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{{Adoption Hidden Ancestors}}'''Texas comes from an Indian word meaning 'friend".'''
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| link2=[[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]]
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| link3=[[Texas, United States Genealogy|Texas]]
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| link5=[[Indians of Texas]]
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To learn how to get started with American Indian research, find research facilities, and American Indian websites [[American Indian Genealogy|click here]].<br>
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{{Adoption Hidden Ancestors}}
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Learn about the tribes and bands, state recognized tribes, history, agencies, and records for the Indians of Texas.  
  
== '''Tribes and Bands of Texas''' ==
+
=== Tribes and Bands of Texas  ===
  
Ethnologists have identified hundreds of groups of Texas "Indians," as the first European explorers to arrive called the peoples they found. Some of these were true tribes, accumulations of families or clans with social customs, traditions, and rules for order; these were occasionally quite large. At the opposite extreme, some were merely small family groups whose names or ethnic designations were taken for "tribal" names by the Spanish and French and in subsequent secondary literature. The extant names of [[Texas Indian Tribes|Texas Indian groups]] present a dazzling array of variants, partly because the Spanish, French, and English heard the newly "discovered" peoples differently and recorded their names differently. Some names in the historical records are mistakes for groups that never existed.  
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{{Click|Image:AI_ORP.png|American Indian Online Genealogy Records|right}}Ethnologists have identified hundreds of groups of Texas "Indians," as the first European explorers to arrive called the peoples they found. Some of these were true tribes, accumulations of families or clans with social customs, traditions, and rules for order; these were occasionally quite large. At the opposite extreme, some were merely small family groups whose names or ethnic designations were taken for "tribal" names by the Spanish and French and in subsequent secondary literature. The extant names of [[Texas Indian Tribes|Texas Indian groups]] present a dazzling array of variants, partly because the Spanish, French, and English heard the newly "discovered" peoples differently and recorded their names differently. Some names in the historical records are mistakes for groups that never existed.  
  
 
'''Spanish period.''' The variety of the peoples and cultures whom Europeans first found in Texas and the different histories of each group make generalizations about Indians hazardous. Texas was not simply a Spanish-Indian or Anglo-Indian frontier, but rather a multisided frontier, a Spanish-Anglo-Comanche-Wichita-Apache-etc. frontier, where multiple groups acted for their own reasons. A few generalizations, however, apply to all Texas Indian groups. First, diseases introduced by the Europeans decimated them, especially after mission and military institutions brought people in contact so that they could be infected. More broadly, anthropologist John C. Ewers has identified no fewer than thirty major epidemics-mainly of smallpox and cholera-between 1528 and 1890 that wiped out perhaps 95 percent of Texas Indians.  
 
'''Spanish period.''' The variety of the peoples and cultures whom Europeans first found in Texas and the different histories of each group make generalizations about Indians hazardous. Texas was not simply a Spanish-Indian or Anglo-Indian frontier, but rather a multisided frontier, a Spanish-Anglo-Comanche-Wichita-Apache-etc. frontier, where multiple groups acted for their own reasons. A few generalizations, however, apply to all Texas Indian groups. First, diseases introduced by the Europeans decimated them, especially after mission and military institutions brought people in contact so that they could be infected. More broadly, anthropologist John C. Ewers has identified no fewer than thirty major epidemics-mainly of smallpox and cholera-between 1528 and 1890 that wiped out perhaps 95 percent of Texas Indians.  
  
The following list of American Indians who have lived in Texas has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/texas/index.htm Available online].</ref>. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.
+
1859 Many Indians removed from Texas to Oklahoma
  
Akokisa, Alabama, Anadarko, [[Apache Indians|Apache]], Aranama, Atakapa, Bidai, Biloxi, [[Caddo Indians|Caddo]], [[Cherokee Indians|Cherokee]], [[Choctaw Indians|Choctaw]], Coahuiltecan, [[Comanche Indians|Comanche]], [[Creek Indians|Creek]], Deadose, Eyeish or Haish, Guasco, Hainai, Hasinai, Isleta del Sur, [[Jicarilla Apache Nation, New Mexico|Jicarilla]], Kadohadacho. Karankawan, Kichai, [[Kiowa Indians|Kiowa]], Koasati, Lipan (Upper and Lower), [[Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Oklahoma|Muskogee]], Nebedache, Nacachau, Nacanish, Nacogdoche, Nadaco, Namidish, Nechaui, Neches, Nasoni, Nanatsoho, Nasoni - Upper,&nbsp;Pakana, Pascagoula, Patiri, [[Pueblo Indians|Pueblo]], [[Quapaw Indians|Quapaw]], Senecu del Sur, [[Shawnee Indians|Shawnee]], Shuman, Soacatino or Xacatin, [[Tawakonie Indian Tribe, Oklahoma|Tawakoni]],&nbsp;Waco, [[Wichita Indians|Wichita]]  
+
The following list of American Indians who have lived in Texas has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [https://archive.org/details/handbookamindians02hodgrich Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/texas/index.htm Available online].</ref>. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.
  
Trans-Pecos, Kiowa-Apache, Lower-Lipan, Lipan-Apache, Upper Lipan
+
[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/texas-indian-tribes.htm Akokisa], Alabama, [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/anadarko-tribe.htm Anadarko], [[Apache Indians|Apache]],[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/aranama-tribe.htm Aranama], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/search/?q=Atakapa+tribe Atakapa], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/bidai-tribe.htm Bidai], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/biloxi-tribe.htm Biloxi], [[Caddo Indians|Caddo]], [[Cherokee Indians|Cherokee]], [[Choctaw Indians|Choctaw]], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/coahuiltecan-indians.htm Coahuiltecan], [[Comanche Indians|Comanche]], [[Creek Indians|Creek]], Deadose,[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/eyeish-tribe.htm Eyeish] or Haish, Guasco, [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/hainai-tribe.htm Hainai], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/hasinai-confederacy.htm Hasinai], Isleta del Sur, [[Jicarilla Apache Nation, New Mexico|Jicarilla]], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/kadohadacho-tribe.htm Kadohadacho], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/karankawan-indians.htm Karankawan], Kichai, [[Kiowa Indians|Kiowa]],[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/koasati-tribe.htm Koasati],[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/lipan-apache-tribe.htm Lipan] (Upper and Lower), [[Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Oklahoma|Muskogee]], Nebedache, [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/the-nacachau-nechaui-and-nacono-tribes.htm Nacachau], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/texas-indian-tribes.htm Nacanish], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/nacogdoche-tribe.htm Nacogdoche], Nadaco, Namidish, [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/the-nacachau-nechaui-and-nacono-tribes.htm Nechaui], Neches, Nasoni, [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/nanatsoho-tribe.htm Nanatsoho], Nasoni - Upper,&nbsp;[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/pakana-tribe.htm Pakana],[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/pascagoula-tribe.htm Pascagoula], Patiri, [[Pueblo Indians|Pueblo]], [[Quapaw Indians|Quapaw]], Senecu del Sur, [[Shawnee Indians|Shawnee]], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/shuman-indians.htm Shuman],[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/soacatino-tribe.htm Soacatino] or Xacatin,[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tonkawa-tribe.htm Tonkawa], [[Tawakonie Indian Tribe, Oklahoma|Tawakoni]],&nbsp;[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tigua-tribe.htm Tigua],[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/waco-tribe.htm Waco], [[Wichita Indians|Wichita]]
  
== Reservations  ==
+
Trans-Pecos, [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/kiowa-apache-tribe.htm Kiowa-Apache], Lower-Lipan, Lipan-Apache, Upper Lipan
  
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.  
+
''Indian Tribes of Texas''. By Dorman H. Winfrey. FHL book 970.1In2i
  
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
+
''The Indian Texans''.University of Texas at San ANtonio. Institute of Texan Cultures, 1970. {{FHL|157608|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 In2u}} [http://www.worldcat.org/title/indian-texans/oclc/130243 WorldCat ]
  
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
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=== Texas State Recognized Tribes  ===
  
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/tx.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book {{FHL|433280|title-id|disp=973 E5}})</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.
+
*[http://www.lipanapache.org/ Lipan Apache Tribe of Texas]
  
*[[Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation (Texas)|Alabama and Coushatta Reservation]]: State, Tribes: Alabama and Coushatta
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=== Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  ===
*Kickapoo Reservation
 
*Tigua Reservation: State,Tribes: Tigua, Ysleta del Sur Pueblo
 
*Ysleta del Sur Pueblo Reservation: State, under jurisdiction of the Southern Pueblos Agency
 
 
 
== Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  ==
 
  
 
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.  
 
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.  
Line 43: Line 45:
 
*[[Texas Indian Agency (Texas)|Texas Agency]] 1847-1859
 
*[[Texas Indian Agency (Texas)|Texas Agency]] 1847-1859
  
== Family History Library ==
+
=== Records ===
 +
 
 +
The '''majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies'''. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:<br>
 +
 
 +
*[[American Indian Allotment Records|Allotment records]]
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*[[American Indian Annuity Rolls|Annuity rolls]]
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*[[American Indian Census Rolls|Census records]]
 +
*[[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|Correspondence]]
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*[[American Indian Health Records|Health records]]
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*[[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|Reports]]
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*[[American Indian School Records|School census and records]]
 +
*[[American Indian Vital Records Supplements in Census Rolls|Vital records]]
  
*United States. Office of Indian Affairs. M540&nbsp;''Southern Superintendency 1832-1870.'' (22 films &nbsp;Family History Library&nbsp; beginning 1st film {{FHL|589948|title-id|disp=1602871}}.)
+
===Church Records===
  
== See Also: ==
+
*Martin, George Castor. The Indians Tribes of the Mission Nuestra Senora del Refugio, Corpus Christi, Texas: Bootstraps Press, 1972. FHL book 970.1 M363i FHL film 940061 item 3
  
[[Texas History|Texas_History]] for a calendar of events
+
=== Reservations  ===
  
[[Texas Military Records|Texas_ Military]] for a list of forts
+
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
  
== Web Sites  ==
+
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
  
[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/texas/index.htm <u>'''http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/texas/index.htm'''</u>]
+
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.  
  
'''[http://www.native-languages.org/texas.htm <u>http://www.native-languages.org/texas.htm</u>]'''  
+
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/tx.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book {{FHL|433280|title-id|disp=973 E5}})</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.
  
'''[http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/II/bzi4.html]'''
+
*[[Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation (Texas)|Alabama and Coushatta Reservation]]: State, Tribes: Alabama and Coushatta
 +
*[[Kickapoo Indian Reservation (Kansas)|Kickapoo Reservation]] (Kansas)&nbsp; [[Kickapoo Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Kickapoo Reservation]] (Oklahoma)
 +
*[[Tigua Indian Reservation (Texas)|Tigua Reservation]]: State,Tribes: Tigua, Ysleta del Sur Pueblo
 +
*Ysleta del Sur Pueblo Reservation: State, under jurisdiction of the Southern Pueblos Agency
 +
 
 +
=== For Further Reading  ===
  
== References  ==
+
See also '''[[American Indian For Further Reading]]'''.
  
<references />
+
*United States. Office of Indian Affairs. M540 ''Southern Superintendency 1832-1870.'' {{FHL|589948|item|disp=FHL film 1602871 (first of 22 films}}.
 +
*FamilySearch Catalog list more than 100 titles for [https://familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlehitlist&columns=*%2C0%2C0&keyword=Texas+Native+Races&prekeyword=Texas+Native+Races Texas Native Races]
 +
*Aten, Lawrence E. ''Indians of Upper Texas Coast''. {{FHL|1828882|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 At27i}} [http://www.worldcat.org/title/indians-of-the-upper-texas-coast/oclc/8688554 WorldCat]
 +
*Berlandier, Jean Louis, and John Canfield Ewers. ''The Indians of Texas in 1830''. {{FHL| 51679|item|disp= FHL book 970.1 B455i}}[http://www.worldcat.org/title/indians-of-texas-in-1830/oclc/4695 WorldCat]
 +
*LaVere, David. ''Texas Indians''. {{FHL|1232377|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 L388t}}[http://www.worldcat.org/title/texas-indians/oclc/52514393 WorldCat]
 +
*[[Texas History|Texas History]] for a calendar of events
 +
*[[Texas Military Records|Texas Military]] for a list of forts
 +
*[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/texas/index.htm Access Genealogy]
 +
*[http://www.native-languages.org/texas.htm Native American Tribes of Texas]
  
==== Bibliography ====
+
=== References ===
  
*"Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
+
<references />
*''American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications''. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
 
*Gilbert, William Harlen, Jr. Surviving Indian Groups in the Eastern United States. Pp. 407-438 of the Smithsonian Report for 1948. [http://picasaweb.google.com/craingen/Surviving_Indian_Groups# Available online].
 
*Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
 
*Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches''. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
 
*''Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880''. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].
 
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
 
*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/TX.pdf Available online].
 
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/texas/index.htm Available online].
 
*Winfrey, Dorman H., and&nbsp;James M. Day&nbsp;&nbsp;''The Indina Papers of Texas and the Southwest, 1825-1916''. The Pemberton Press, 1966. 5 volumes. FHL Book: 970.1W726w
 
  
 
{{American Indian}} {{Texas|Texas}}  
 
{{American Indian}} {{Texas|Texas}}  
  
[[Category:Texas]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]
+
[[Category:Texas Minorities]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]

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Learn about the tribes and bands, state recognized tribes, history, agencies, and records for the Indians of Texas.

Tribes and Bands of Texas

AI ORP.png
Ethnologists have identified hundreds of groups of Texas "Indians," as the first European explorers to arrive called the peoples they found. Some of these were true tribes, accumulations of families or clans with social customs, traditions, and rules for order; these were occasionally quite large. At the opposite extreme, some were merely small family groups whose names or ethnic designations were taken for "tribal" names by the Spanish and French and in subsequent secondary literature. The extant names of Texas Indian groups present a dazzling array of variants, partly because the Spanish, French, and English heard the newly "discovered" peoples differently and recorded their names differently. Some names in the historical records are mistakes for groups that never existed.

Spanish period. The variety of the peoples and cultures whom Europeans first found in Texas and the different histories of each group make generalizations about Indians hazardous. Texas was not simply a Spanish-Indian or Anglo-Indian frontier, but rather a multisided frontier, a Spanish-Anglo-Comanche-Wichita-Apache-etc. frontier, where multiple groups acted for their own reasons. A few generalizations, however, apply to all Texas Indian groups. First, diseases introduced by the Europeans decimated them, especially after mission and military institutions brought people in contact so that they could be infected. More broadly, anthropologist John C. Ewers has identified no fewer than thirty major epidemics-mainly of smallpox and cholera-between 1528 and 1890 that wiped out perhaps 95 percent of Texas Indians.

1859 Many Indians removed from Texas to Oklahoma

The following list of American Indians who have lived in Texas has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians...[1] and from Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America[2]. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.

Akokisa, Alabama, Anadarko, Apache,Aranama, Atakapa, Bidai, Biloxi, Caddo, Cherokee, Choctaw, Coahuiltecan, Comanche, Creek, Deadose,Eyeish or Haish, Guasco, Hainai, Hasinai, Isleta del Sur, Jicarilla, Kadohadacho, Karankawan, Kichai, Kiowa,Koasati,Lipan (Upper and Lower), Muskogee, Nebedache, Nacachau, Nacanish, Nacogdoche, Nadaco, Namidish, Nechaui, Neches, Nasoni, Nanatsoho, Nasoni - Upper, Pakana,Pascagoula, Patiri, Pueblo, Quapaw, Senecu del Sur, Shawnee, Shuman,Soacatino or Xacatin,Tonkawa, TawakoniTigua,Waco, Wichita

Trans-Pecos, Kiowa-Apache, Lower-Lipan, Lipan-Apache, Upper Lipan

Indian Tribes of Texas. By Dorman H. Winfrey. FHL book 970.1In2i

The Indian Texans.University of Texas at San ANtonio. Institute of Texan Cultures, 1970. FHL book 970.1 In2u WorldCat

Texas State Recognized Tribes

Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Texas has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[3], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[4], and others.

Records

The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:

Church Records

  • Martin, George Castor. The Indians Tribes of the Mission Nuestra Senora del Refugio, Corpus Christi, Texas: Bootstraps Press, 1972. FHL book 970.1 M363i FHL film 940061 item 3

Reservations

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[5], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[6], and other sources. Those reservations named in bold are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.

For Further Reading

See also American Indian For Further Reading.

References

  1. Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  2. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  3. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  4. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  5. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  6. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book 973 E5)