the vicarage of Kingston, and was enlarged by George III., whose successor on the throne erected the organ gallery, and presented to the parish the organ on which his father had been accustomed to play. The edifice was enlarged in 1837, under the directions of Sir Jeffrey Wyatville, at an expense of £4500, defrayed by William IV., and by a grant of £200 from the Incorporated Society. It contains neat monuments to the memory of Lady Capel, who endowed a free school, and Elizabeth, Countess of Derby, who left £1000 to the poor of the parishes of Kew and Old Brentford. The free school was founded in 1721, and is endowed with land producing £31. 10. per annum. George IV. contributed £300 towards its erection; and the first stone was laid by William IV., when Duke of Clarence, on the 12th of August, 1824: it is designated the "Queen's Free School," by permission of Her Majesty, who subscribes 20 guineas per annum towards its support.'<ref>Samuel A. Lewis, ''[[A Topographical Dictionary of England]]'' (1848):663-667. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=51073 Date accessed: 18 November 2010.</ref>
 
 
 
== Resources  ==
 
  
==== Civil Registration  ====
+
[[Image:{{Kew}}]]  
 
 
Birth, marriages and deaths were kept by the government, from July 1837 to the present day. The [[England Civil Registration|civil registration]] article tells more about these records. There are several Internet sites with name lists or indexes. A popular site is [http://freebmd.org.uk/ FreeBMD].
 
  
 
==== Church records  ====
 
==== Church records  ====
Line 17: Line 9:
 
{| width="100%" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
 
{| width="100%" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
 
|-
 
|-
| align="center" bgcolor="#cc99ff" colspan="20" | <center><font size="+1">'''Online Kew with Petersham Parish Register Images and Indexes'''</font></center>
+
| bgcolor="#cc99ff" align="center" colspan="20" | <center><font size="+1">'''Online Kew with Petersham Parish Register Images and Indexes'''</font></center>
 
|-
 
|-
| align="center" bgcolor="#cc99ff" colspan="2" | &nbsp;  
+
| bgcolor="#cc99ff" align="center" colspan="2" | &nbsp;  
| align="center" bgcolor="#99cccc" colspan="6" | <center>'''Baptisms'''</center>  
+
| bgcolor="#99cccc" align="center" colspan="6" | <center>'''Baptisms'''</center>  
| align="center" bgcolor="#cccccc" colspan="6" | <center>'''Marriages'''</center>  
+
| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" colspan="6" | <center>'''Marriages'''</center>  
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffffcc" colspan="6" | <center>'''Burials'''</center>
+
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" colspan="6" | <center>'''Burials'''</center>
 
|-
 
|-
| align="center" bgcolor="#cc99ff" colspan="2" | '''Earliest'''  
+
| bgcolor="#cc99ff" align="center" colspan="2" | '''Earliest'''  
| align="center" bgcolor="#99cccc" colspan="6" | <center>1800</center>  
+
| bgcolor="#99cccc" align="center" colspan="6" | <center>1800</center>  
| align="center" bgcolor="#cccccc" colspan="6" | <center>1800</center>  
+
| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" colspan="6" | <center>1800</center>  
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffffcc" colspan="6" | <center>1800</center>
+
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" colspan="6" | <center>1714</center>
 
|-
 
|-
| align="center" bgcolor="#000000" colspan="20" |  
+
| bgcolor="#000000" align="center" colspan="20" |  
 
|-
 
|-
| align="center" bgcolor="#cc99ff" colspan="2" rowspan="2" | '''Images'''  
+
| bgcolor="#cc99ff" align="center" rowspan="2" colspan="2" | '''Images'''  
| align="center" bgcolor="#cc99ff" colspan="18" | <center>1800-1812 [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1624 Ancestry] baptisms, marriages, and burials<ref name="anc">[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1624 London, England, Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials, 1538-1812], courtesy: [http://www.ancestry.com/ Ancestry] ($). Described as St Ann's, Kew Green in Richmond upon Thames Borough. Marriages from 1800 to 1812 are not included in this database. Partially indexed.</ref></center>
+
| bgcolor="#cc99ff" align="center" colspan="18" | <center>1800-1812 [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1624 Ancestry] baptisms, marriages, and burials<ref name="anc">[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1624 London, England, Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials, 1538-1812], courtesy: [http://www.ancestry.com/ Ancestry] ($). Described as St Ann's, Kew Green in Richmond upon Thames Borough. Marriages from 1800 to 1812 are not included in this database. Partially indexed.</ref></center>
 
|-
 
|-
| align="center" bgcolor="#99cccc" colspan="2" | 1813-1846  
+
| bgcolor="#99cccc" align="center" colspan="2" | 1813-1846  
| align="center" bgcolor="#99cccc" colspan="4" | [http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1558 Ancestry]<ref name="ancc">[http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1558 London, England, Births and Baptisms, 1813-1906], courtesy: [http://www.ancestry.com Ancestry] ($). Described as Kew in Richmond upon Thames Borough. Partially indexed.</ref>  
+
| bgcolor="#99cccc" align="center" colspan="4" | [http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1558 Ancestry]<ref name="ancc">[http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1558 London, England, Births and Baptisms, 1813-1906], courtesy: [http://www.ancestry.com Ancestry] ($). Described as Kew in Richmond upon Thames Borough. Partially indexed.</ref>  
| align="center" bgcolor="#cccccc" colspan="2" | 1800-1846  
+
| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" colspan="2" | 1800-1846  
| align="center" bgcolor="#cccccc" colspan="4" | [http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1623 Ancestry]<ref name="ancm">[http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1623 London, England, Marriages and Banns, 1754-1921], courtesy: [http://www.ancestry.com Ancestry] ($). Described as Kew St Anne in Richmond Upon Thames Borough. Partially indexed.</ref>  
+
| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" colspan="4" | [http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1623 Ancestry]<ref name="ancm">[http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1623 London, England, Marriages and Banns, 1754-1921], courtesy: [http://www.ancestry.com Ancestry] ($). Described as Kew St Anne in Richmond Upon Thames Borough. Partially indexed.</ref>  
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffffcc" colspan="2" | 1813-1846  
+
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" colspan="2" | 1813-1846  
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffffcc" colspan="4" | [http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1559 Ancestry]<ref name="ancb">[http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1559 London, England, Deaths and Burials, 1813-1980], courtesy: [http://www.ancestry.com Ancestry] ($). Described as Kew in Richmond upon Thames Borough. Partially indexed.</ref>
+
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" colspan="4" | [http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1559 Ancestry]<ref name="ancb">[http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1559 London, England, Deaths and Burials, 1813-1980], courtesy: [http://www.ancestry.com Ancestry] ($). Described as Kew in Richmond upon Thames Borough. Partially indexed.</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| bgcolor="#000000" align="center" colspan="20" |
 +
|-
 +
| bgcolor="#cc99ff" align="center" colspan="2" rowspan="8" | '''Indexes'''
 +
| bgcolor="#99cccc" align="center" colspan="2" | 1800-1840
 +
| bgcolor="#99cccc" align="center" colspan="4" | {{RecordSearch|1473014|FamilySearch}}<ref>Batch {{IGI|C132861}}, see: Hugh Wallis, [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hughwallis/IGIBatchNumbers/CountySurrey.htm 'IGI Batch Numbers for Surrey, England,'] ''IGI Batch Numbers,'' accessed 2 April 2012.</ref>
 +
| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" colspan="2" | 1800-1837
 +
| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" colspan="4" | {{RecordSearch|1473014|FamilySearch}}<ref>Batch {{IGI|M132861}}, see: Hugh Wallis, [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hughwallis/IGIBatchNumbers/CountySurrey.htm 'IGI Batch Numbers for Surrey, England,'] ''IGI Batch Numbers,'' accessed 2 April 2012.</ref>
 +
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" colspan="2" | 1714-1840
 +
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" colspan="4" | [http://www.findmypast.co.uk/search/parish-records/burials FindMyPast]<ref>[http://www.findmypast.co.uk/national-burial-index-coverage-counties.action?countyCode=SRY 'Parish Records - National Burial Index Records 1538 - 2005 Coverage,'] ''Find My Past,'' accessed 11 April 2012. For a breakdown of missing years, see [http://www.ffhs.org.uk/projects/nbi/sry3.php 'National Burial Index - Coverage: Surrey,'] ''Federation of Family History Societies,'' accessed 11 April 2012.</ref>
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
Contributor: Include here information for parish registers, Bishop’s Transcripts, non conformist and other types of church records, such as parish chest records. Add the contact information for the office holding the original records. Add links to the Family History Library Catalog showing the film numbers in their collection  
 
Contributor: Include here information for parish registers, Bishop’s Transcripts, non conformist and other types of church records, such as parish chest records. Add the contact information for the office holding the original records. Add links to the Family History Library Catalog showing the film numbers in their collection  
 +
 +
==== Civil Registration  ====
 +
 +
Birth, marriages and deaths were kept by the government, from July 1837 to the present day. The [[England Civil Registration|civil registration]] article tells more about these records. There are several Internet sites with name lists or indexes. A popular site is [http://freebmd.org.uk/ FreeBMD].
  
 
==== Census records  ====
 
==== Census records  ====
  
{{Expand section|any unique information, such as ''the census for X year was destroyed''}}  
+
{{British Census|474663}}
  
 
==== Probate records  ====
 
==== Probate records  ====
  
 
Records of wills, administrations, inventories, indexes, etc. were filed by the court with jurisdiction over this parish. Go to [[Surrey Probate Records|Surrey Probate Records]] to find the name of the court having primary jurisdiction. Scroll down in the article to the section Court Jurisdictions by Parish.  
 
Records of wills, administrations, inventories, indexes, etc. were filed by the court with jurisdiction over this parish. Go to [[Surrey Probate Records|Surrey Probate Records]] to find the name of the court having primary jurisdiction. Scroll down in the article to the section Court Jurisdictions by Parish.  
 +
 +
==== Cemetery  ====
 +
 +
{{Find A Grave|880343|Kew St Anne Churchyard}} (75+ entries)
 +
 +
== Parish History  ==
 +
 +
'KEW (St. Anne), a parish, in the union of Richmond, Second division of the hundred of Kingston, E. division of Surrey, 6½ miles (W. by S.) from London; containing 923 inhabitants; It is pleasantly situated on the southern bank of the Thames, over which a handsome stone bridge of seven arches, replacing a former structure of wood, was erected in the year 1789, connecting it with Brentford. The village is lighted with gas. George III., who resided for a considerable time at Kew Palace, greatly improved and extended the gardens, which he united to those of Richmond; and began to erect a new royal palace in the ancient English style, which, after remaining for several years in an unfinished state, was taken down in 1828. The royal gardens are tastefully laid out, and embellished with temples of the various orders of Grecian architecture, and with a Chinese pagoda, from the summit of which a most extensive prospect is obtained of the scenery on the banks of the Thames, and of the surrounding country. The Botanic Gardens here contain the most complete collection of exotic plants in Europe, and comprise fifteen conservatories, one of which was erected in 1837, by His Majesty William IV., at an expense of about £5000, and is in the Grecian style, with Doric columns. Up to 1841 these gardens belonged to the crown as private gardens; but in that year Her Majesty assigned them to the Commissioners of Woods, at the same time giving 45 acres in addition, from the royal pleasure-grounds; and in 1846 a further grant of land was made, making a total of about 70 acres. The gardens are entered by beautiful gates of wrought iron, 13 feet high, with piers of Portland stone. The royal grounds are open to the public on Thursday and Sunday; and the Botanic portion everyday, Sunday excepted. The King of Hanover and Duke of Cambridge have residences on Kew green, and in the environs are several handsome villas.
 +
 +
<br>'Kew was a chapelry to Kingston, but was constituted a separate parish by act of parliament, in 1770: it comprises by measurement 231 acres of land, chiefly laid out in pasture; about 25 or 30 acres are woodland and ozier-beds. The living is a vicarage, with that of Petersham annexed; net income, £401; patrons, the Provost and Fellows of King's College, Cambridge; impropriator, Edward Kent, Esq. The church was built by subscription in 1714, on a site given by Queen Anne, as a chapel of ease to the vicarage of Kingston, and was enlarged by George III., whose successor on the throne erected the organ gallery, and presented to the parish the organ on which his father had been accustomed to play. The edifice was enlarged in 1837, under the directions of Sir Jeffrey Wyatville, at an expense of £4500, defrayed by William IV., and by a grant of £200 from the Incorporated Society. It contains neat monuments to the memory of Lady Capel, who endowed a free school, and Elizabeth, Countess of Derby, who left £1000 to the poor of the parishes of Kew and Old Brentford. The free school was founded in 1721, and is endowed with land producing £31. 10. per annum. George IV. contributed £300 towards its erection; and the first stone was laid by William IV., when Duke of Clarence, on the 12th of August, 1824: it is designated the "Queen's Free School," by permission of Her Majesty, who subscribes 20 guineas per annum towards its support.'<ref>Samuel A. Lewis, ''[[A Topographical Dictionary of England]]'' (1848):663-667. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=51073 Date accessed: 18 November 2010.</ref>
  
 
== Maps and Gazetteers  ==
 
== Maps and Gazetteers  ==
Line 61: Line 77:
 
== Web sites  ==
 
== Web sites  ==
  
Contributor: Add any relevant sites that aren’t mentioned above.
+
{{Wikipedia|St._Anne's_Church,_Kew|St Anne's Church, Kew}}
 +
 
 +
*[http://www.saintanne-kew.org.uk/ St Anne's Church, Kew Green] (official website). History, visitor directions, service times.
 +
 
 +
{{expand section|any additional relevant sites that aren't mentioned above}}
  
 
== References  ==
 
== References  ==
  
<references />
+
<references />  
 +
 
 +
{{Surrey}}
  
 
[[Category:Surrey]]
 
[[Category:Surrey]]

Revision as of 23:54, 26 October 2012

England  Gotoarrow.png  Surrey Gotoarrow.png  Surrey Parishes Gotoarrow.png  Kew with Petersham

Kew with Petersham, Surrey family history and genealogy research page. Guide to parish registers (baptisms, christenings, marriages, and burials), civil registration (births, marriages, and deaths), census records, history, wills, cemetery, online transcriptions and indexes, an interactive map and website resources.

[[Image:
St Anne Kew Green
]]

Church records

Online Kew with Petersham Parish Register Images and Indexes
 
Baptisms
Marriages
Burials
Earliest
1800
1800
1714
Images
1800-1812 Ancestry baptisms, marriages, and burials[1]
1813-1846 Ancestry[2] 1800-1846 Ancestry[3] 1813-1846 Ancestry[4]
Indexes 1800-1840 FamilySearch[5] 1800-1837 FamilySearch[6] 1714-1840 FindMyPast[7]

Contributor: Include here information for parish registers, Bishop’s Transcripts, non conformist and other types of church records, such as parish chest records. Add the contact information for the office holding the original records. Add links to the Family History Library Catalog showing the film numbers in their collection

Civil Registration

Birth, marriages and deaths were kept by the government, from July 1837 to the present day. The civil registration article tells more about these records. There are several Internet sites with name lists or indexes. A popular site is FreeBMD.

Census records

Census records from 1841 to 1911 are available online. For access, see England Census Records and Indexes Online. Census records from 1841 to 1891 are also available on film through a Family History Center or at the Family History Library.


Probate records

Records of wills, administrations, inventories, indexes, etc. were filed by the court with jurisdiction over this parish. Go to Surrey Probate Records to find the name of the court having primary jurisdiction. Scroll down in the article to the section Court Jurisdictions by Parish.

Cemetery

Kew St Anne Churchyard database at Find A Grave. (75+ entries)

Parish History

'KEW (St. Anne), a parish, in the union of Richmond, Second division of the hundred of Kingston, E. division of Surrey, 6½ miles (W. by S.) from London; containing 923 inhabitants; It is pleasantly situated on the southern bank of the Thames, over which a handsome stone bridge of seven arches, replacing a former structure of wood, was erected in the year 1789, connecting it with Brentford. The village is lighted with gas. George III., who resided for a considerable time at Kew Palace, greatly improved and extended the gardens, which he united to those of Richmond; and began to erect a new royal palace in the ancient English style, which, after remaining for several years in an unfinished state, was taken down in 1828. The royal gardens are tastefully laid out, and embellished with temples of the various orders of Grecian architecture, and with a Chinese pagoda, from the summit of which a most extensive prospect is obtained of the scenery on the banks of the Thames, and of the surrounding country. The Botanic Gardens here contain the most complete collection of exotic plants in Europe, and comprise fifteen conservatories, one of which was erected in 1837, by His Majesty William IV., at an expense of about £5000, and is in the Grecian style, with Doric columns. Up to 1841 these gardens belonged to the crown as private gardens; but in that year Her Majesty assigned them to the Commissioners of Woods, at the same time giving 45 acres in addition, from the royal pleasure-grounds; and in 1846 a further grant of land was made, making a total of about 70 acres. The gardens are entered by beautiful gates of wrought iron, 13 feet high, with piers of Portland stone. The royal grounds are open to the public on Thursday and Sunday; and the Botanic portion everyday, Sunday excepted. The King of Hanover and Duke of Cambridge have residences on Kew green, and in the environs are several handsome villas.


'Kew was a chapelry to Kingston, but was constituted a separate parish by act of parliament, in 1770: it comprises by measurement 231 acres of land, chiefly laid out in pasture; about 25 or 30 acres are woodland and ozier-beds. The living is a vicarage, with that of Petersham annexed; net income, £401; patrons, the Provost and Fellows of King's College, Cambridge; impropriator, Edward Kent, Esq. The church was built by subscription in 1714, on a site given by Queen Anne, as a chapel of ease to the vicarage of Kingston, and was enlarged by George III., whose successor on the throne erected the organ gallery, and presented to the parish the organ on which his father had been accustomed to play. The edifice was enlarged in 1837, under the directions of Sir Jeffrey Wyatville, at an expense of £4500, defrayed by William IV., and by a grant of £200 from the Incorporated Society. It contains neat monuments to the memory of Lady Capel, who endowed a free school, and Elizabeth, Countess of Derby, who left £1000 to the poor of the parishes of Kew and Old Brentford. The free school was founded in 1721, and is endowed with land producing £31. 10. per annum. George IV. contributed £300 towards its erection; and the first stone was laid by William IV., when Duke of Clarence, on the 12th of August, 1824: it is designated the "Queen's Free School," by permission of Her Majesty, who subscribes 20 guineas per annum towards its support.'[8]

Maps and Gazetteers

Maps are a visual look at the locations in England. Gazetteers contain brief summaries about a place.

Web sites

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has more about this subject: St Anne's Church, Kew

References

  1. London, England, Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials, 1538-1812, courtesy: Ancestry ($). Described as St Ann's, Kew Green in Richmond upon Thames Borough. Marriages from 1800 to 1812 are not included in this database. Partially indexed.
  2. London, England, Births and Baptisms, 1813-1906, courtesy: Ancestry ($). Described as Kew in Richmond upon Thames Borough. Partially indexed.
  3. London, England, Marriages and Banns, 1754-1921, courtesy: Ancestry ($). Described as Kew St Anne in Richmond Upon Thames Borough. Partially indexed.
  4. London, England, Deaths and Burials, 1813-1980, courtesy: Ancestry ($). Described as Kew in Richmond upon Thames Borough. Partially indexed.
  5. Batch C132861, see: Hugh Wallis, 'IGI Batch Numbers for Surrey, England,' IGI Batch Numbers, accessed 2 April 2012.
  6. Batch M132861, see: Hugh Wallis, 'IGI Batch Numbers for Surrey, England,' IGI Batch Numbers, accessed 2 April 2012.
  7. 'Parish Records - National Burial Index Records 1538 - 2005 Coverage,' Find My Past, accessed 11 April 2012. For a breakdown of missing years, see 'National Burial Index - Coverage: Surrey,' Federation of Family History Societies, accessed 11 April 2012.
  8. Samuel A. Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (1848):663-667. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=51073 Date accessed: 18 November 2010.