Difference between revisions of "Indians of Michigan"

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The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.  
 
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.  
  
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/mi.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.<br>  
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The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/mi.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.<br>
  
 
*'''[[Bay Mills Indian Reservation (Michigan)|Bay Mills Reservation]]: '''Federal, under jurisdiction of Michigan Agency, Tribe: Chippewa  
 
*'''[[Bay Mills Indian Reservation (Michigan)|Bay Mills Reservation]]: '''Federal, under jurisdiction of Michigan Agency, Tribe: Chippewa  
 
*Chippewa Reservation:  
 
*Chippewa Reservation:  
*Grand Traverse Reservation:&nbsp; State, under jurisdiction of Michigan Agency, Tribe:  
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Traverse_Indian_Reservation Grand Traverse Reservation]:&nbsp; State, under jurisdiction of Michigan Agency, Tribe: Chippewa and Ottawa&nbsp;
*'''[[Hannahville_Indian_Community_(Michigan)|Hannahville Community]]:&nbsp; '''Federal, under jurisdiction of Michigan Agency, Tribe: Potawatomi  
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*'''[[Hannahville Indian Community (Michigan)|Hannahville Community]]:&nbsp; '''Federal, under jurisdiction of Michigan Agency, Tribe: Potawatomi  
*Huron Potawatomi Reservation  
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huron_Potawatomi_Indian_Reservation Huron Potawatomi Reservation] : Federal recognized,Tribe Potawatomi
 
*'''[[Isabella Indian Reservation (Michigan)|Isabella (Saginaw) Reservation]]: '''Federal, under jurisdiction of Michigan Agency, Tribe: Saginaw Chippewa  
 
*'''[[Isabella Indian Reservation (Michigan)|Isabella (Saginaw) Reservation]]: '''Federal, under jurisdiction of Michigan Agency, Tribe: Saginaw Chippewa  
 
*'''[[L'Anse Indian Reservation (Michigan)|L'Anse (Keweenaw Bay) Reservation]]: '''Federal, under jurisdiction of Michigan Agency, Tribe: Lake Supior Band Chippeewa  
 
*'''[[L'Anse Indian Reservation (Michigan)|L'Anse (Keweenaw Bay) Reservation]]: '''Federal, under jurisdiction of Michigan Agency, Tribe: Lake Supior Band Chippeewa  

Revision as of 21:50, 10 August 2009

The name Michigan come from a Chippewan Indian word "Michigana" meaning "great or large lake"

Tribes and Bands of Michigan

The following list of tribes and bands of American Indians who have lived in Michigan has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico...[1] and Swanton's Indian Tribes of North America[2].

Tribes: Chippewa, Croix Band of Chippewa, Delaware, East Saginaw, Foxes, Huron, Kickapoo, Menominee, Miami, Neutrals, Noquet, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Sauk, Winnebago, Wyandot

Bands: Deseret Band of Lake Superior Chippewa, Grand River, Grand Traverse, Keweenaw Bay, L'Anse, Lac Vieux Desert, Lax Vieux, Little River, Little Traverse, Mackinac, Ontonagon, Saginaw - Chippewa, Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa

Reservations

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[3], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[4], and other sources. Those reservations named in bold are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.

Agencies and Subagencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Michigan has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[5], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[6], and others.

Indian Schools

The Office of Indian Affairs (now the Bureau of Indian Affairs) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.

In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. (read more...)

The following list of Indian Schools in Michigan has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[7], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[8], and others.

Family History Library

Michigan Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1814-1851. (On 71 films Family History Library starting with 1604649.)

Northern Superintendency 1851-1876. M1166.(On 35 Family History Library films starting with 1490921.)

See Also

Michigan History -- for a calendar giving important dates pertaining to Indians

Michigan Military -- for a list of forts

References

  1. Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  2. Swanton, John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online..
  3. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  4. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  5. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  6. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  7. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  8. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)

Bibliography

  • "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
  • American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
  • Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  • Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  • National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  • Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.