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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[California]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians of California]]''
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Learn of the Indians of California, tribes and bands, state recognized tribes, Spanish missions, agencies, reservations, rancherias, and records.
  
 
One of the difficulties with American Indian research in California is in the terminology used. In most of the United States, the difference between the term tribe and band is quite clear. In California, the Bureau of Indian Affairs seems to have used the two terms almost interchangeably. At least some bands, or subdivisions, of some tribes are sometimes identified as tribes. And in a few case, smaller trust areas of land are called villages or colonies or settlements.  
 
One of the difficulties with American Indian research in California is in the terminology used. In most of the United States, the difference between the term tribe and band is quite clear. In California, the Bureau of Indian Affairs seems to have used the two terms almost interchangeably. At least some bands, or subdivisions, of some tribes are sometimes identified as tribes. And in a few case, smaller trust areas of land are called villages or colonies or settlements.  
  
What are called reservations in most states are sometimes identified as such in California, but smaller land areas are also called Rancherias.  
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What are called reservations in most states are sometimes identified as such in California, but smaller land areas are also called Rancherias. Rancheria is a small reservation, the land was purchased by small tribes or by the government in behalf to those tribes. The term is applied to the office for the tribe(s) occupying or owning the land. <br>
  
 
Jurisdictions are also sometimes confusing. Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs certainly existed and operated in California, but sometimes the duties of an agency were carried out by a school or a subagency. While that happened in other states, too, it seems to have been more common in California.  
 
Jurisdictions are also sometimes confusing. Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs certainly existed and operated in California, but sometimes the duties of an agency were carried out by a school or a subagency. While that happened in other states, too, it seems to have been more common in California.  
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<br>  
 
<br>  
  
== Tribes and Bands of California  ==
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=== Tribes and Bands of California  ===
  
The following list of American Indians who have lived in California has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/california/index.htm Available online].</ref>. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.  
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The following list of American Indians who have lived in California has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [https://archive.org/details/handbookamindians02hodgrich Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/california/index.htm Available online].</ref>. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.  
  
[https://www.familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Pit_River_Indians Achomawi]--&nbsp; or Pit River Indians occupied the drainage area of Pit river from a few miles below Round mountain up into the south end of Goose Lake Valley, about twenty miles above Alturas.  
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[[Pit River Indians|Achomawi]]--or Pit River Indians occupied the drainage area of Pit river from a few miles below Round mountain up into the south end of Goose Lake Valley, about twenty miles above Alturas.  
  
 
[https://familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Agua_Caliente_Band_of_Cahuilla_Indians,_California Agua Caliente]&nbsp;-- A small Shoshonean division on the head waters of San Luis Rey r., s. Cal, forming one linguistic group with the Kawia, Luiseno, and Juaneño.  
 
[https://familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Agua_Caliente_Band_of_Cahuilla_Indians,_California Agua Caliente]&nbsp;-- A small Shoshonean division on the head waters of San Luis Rey r., s. Cal, forming one linguistic group with the Kawia, Luiseno, and Juaneño.  
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[http://www.legendsofamerica.com/na-tribesummary-a-3.html Alliklik]&nbsp;-- Alliklik Indians are part of the Shoshonean division of the Indians of California. Living on the upper Santa Clara River in California.  
 
[http://www.legendsofamerica.com/na-tribesummary-a-3.html Alliklik]&nbsp;-- Alliklik Indians are part of the Shoshonean division of the Indians of California. Living on the upper Santa Clara River in California.  
  
Atsugewi -- They are very industrious and hardworking people. Depending on vegetables, acoms and fish to survive.  
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Atsugewi -- They are very industrious and hardworking people. Depending on vegetables, acorns and fish to survive.  
  
[https://familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Bear_River_Band_of_the_Rohnerville_Rancheria,_California Bear River]--&nbsp;Traditionally living in the Cape Mendocino, in the vicinity of the Mattole and Bear rivers area.  
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[https://familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Bear_River_Band_of_the_Rohnerville_Rancheria,_California Bear River] Traditionally living in the Cape Mendocino, in the vicinity of the Mattole and Bear rivers area.  
  
[[Cahto Indians|Cahto]]&nbsp;-- Sometimes called "People of the Lake" or Lake People, refers to a Ancient lake shore where many of the prople lived.  
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[[Cahto Indians|Cahto]] Sometimes called "People of the Lake" or Lake People, refers to a Ancient lake shore where many of the people lived.  
  
[[Cahuilla Indians|Cahuilla]]&nbsp;-- They are referred to as Desert, Mountain and Pass Cahuillas. The Cahuilla located their people near water and food sources.  
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[[Cahuilla Indians|Cahuilla]] They are referred to as Desert, Mountain and Pass Cahuillas. The Cahuilla located their people near water and food sources.  
  
[[Shasta Indians|Chasta]]&nbsp;--&nbsp;A group of small tribes or divisions forming the Shastan linguistic family of north California and formerly extending into Oregon.  
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[[Shasta Indians|Chasta]] A group of small tribes or divisions forming the Shastan linguistic family of north California and formerly extending into Oregon.  
  
 
Chaushila --As a tribe they are now extinct.  
 
Chaushila --As a tribe they are now extinct.  
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[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/indiantribehistory2.htm Chetco] -- A&nbsp;group of former Athapascan villages situated on each side of the mouth of and about 14 miles up Chetco river, Oregon.  
 
[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/indiantribehistory2.htm Chetco] -- A&nbsp;group of former Athapascan villages situated on each side of the mouth of and about 14 miles up Chetco river, Oregon.  
  
[http://www.mdvaden.com/redwood_indians.shtml Chilula] --&nbsp;The Chilula villages were near lower Redwood Creek to several miles upstream, near Minor Creek. All but one were on the NE side of the river, where timber was not as dense.  
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[http://www.mdvaden.com/redwood_indians.shtml Chilula] The Chilula villages were near lower Redwood Creek to several miles upstream, near Minor Creek. All but one were on the NE side of the river, where timber was not as dense.  
  
[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/chimariko/chimarikohist.htm Chimariko]&nbsp;-- A small tribe, comprising the Chimarikan family, formerly on Trinity River, near the mouth of New River, Northern California, extending from Hawkins Bar to about Big Bar, and probably along lower New River; they adjoined the Hupa downstream and the Winton upstream.  
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[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/chimariko/chimarikohist.htm Chimariko] A small tribe, comprising the Chimarikan family, formerly on Trinity River, near the mouth of New River, Northern California, extending from Hawkins Bar to about Big Bar, and probably along lower New River; they adjoined the Hupa downstream and the Winton upstream.  
  
[[Chumash Indians|Chumash]]&nbsp;-- The Chumash Indians were some of the first people to inhabit North America.&nbsp;Once a thriving culture, the Chumash, as did other Native American tribes, succumbed to Spanish conquistadors and American colonists.  
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[[Chumash Indians|Chumash]] The Chumash Indians were some of the first people to inhabit North America. Once a thriving culture, the Chumash, as did other Native American tribes, succumbed to Spanish conquistadors and American colonists.  
  
[[Chumash Indians|Chumash Indians]]&nbsp;Coast Indian Community --&nbsp;There were at one time over 20,000 Chumash living along the California coastline.  
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[[Chumash Indians|Chumash Indians]] Coast Indian Community --There were at one time over 20,000 Chumash living along the California coastline.  
  
[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/costanoan/costanoanindiantribe.htm Costanoan]&nbsp;--&nbsp;Are a Native American people of the central California coast.  
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[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/costanoan/costanoanindiantribe.htm Costanoan] Are a Native American people of the central California coast.  
  
[http://www.palatribe.com/cupa-cultural-center/history-and-culture-1 Cupeno] --&nbsp;Cupeño are a Native American tribe from Southern California. Their name in their own language is Kuupangaxwichem  
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[http://www.palatribe.com/cupa-cultural-center/history-and-culture-1 Cupeno]--Cupeño are a Native American tribe from Southern California. Their name in their own language is Kuupangaxwichem  
  
 
Cuyapaipe Band -- The tribes had comparatively peaceful culture, living in costal plaines of California.  
 
Cuyapaipe Band -- The tribes had comparatively peaceful culture, living in costal plaines of California.  
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[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/californiatribes.htm Dakubetede] -- Inhabiting the territory between San Diego, southern California and the mouth of the Rio Colorado.  
 
[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/californiatribes.htm Dakubetede] -- Inhabiting the territory between San Diego, southern California and the mouth of the Rio Colorado.  
  
[[Diegueno Indians|Diegueno]]&nbsp;--&nbsp;The Diegueno belonged to the Central division of the Yuman linguistic group.  
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[[Diegueno Indians|Diegueno]]--The Diegueno belonged to the Central division of the Yuman linguistic group.  
  
Ech &nbsp;
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[http://www.mchsmuseum.com/esselen.html Esselen ]-- Previously resided on the Central California Coast. They were one of the smallest native American tribes in California
  
[http://www.mchsmuseum.com/esselen.html Esselen ]-- Previously resided on the Central California Coast. They were one of the smallest native American tribes in Californis
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[http://actaonline.org/content/fernandeno-tataviam-band-mission-indians Fernandeno] -- The Tataviam people have continued to maintain a local tribal government since those times. Despite a lack of federal acknowledgement as a recognized American Indian Tribe, the Tribe defies limitations in its continued perseverance to defend the rights of Fernandeño Tataviam people as Indian people.
  
[http://actaonline.org/content/fernandeno-tataviam-band-mission-indians Fernandeno] -- &nbsp;The Tataviam people have continued to maintain a local tribal government since those times. Despite a lack of federal acknowledgement as a recognized American Indian Tribe, the Tribe defies limitations in its continued perseverance to defend the rights of Fernandeño Tataviam people as Indian people.
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[http://www.gabrielinotribe.org/TribalHistory/tribal_history.cfm Gabrielino ]-While Gabrieleño (also Gabrielino) remains in use, the name Tongva has become increasingly preferred as a self-designation since the 1990's.  
 
 
[http://www.gabrielinotribe.org/TribalHistory/tribal_history.cfm Gabrielino ]--&nbsp;While Gabrieleño (also Gabrielino) remains in use, the name Tongva has become increasingly preferred as a self-designation since the 1990s.  
 
  
 
Halchidhoma--The Halchidhoma were part of an alliance that also included the Maricopa and Cocopa.  
 
Halchidhoma--The Halchidhoma were part of an alliance that also included the Maricopa and Cocopa.  
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[https://familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Hoopa_Valley_Tribe,_California Hoopa]--Native American tribes in Northwestern California.  
 
[https://familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Hoopa_Valley_Tribe,_California Hoopa]--Native American tribes in Northwestern California.  
  
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Huchnom,
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[[Hupa Indians|Hupa]],
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Juaneno, The '''Juanero Band of Mission''' Indians is the only a '''State Recognized Tribe''' - by California
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Kamia, Karok, Kasihta, Kato,Kawaiisu, Kitanemake, Konkau, Konomihu, Koso, Lassik, Little Lake, [[Luiseno Indians|Luiseno]], [[Maidu Indians|Maidu]], Mattole, [[Miwok Indians|Miwok]], [[Modoc Indians|Modoc,]] Mohava, [[Mono Indians|Mono]], Nicoleno, Nongatl, Okwanuchu, [[Paiute Indians|Paiute]] (Northern), Patwin, [[Pomo Indians|Pomo]], [[Quechan Indians|Quechan]], Salinan, [[Serrano Indians|Serrano]], [[Shasta Indians|Shasta]], [[Shoshone Indians|Shoshone]], Sinkyone, Tolowa, Tubatulabal, Vanyume, [[Wailaki Indians|Wailaki]], Wappo, [[Washoe Indians|Washoe]], Whilkut, Wintu, [[Wintun Indians|Wintun]], [[Wiyot Indians|Wiyot]], Yahi, Yana, [[Yokuts Indians|Yokuts]], Yuki, Yuma, [[Yurok Indians|Yurok]]
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[[Barona Band of Mission Indians, California|Barona Group of Captian Grande Band]],[[Coyote Valley Band of Pomo Indians, California|Coyote Valley Band]],Inaja Cosmit Band, La Jolla Band, La Posta Band, [[Los Coyotes Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians, California|Los Coyotes Band]], &nbsp;Romona Band, Paiute: Mono Lake<br>
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*Heizer, Robert Fleming and Mary Anne Whipple. The California Indians: A Source Book.{{FHL|170059|item|disp=FHL Book 970.1H366c}} [http://www.worldcat.org/title/california-indians-a-source-book/oclc/174893 WorldCat]
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*Kroeber, Alred Louis. Handbook of the Indians of California. {{FHL|53833|item|disp=FHL book 970.1K913h}} [http://www.worldcat.org/title/handbook-of-the-indians-of-california/oclc/680736 WorldCat]
  
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=== California State Recognized Tribes  ===
  
Huchnom, [[Hupa Indians|Hupa]], Juaneno, Kamia, Karok, Kasihta, Kato,&nbsp;Kawaiisu, Kitanemake, Konkau, Konomihu, Koso, Lassik, Little Lake, [[Luiseno Indians|Luiseno]], [[Maidu Indians|Maidu]], Mattole, [[Miwok Indians|Miwok]], [[Modoc Indians|Modoc,]] Mohava, [[Mono Indians|Mono]], Nicoleno, Nongatl, Okwanuchu, [[Paiute Indians|Paiute]] (Northern), Patwin, [[Pomo Indians|Pomo]], [[Quechan Indians|Quechan]], Salinan, [[Serrano Indians|Serrano]], [[Shasta Indians|Shasta]], [[Shoshone Indians|Shoshone]], Sinkyone,&nbsp;Tolowa, Tubatulabal,&nbsp;Vanyume, [[Wailaki Indians|Wailaki]], Wappo, [[Washoe Indians|Washoe]], Whilkut, Wintu, [[Wintun Indians|Wintun]], [[Wiyot Indians|Wiyot]], Yahi, Yana, [[Yokuts Indians|Yokuts]], Yuki, Yuma, [[Yurok Indians|Yurok]]  
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[http://juaneno.com/ Juaneno Band of Mission Indians]  
  
Barona Group of Captian Grande Band, Coyote Valley Band,&nbsp; Inaja Cosmit Band, La Jolla Band, La Posta Band, Los Coyotes Band, &nbsp;Romona Band, Paiute: Mono Lake
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=== Historical Background  ===
  
== Historical Background  ==
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A number of tribes have resided in [[California Genealogy|California]], some centered around the [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/mission/calmissions.htm Spanish missions] there. Others had no connection to those missions. The Spanish missions were the first effort at encouraging good relationships between the natives and the Caucasian settlers. Efforts were made to teach the Indians about farming methods, the Catholic religion, and other matters.
  
A number of tribes have resided in [[California|California]], some centered around the [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/mission/calmissions.htm Spanish missions] there. Others had no connection to those missions. The Spanish missions were the first effort at encouraging good relationships between the natives and the Caucasian settlers. Efforts were made to teach the Indians about farming methods, the Catholic religion, and other matters.
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==== Old Spanish Missions of California, with dates of their founding  ====
  
=== Old Spanish Missions of California, with dates of their founding  ===
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*[http://www.lapurisimamission.org/ La Purisima Concepcion] -- 1787
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*[http://missionsoledad.com/ Nuestra Senora de la Soledad] -- 1791
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_San_Antonio_de_Padua San Antonio de Padua] -- 1771
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*[http://www.sanbuenaventuramission.org/ San Buenaventura] -- 1782
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathedral_of_San_Carlos_Borromeo San Carlos Borromeo de Monterey] -- 1770
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_San_Diego_de_Alcal%C3%A1 San Diego de Alcala] -- 1769
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_San_Fernando_Rey_de_Espa%C3%B1a San Fernando Rey] -- 1797
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_San_Francisco_de_As%C3%ADs San Francisco de Asis] (Dolores) -- 1776
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_San_Francisco_Solano_%28California%29 San Francisco Solaro] (San Solano or Sonoma) -- 1823
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_San_Gabriel_Arc%C3%A1ngel San Gabriel Arcangel] -- 1771
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_San_Jos%C3%A9_%28California%29 San Jose] -- 1797
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_San_Juan_Bautista San Juan Bautista] -- 1797
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_San_Luis_Obispo_de_Tolosa San Luis Obispo de Tolosa] -- 1772
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_San_Luis_Obispo_de_Tolosa San Luis Rey de Fancia] -- 1798
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_San_Juan_Capistrano San Juan Capistrano] -- 1776
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*[http://www.missionsanmiguel.org/ San Miguel] -- 1797
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_San_Pedro_y_San_Pablo_de_Bicu%C3%B1er San Pedro y San Pablo de Bicuner] -- 1780
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_San_Rafael_Arc%C3%A1ngel San Rafael] -- 1817
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_Santa_Barbara Santa Barbara] -- 1786
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_Santa_Barbara Santa Clara] -- 1777
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_Santa_Cruz Santa Cruz] -- 1791
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_Santa_In%C3%A9s Santa Ines] -- 1804
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<br>
  
*La Purisima Concepcion -- 1787
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Pablo Tac., An Indian Neophyte, ''Indian Life and Customs at Mission San Luis Rey''. Written about 1835. Edited and translated by Minna and Gordon Hewes. {{FHL|1024751|item|desp=FHL film 1440543}} [http://www.worldcat.org/title/indian-life-and-customs-at-mission-san-luis-rey-a-record-of-california-mission-life/oclc/865944573 WorldCat]
*Nuestra Senora de la Soledad -- 1791
 
*San Antonio de Padua -- 1771
 
*San Buenaventura -- 1782
 
*San Carlos Borromeo de Monterey -- 1770
 
*San Diego de Alcala -- 1769
 
*San Fernando Rey -- 1797
 
*San Francisco de Asis (Dolores) -- 1776
 
*San Francisco Solaro (San Solano or Sonoma) -- 1823
 
*San Gabriel Arcangel -- 1771
 
*San Jose -- 1797
 
*San Juan Bautista -- 1797
 
*San Luis Obispo de Tolosa -- 1772
 
*San Luis Rey de Fancia -- 1798
 
*San Juan Capistrano -- 1776
 
*San Miguel -- 1797
 
*San Pedro y San Pablo de Bicuner -- 1780
 
*San Rafael -- 1817
 
*Santa Barbara -- 1786
 
*Santa Clara -- 1777
 
*Santa Cruz -- 1791
 
*Santa Ines -- 1804
 
  
== Agencies and Subagencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  ==
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=== Agencies and Subagencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  ===
  
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.  
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[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same.'''Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.'''
  
 
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in California has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library {{FHL|247426|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.  
 
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in California has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library {{FHL|247426|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.  
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*Capitan Grande Agency  
 
*Capitan Grande Agency  
 
*[[Central California Indian Agency (California)|Central California Agency]], 1800&nbsp;Tribute Road, Suite 111, Sacramento, CA, 95815  
 
*[[Central California Indian Agency (California)|Central California Agency]], 1800&nbsp;Tribute Road, Suite 111, Sacramento, CA, 95815  
*[[Colorado River Indian Agency (Arizona)|Colorado River Agency]], Rt. 1, Box 9-C, Parker, AZ, 85344&nbsp;
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*[[Colorado River Indian Agency (Arizona)|Colorado River Agency]], Rt. 1, Box 9-C, Parker, AZ, 85344<br>
 
*[[Digger Indian Agency (California)|Digger Agency]]  
 
*[[Digger Indian Agency (California)|Digger Agency]]  
 
*[[Fort Bidwell Indian Agency (California)|Fort Bidwell Agency]]  
 
*[[Fort Bidwell Indian Agency (California)|Fort Bidwell Agency]]  
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*[[Smith River Indian Agency (California)|Smith River Agency]]  
 
*[[Smith River Indian Agency (California)|Smith River Agency]]  
 
*[[Soboba Indian Superintendency (California)|Soboba Superintendency]]  
 
*[[Soboba Indian Superintendency (California)|Soboba Superintendency]]  
*[[Southern California Indian Agency (California)|Southern California Agency]],&nbsp;3600 Lime St., Suite 722,&nbsp;Riverside, CA, 92501&nbsp;
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*[[Southern California Indian Agency (California)|Southern California Agency]],&nbsp;3600 Lime St., Suite 722,&nbsp;Riverside, CA, 92501<br>
 
*[[Tejon Indian Agency (California)|Tejon Agency]]  
 
*[[Tejon Indian Agency (California)|Tejon Agency]]  
 
*[[Torres-Martinez Indian Subagency (California)|Torres-Martinez Subagency]]  
 
*[[Torres-Martinez Indian Subagency (California)|Torres-Martinez Subagency]]  
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*[[Western Nevada Indian Agency (Nevada)|Western Nevada Agency]], 1300 South Curry Street, Carson City, NV, 89701
 
*[[Western Nevada Indian Agency (Nevada)|Western Nevada Agency]], 1300 South Curry Street, Carson City, NV, 89701
  
== Indian Schools  ==
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=== Records  ===
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The '''majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies'''. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:<br>
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*[[American Indian Allotment Records|Allotment records]]
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*[[American Indian Annuity Rolls|Annuity rolls]]
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*[[American Indian Census Rolls|Census records]]
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*[[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|Correspondence]]
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*[[American Indian Health Records|Health records]]
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*[[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|Reports]]
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*[[American Indian School Records|School census and records]]
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*[[American Indian Vital Records Supplements in Census Rolls|Vital records]]
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=== Allotment Records  ===
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The General Allotment Act was passed by the U.S. Congress in 1887, marking the establishment of the allotment of land to individuals as the official and widespread policy of the federal government toward the Native Americans. Under this policy, land (formerly land held by the tribe or tribal land) was allotted to individuals to be held in trust until they had shown competency to handle their own affairs. The [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] was the trustee.
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Individual American Indians were given a prescribed amount of land on a reservation based upon what land was available and the number of tribal members living on that reservation. Generally, the amount of land allotted was 160 Acres for each head of family, 80 Acres for each single person over eighteen years of age, 80 Acres for each orphan child under eighteen years of age, and 40 Acres for each single person under eighteen years of age. This was dependent upon there being sufficient land available on the existing reservation. If the total acreage on the reservation was insufficient, the amounts of land were pro-rated accordingly.
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Not all tribes and reservations were allotted.
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Allotted Tribes of California
 +
 
 +
*Agua Caliente Reservation, Cold Springs Rancheria, Fort Independence Reservation, Hoopa Valley Rancheria (Klamath River Reservation), Mission Agency Indian Reservations: Augustine, Cabazon, Cahuilla, La Jolla, Mission Creek, Morongo, Pala, Pauma, Rincon, Sycuan, Torres-Martinez. Round Valley Reservation, Tuolumne Rancheria, Yuma Reservation, Yurok Reservation, Colorado River (Mohave)
 +
===Church Records===
 +
 
 +
*Mission San Antonio, California 1771-1882. FHL films 913297-913299
 +
*Mission San Buena Ventura, California 1782-1915. FHL films 913170-913172
 +
*Mission San Carlos, Carmel by the Sea, California 1770-1915. FHL films 913159-913164, and 913167,913303, 913315 and 909228
 +
*Mission San Diego, California 1769-1822. FHL films 830163 - 944001
 +
*Mission San Luis Obispo, California 1772-1906. FHL films 913300-913302 and 909228
 +
* Mission San Miguel, California 1797-1937. FHL films 913312-913314
 +
* Mission San Rafael, California 1817-1907. FHL films 909235-909234
 +
* Mission Santa Cruz, California 1791-1894. FHL films 913304-913307
 +
 
 +
Search the FamilySearch catalog for author Zephyrin Engelhardt Father of the missions.
 +
 
 +
*Powers, Laura Bride. The missions of California. San Francisco; William Doxey, 1897. FHL book 979.4 K2p
 +
 
 +
=== Indian Schools  ===
  
 
The Office of Indian Affairs (now the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]]) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.  
 
The Office of Indian Affairs (now the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]]) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.  
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*[[Campo Indian School (California)|Campo School]]  
 
*[[Campo Indian School (California)|Campo School]]  
 
*[[Capitan Grande Indian School (California)|Capitan Grande School]]  
 
*[[Capitan Grande Indian School (California)|Capitan Grande School]]  
*[[Fort Bidwell Indian School (California)|Fort Bidwell School]]  
+
*[[Fort Bidwell Indian School (California)|Fort Bidwell School]] 1898-1930 (National Archives at San Francisco)
*[[Fort Yuma Indian Boarding School (California)|Fort Yuma Boarding School]]  
+
*[[Fort Yuma Indian Boarding School (California)|Fort Yuma Boarding School]] 1913-1928 under the [[Fort Yuma Indian Agency (California)|Fort Yuma Agency]] (National Archives at Riverside)
*[[Greenville Indian School (California)|Greenville Boarding School]] -- records&nbsp;1897-1902, 1901-1911, Family History Library&nbsp;film&nbsp;{{FHL|172649|title-id|disp=976964}}  
+
*[[Greenville Indian School (California)|Greenville Boarding School]] -- records 1897-1902, 1901-1911, Family History Library film {{FHL|172649|title-id|disp=976964}}  
*[[Hoopa Valley Indian School (California)|Hoopa Valley School ]]-- records, 1896-1942, Family History Library 1st film&nbsp;{{FHL|285757|title-id|disp=984103}}  
+
*[[Hoopa Valley Indian School (California)|Hoopa Valley School ]]-- records, 1896-1942, Family History Library 1st film {{FHL|285757|title-id|disp=984103}}  
 
*[[Independence Indian School (California)|Independence School]]  
 
*[[Independence Indian School (California)|Independence School]]  
 
*[[La Jolla Indian School (California)|La Jolla School]]  
 
*[[La Jolla Indian School (California)|La Jolla School]]  
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*[[Rincon Indian School (California)|Rincon School]]  
 
*[[Rincon Indian School (California)|Rincon School]]  
 
*Riverside Indian School -- forerunner of [[Sherman Institute|Sherman Institute]]  
 
*Riverside Indian School -- forerunner of [[Sherman Institute|Sherman Institute]]  
*[[Round Valley Indian School (California)|Round Valley School]] -- records&nbsp;&nbsp;1897-1916, Family History Library film {{FHL|172229|title-id|disp=976983}}  
+
*[[Round Valley Indian School (California)|Round Valley School]] -- records 1897-1916, Family History Library film {{FHL|172229|title-id|disp=976983}}  
*[[Sherman Institute|Sherman Institute]]  
+
*St. Boniface Indian Industrial School  FHL book 970.1 B227s
 +
*[[Sherman Institute|Sherman Institute]] 1898-1980 (National Archives at Riverside)
 
*[[Soboba Indian School (California)|Soboba School]]  
 
*[[Soboba Indian School (California)|Soboba School]]  
 
*[[Tule River Indian School (California)|Tule River School]]  
 
*[[Tule River Indian School (California)|Tule River School]]  
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*[[Volcan Indian School (California)|Volcan School]]
 
*[[Volcan Indian School (California)|Volcan School]]
  
== Indian Health Facilities  ==
+
=== Indian Health Facilities  ===
  
 
*[[Fort Bidwell Indian Hospital (California)|Fort Bidwell Hospital]]  
 
*[[Fort Bidwell Indian Hospital (California)|Fort Bidwell Hospital]]  
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*[[Ukiah Indian Health Center (California)|Ukiah Health Center]]
 
*[[Ukiah Indian Health Center (California)|Ukiah Health Center]]
  
== Maps  ==
+
=== Maps  ===
  
 
*[http://www.epa.gov/region09/air/maps/images/mapr9_lg.jpg Map of Indian Lands: Region 9 -- Reservations, Rancherias, Colonies...] EPA map, Feb. 2000
 
*[http://www.epa.gov/region09/air/maps/images/mapr9_lg.jpg Map of Indian Lands: Region 9 -- Reservations, Rancherias, Colonies...] EPA map, Feb. 2000
  
== Family History Library  ==
+
=== Family History Library  ===
  
For a complete list of available records search the Family History Library Catalog by Tribe and locality  
+
For a complete list of available records search the FamilySearch Catalog by Tribe and locality (state and county)<br>
  
 
*Sacramento Area Office Family History Library fiche: {{FHL|318881|title-id|disp=6076786}}  
 
*Sacramento Area Office Family History Library fiche: {{FHL|318881|title-id|disp=6076786}}  
 
*Sherman Institute 2 films 1920-1940 Family History Library {{FHL|51791|title-id|disp=1249980-81}}  
 
*Sherman Institute 2 films 1920-1940 Family History Library {{FHL|51791|title-id|disp=1249980-81}}  
 
*Phoenix Area Office Family History Library film {{FHL|142621|title-id|disp=1249981}}  
 
*Phoenix Area Office Family History Library film {{FHL|142621|title-id|disp=1249981}}  
*California Superintendency 1849-1880 First film&nbsp; {{FHL|403528|title-id|disp=1638620}}
+
*California Superintendency 1849-1880 First film {{FHL|403528|title-id|disp=1638620}}  
 +
*The Population of the California Indians, 1769-1970. {{FHL|336563|item|disp= FHL book 970.1 C773p}} [http://www.worldcat.org/title/population-of-the-california-indians-1769-1970/oclc/2466560 WorldCat]
 +
*U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs 1933 California Roll Book  FHL book 970.1 E36u
 +
*Native Americans of California and Nevada. by Jack D. Forbes {{FHL|1122921|item|disp= book 970.1 F744n}} [http://www.worldcat.org/title/native-americans-of-california-and-nevada/oclc/866137944 WorldCat]
 +
*The California Indians. by Robert Fleming Heizer and Mary Anne Whipple {{FHL|170059|disp=FHL book 970.1 H366c}}[http://www.worldcat.org/title/california-indians-a-source-book/oclc/174893 WorldCat]
 +
*Handbook of the Indians of California. by Alfred Louis Kroeber. {{FHL|53833|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 K913h}}[http://www.worldcat.org/title/handbook-of-the-indians-of-california/oclc/680736 WorldCat]
 +
*Indians and Intruders in Central California. by George Harwood Phillips. Norman, Ok: University of Oklahoma Press, c1993. {{FHL|703065|item|disp=FHL book 970.1P543i}} [http://www.worldcat.org/title/indians-and-intruders-in-central-california-1769-1849/oclc/27035165 World Cat]
  
== Reservations  ==
+
FamilySearch Catalog [https://familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlehitlist&columns=*%2C0%2C0&keyword=California+Native+Races&prekeyword=California+Native+Races California Native Races] for over 150 titles
  
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.  
+
=== Reservations  ===
 +
 
 +
From the mid-1800's, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.  
  
 
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.  
 
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.  
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The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/ca.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991 (Family History Library book {{FHL|433280|title-id|disp=973 E5}})</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations located wholly or partially in California, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.<br>  
 
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/ca.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991 (Family History Library book {{FHL|433280|title-id|disp=973 E5}})</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations located wholly or partially in California, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.<br>  
  
*[[Agua Caliente Indian Reservation (California)|'''Agua Caliente Reservation''']]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Palm Springs Field Station, Tribe: Agua Caliente Band  
+
*[[Agua Caliente Indian Reservation (California)|'''Agua Caliente Reservation''']]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Palm Springs Field Station, Tribe: Agua Caliente Band Nearest Town: palm Springs, CA
*[[Augustine Indian Reservation (California)|Augustine Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Southern California Indian Agency (California)|Southern California Agency]], Tribe: Augustine Band of Mission Indians  
+
*[[Augustine Indian Reservation (California)|Augustine Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Southern California Indian Agency (California)|Southern California Agency]], Tribe: Augustine Band of Mission Indians Nearest Town: Thermal, CA
*[[Barona Indian Reservation (California)|Barona Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Barona Group of Capitan Grande Band of Mission&nbsp;Indians  
+
*[[Barona Indian Reservation (California)|Barona Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Barona Group of Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians Nearest Town: Alpine, CA
 
*[[Benton Paiute Indian Reservation (California)|Benton Paiute Reservation]], State, under the jurisdiction of [[Central California Indian Agency (California)|Central California Agency]], Tribe: [[Paiute Indians|Paiute]]  
 
*[[Benton Paiute Indian Reservation (California)|Benton Paiute Reservation]], State, under the jurisdiction of [[Central California Indian Agency (California)|Central California Agency]], Tribe: [[Paiute Indians|Paiute]]  
 
*[[Big Pine Indian Reservation (California)|Big Pine Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: [[Big Pine Band of Owens Valley Paiute Shoshone Indians, California|Paiute-Shoshone]]  
 
*[[Big Pine Indian Reservation (California)|Big Pine Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: [[Big Pine Band of Owens Valley Paiute Shoshone Indians, California|Paiute-Shoshone]]  
 
*[[Bishop Indian Reservation (California)|Bishop Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Paiute-Shoshone  
 
*[[Bishop Indian Reservation (California)|Bishop Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Paiute-Shoshone  
*[[Cabazon Indian Reservation (California)|Cabazon Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Cabazon Band of Mission Indians  
+
*[[Cabazon Indian Reservation (California)|Cabazon Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Cabazon Band of Mission Indians Nearest Town: Indio, CA
*[[Cahuilla Indian Reservation (California)|Cahuilla Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Cahuilla Band of Mission Indians  
+
*[[Cahuilla Indian Reservation (California)|Cahuilla Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Cahuilla Band of Mission Indians Nearest Town: Anz, CA
 
*[[Campo Indian Reservation (California)|Campo Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Mission Band of Indians&nbsp;  
 
*[[Campo Indian Reservation (California)|Campo Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Mission Band of Indians&nbsp;  
 +
*[[Captain Grande Reservation, California|Captain Grande Reservation]]:                    Nearest Town: Lakeside, CA
 
*[[Chemehuevi Indian Reservation (California)|Chemehuevi Reservation]]''': '''State, under the jurisdiction of [[Colorado River Indian Agency (Arizona)|Colorado River Agency]], Tribe:  
 
*[[Chemehuevi Indian Reservation (California)|Chemehuevi Reservation]]''': '''State, under the jurisdiction of [[Colorado River Indian Agency (Arizona)|Colorado River Agency]], Tribe:  
 
*Captain Grande Reservation: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Mission Tribes  
 
*Captain Grande Reservation: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Mission Tribes  
 
*[[Colorado River Indian Reservation (Arizona)|Colorado River Reservation]]''': '''Federal, under the jurisdiction of Colorado River Agency, Tribes: [[Fort Mojave Indian Tribe of Arizona, California & Nevada|Mojave]] and [[Chemehuevi Indians|Chemehuevi]]  
 
*[[Colorado River Indian Reservation (Arizona)|Colorado River Reservation]]''': '''Federal, under the jurisdiction of Colorado River Agency, Tribes: [[Fort Mojave Indian Tribe of Arizona, California & Nevada|Mojave]] and [[Chemehuevi Indians|Chemehuevi]]  
*[[Cuyapaipe Indian Reservation (California)|Cuyapaipe Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Cuyapaipe Band of Mission Indians  
+
*[[Cuyapaipe Indian Reservation (California)|Cuyapaipe Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Cuyapaipe Band of Mission Indians Nearest Town: Pine Valley, CA
 
*[[Digger Indian Reservation (California)|Digger Reservation]]  
 
*[[Digger Indian Reservation (California)|Digger Reservation]]  
*[[Fort Bidwell Indian Reservation (California)|Fort Bidwell Reservation]] -- located in the extreme northeastern corner of California, in Modoc County, near the Oregon and Nevada borders. It is a federally-recognized reservation, under the jurisdiction of the [[Northern California Indian Agency (California)|Northern California Agency]] of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. It serves primarily the Paiute Tribe.  
+
*[[Fort Bidwell Indian Reservation (California)|Fort Bidwell Reservation]] -- located in the extreme northeastern corner of California, in Modoc County, near the Oregon and Nevada borders. It is a federally-recognized reservation, under the jurisdiction of the [[Northern California Indian Agency (California)|Northern California Agency]] of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. It serves primarily the Paiute Tribe. Neaarst Town: Fort Bidwell, CA
*[[Fort Independence Indian Reservation (California)|Fort Independence Resrvation]]: Federal,&nbsp; under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Paiute  
+
*[[Fort Independence Indian Reservation (California)|Fort Independence Reservation]]: Federal,&nbsp; under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Paiute Nearest Town: Independence, CA
 
*[[Fort Mojave Indian Reservation (Arizona)|Fort Mojave Reservation]]''':''' Federal, under the jurisdiction of Colorado River Agency, Tribe Mojave  
 
*[[Fort Mojave Indian Reservation (Arizona)|Fort Mojave Reservation]]''':''' Federal, under the jurisdiction of Colorado River Agency, Tribe Mojave  
*Fort Yuma Reservation''': '''Federal, under the jurisdiction of Fort Yuma Agency, Tribe [[Quechan Indians|Quechan]]  
+
*[[Fort Yuma-Quechan Tribe, Arizona (Reservation)|Fort Yuma Reservation]]''': '''Federal, under the jurisdiction of Fort Yuma Agency, Tribe [[Quechan Indians|Quechan]]  
*Hupa (or Hoopa) Valley Extension Reservation -- see [[Yurok Indian Reservation (California)|Yurok Reservation]]  
+
*[[Hupa Valley Indian Reservation (California)|Hupa (or Hoopa) Valley Extension Reservation]] -- see [[Yurok Indian Reservation (California)|Yurok Reservation]] Nearest tTown: Weitchpec, CA
 
*[[Hupa Valley Indian Reservation (California)|Hupa (or Hoopa) Valley Reservation]] -- located in northwestern California, not far from Eureka. It is a federally-recognized reservation, serving the [[Hupa Indians|Hupa]] (Hoopa) Tribe. It adjoins the Yurok Reservation.  
 
*[[Hupa Valley Indian Reservation (California)|Hupa (or Hoopa) Valley Reservation]] -- located in northwestern California, not far from Eureka. It is a federally-recognized reservation, serving the [[Hupa Indians|Hupa]] (Hoopa) Tribe. It adjoins the Yurok Reservation.  
*[[Inaja and Cosmit Indian Reservation (California)|Inaja-Cosmit Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Inaja-Cosmit  
+
*[[Inaja and Cosmit Indian Reservation (California)|Inaja-Cosmit Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Inaja-Cosmit Nearest Town: Julian, CA
*[[La Jolla Indian Reservation (California)|La Jolla Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of&nbsp;Southern California Agency, Tribe: La Jolla Band of Mission Indians  
+
*[[La Jolla Indian Reservation (California)|La Jolla Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of&nbsp;Southern California Agency, Tribe: La Jolla Band of Mission Indians Nearest Town: Valley Center, CA
*[[La Posta Indian Reservation (California)|La Posta reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: La Posta Band of Mission Indians  
+
*[[La Posta Indian Reservation (California)|La Posta reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: La Posta Band of Mission Indians Nearest Town: Boulevard, CA
 
*[[Lone Pine Indian Reservation (California)|Lone Pine Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe Piaute-Shoshone  
 
*[[Lone Pine Indian Reservation (California)|Lone Pine Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe Piaute-Shoshone  
*[[Los Coyotes Indian Reservation (California)|Los Coyotes Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Los Coyotes Band of Mission Indians  
+
*[[Los Coyotes Indian Reservation (California)|Los Coyotes Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Los Coyotes Band of Mission Indians and Luiseno  Nearest Town: Warner Springs,CA
*[[Manzanita Indian Reservation (California)|Manzanita]] Reservation: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Manzanita Band of Mission Indians  
+
*[[Manzanita Indian Reservation (California)|Manzanita]] Reservation: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Manzanita Band of Mission Indians and Diegueno  Nearest Town: Pine Valley, CA
 
*[[Mendocino Indian Reservation (California)|Mendocino Reservation]]  
 
*[[Mendocino Indian Reservation (California)|Mendocino Reservation]]  
*[[Mesa Grande Indian Reservation (California)|Mesa Grande Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: [[Mesa Grande Band of Diegueno Mission Indians, California|Mesa Grand Band]] of Mission Indians  
+
*[[Mesa Grande Indian Reservation (California)|Mesa Grande Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: [[Mesa Grande Band of Diegueno Mission Indians, California|Mesa Grand Band]] of Mission Indians and Luiseno  Nearest Town: Santa Ysabel, CA
 
*[[Mission Indian Reservation (California)|Mission Reservation]]  
 
*[[Mission Indian Reservation (California)|Mission Reservation]]  
*Mission Creek Resevation: Federal,Tribe: Mission Creek Band of Mission Indians  
+
*[[Mission Creek Reservation, California|Mission Creek Reservation]]: Federal,Tribe: Mission Creek Band of Mission Indians  
*[[Morongo Indian Reservation (California)|Morongo Reservation]]''': '''Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: [[Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians, California|Morongo Band of]] Mission Indians  
+
*[[Morongo Indian Reservation (California)|Morongo Reservation]]''': '''Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: [[Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians, California|Morongo Band of]] Mission Indians and Serrano  Nearest Town: Banning, CA
*[[Pala Indian Reservation (California)|Pala Reservation]]: Federal, under ther jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe:[[Pala Band of Luiseno Mission Indians, California|Pala band]] of Mission Indians  
+
*[[Pala Indian Reservation (California)|Pala Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: [[Pala Band of Luiseno Mission Indians, California|Pala band]] of Mission Indians and Luiseno 
*[[Pauma and Yuima Indian Reservation (California)|Pauma &amp; Yuima Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Pauma Band of Mission Indians  
+
*[[Pauma and Yuima Indian Reservation (California)|Pauma &amp; Yuima Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Pauma Band of Mission Indians and Luiseno  Nearest Town: Valley Center, CA
*[[Rincon Indian Reservation (California)|Rincon Reservation]]: State, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: San Luiseno Band of Mission Indians  
+
*Pechanga Reservation: Tribe: Luisenno  Nearest Town: Temecula, CA
*[[Round Valley Indian Reservation (California)|Round Valley Reservation]] -- located in northern California in Mendocino County. It is a federally-recognized reservation under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency and serves the Yuki, [[Pit River Indians|Pit River]], Little Lake, [[Concow Indians|Concow]] (Konkow), Wyaki Pomo, Nomalaki, and Wintun Tribes.  
+
*Ramona Reservation:  Tribe:    Nearest Town: Valle VVista or Anza, CA
*[[San Manual Indian Reservation (California)|San Manual Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: [[San Manual Band of Serrano Mission Indians, California|San Manuel Band]]  
+
*[[Rincon Indian Reservation (California)|Rincon Reservation]]: State, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: San Luiseno Band of Mission Indians Nearest Town Valley Center, CA
*[[San Pasqual Indian Reservation (California)|San Pasqual Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: [[San Pasqual Band of Diegueno Mission Indians, California|San Pasqual Band]] of Mission Indians  
+
*[[Round Valley Indian Reservation (California)|Round Valley Reservation]] -- located in northern California in Mendocino County. It is a federally-recognized reservation under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency and serves the Yuki, [[Pit River Indians|Pit River]], Little Lake, [[Concow Indians|Concow]] (Konkow), Wyaki Pomo, Nomelacki, Wailaki, Yuki, and Wintun Tribes.   Nearest Town: Covelo, CA
*[[Santa Rosa Indian Reservation (California)|Santa Rosa Reservation]]:: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Tache  
+
*[[San Manual Indian Reservation (California)|San Manual Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: [[San Manual Band of Serrano Mission Indians, California|San Manuel Band]] and Serrano  Nearest Town: San Bernardino, CA
*[[Santa Ynez Indian Reservation (California)|Santa Ynez Reservation]]: Federal, under ther jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: [[Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Mission Indians (California)|Santa Ynez band of Mission Indians]]  
+
*[[San Pasqual Indian Reservation (California)|San Pasqual Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: [[San Pasqual Band of Diegueno Mission Indians, California|San Pasqual Band]] of Mission Indians ans Luiseno  Nearest Town: Valley Center, CA
*[[Santa Ysabel Indian Reservation (California)|Santa Ysabel Reservation]]:*[[Sycuan Indian Reservation (California)|Sycuan Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: [[Sycuan Band of Diegueno Mission Indians, California|Sycuan Band of Mission Indians]]  
+
*[[Santa Rosa Indian Reservation (California)|Santa Rosa Reservation]]:: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Tache and Cahuilla  Nearest Town: Hemet, CA
 +
*[[Santa Ynez Indian Reservation (California)|Santa Ynez Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: [[Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Mission Indians (California)|Santa Ynez band of Mission Indians]] and Chumash 
 +
*[[Santa Ysabel Indian Reservation (California)|Santa Ysabel Reservation]]:*[[Sycuan Indian Reservation (California)|Sycuan Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: [[Sycuan Band of Diegueno Mission Indians, California|Sycuan Band of Mission Indians]] and Diegueno 
 +
*Soboba Reservation  Tribe: Cahuilla  Nearest Town: San Jacinto,CA
 +
*Sycuan Reservation  Tribe: Diegueno  Nearest Town: El Cajon, CA
 
*[[Timbi-sha Indian Reservation (California)|Timba-Sha Reservation]]: State, under the jurisdiction of California Agency, Tribe:  
 
*[[Timbi-sha Indian Reservation (California)|Timba-Sha Reservation]]: State, under the jurisdiction of California Agency, Tribe:  
 
*[[Torres-Martinez Indian Reservation (California)|Torres-Martinez Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of California Agency, tribe: Torres-Martinez Band of Mission Indians  
 
*[[Torres-Martinez Indian Reservation (California)|Torres-Martinez Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of California Agency, tribe: Torres-Martinez Band of Mission Indians  
*[[Tule River Indian Reservation (California)|Tule River Reservation]]''':&nbsp; '''Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: [[Tule River Indian Tribe (California)|Tule River Tribe]]'''<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1215799655641_223" />'''  
+
*[[Tule River Indian Reservation (California)|Tule River Reservation]]''':&nbsp; '''Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: [[Tule River Indian Tribe (California)|Tule River Tribe]] Nearest Town: Porterville, CA'''<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1215799655641_223" />'''  
*[[Twenty-Nine Palms Indian Reservation (California)|Twenty-Nine Palms Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: [[Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians, California|Twenty Nine Palms Band]]  
+
*[[Twenty-Nine Palms Indian Reservation (California)|Twenty-Nine Palms Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: [[Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians, California|Twenty Nine Palms Band]] and Serrano
*[[Viejas Indian Reservation (California)|Viejas Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Viejas Group of Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians  
+
*[[Viejas Indian Reservation (California)|Viejas Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: Viejas Group of Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians and Diegueno Nearest Town: Lakeside, CA
 
*[[XL Ranch Indian Reservation (California)|XL Ranch Reservation]] -- located in northeastern California in Modoc County. It is a federally-recognized reservation serving the Pit River-Paiute Tribe.  
 
*[[XL Ranch Indian Reservation (California)|XL Ranch Reservation]] -- located in northeastern California in Modoc County. It is a federally-recognized reservation serving the Pit River-Paiute Tribe.  
 
*[[Yuma Indian Reservation (California)|Yuma Reservation]]  
 
*[[Yuma Indian Reservation (California)|Yuma Reservation]]  
 
*[[Yurok Indian Reservation (California)|Yurok Reservation]] -- located in northwestern California, near Eureka, it is a federally-recognized reservation serving the [[Yurok Indians|Yurok]] Tribe. It adjoins the Hoopa Valley Reservation and has sometimes been called the Hoopa Valley Extension Reservation
 
*[[Yurok Indian Reservation (California)|Yurok Reservation]] -- located in northwestern California, near Eureka, it is a federally-recognized reservation serving the [[Yurok Indians|Yurok]] Tribe. It adjoins the Hoopa Valley Reservation and has sometimes been called the Hoopa Valley Extension Reservation
  
== Rancherias  ==
+
=== Rancherias  ===
  
 
The San Diego State University's ''On-Line Encyclopedia of California Indians'' contains the following definition of rancherias in California:  
 
The San Diego State University's ''On-Line Encyclopedia of California Indians'' contains the following definition of rancherias in California:  
  
:The Spanish term for small Indian settlements. Rancherias are a particular California institution. A small area of land was set aside around an Indian settlement to create a rancheria. Some rancherias developed from small communities of Indians formed on the outskirts of American settlements who were fleeing Americans or avoiding removal to the reservations. Reservations represented lands bought for Indians previously without land, or lands traditionally uninhabited, as happened to Indian groups east of the Sierra divide. Before 1906, most land set aside for California Indians were designated as reservations. Between 1906 and 1934, 54 rancherias were established, as well as one "Indian village." Since 1934, five rancherias, an "Indian village," an "Indian community," and four reservations have been established. With the passage of Public Law 83-280 in the mid-1950s, terminating federal supervision and control over California tribes, some 40 rancherias lost the right to certain federal programs, and their lands no longer had the protection of federal status. In 1983, a lawsuit resulted in restoring federal recognition to 17 rancherias, with others still waiting for the reversal of their termination.<ref>San Diego State University's On-Line Encyclopedia of California Indians [http://infodome.sdsu.edu/research/guides/calindians/calinddictqs.shtml#r Available Online].</ref>
+
:The Spanish term for small Indian settlements. Rancherias are a particular California institution. A small area of land was set aside around an Indian settlement to create a rancheria. Some rancherias developed from small communities of Indians formed on the outskirts of American settlements who were fleeing Americans or avoiding removal to the reservations. Reservations represented lands bought for Indians previously without land, or lands traditionally uninhabited, as happened to Indian groups east of the Sierra divide. Before 1906, most land set aside for California Indians were designated as reservations. Between 1906 and 1934, 54 rancherias were established, as well as one "Indian village." Since 1934, five rancherias, an "Indian village," an "Indian community," and four reservations have been established. With the passage of Public Law 83-280 in the mid-1950's, terminating federal supervision and control over California tribes, some 40 rancherias lost the right to certain federal programs, and their lands no longer had the protection of federal status. In 1983, a lawsuit resulted in restoring federal recognition to 17 rancherias, with others still waiting for the reversal of their termination.<ref>San Diego State University's On-Line Encyclopedia of California Indians [http://infodome.sdsu.edu/research/guides/calindians/calinddictqs.shtml#r Available Online].</ref>
  
 
*[[Alturas Indian Rancheria, California|Alturas Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe: Paiute River  
 
*[[Alturas Indian Rancheria, California|Alturas Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe: Paiute River  
 
*Bear River Rancheria -- see Hoopa Valley Agency  
 
*Bear River Rancheria -- see Hoopa Valley Agency  
 
*[[Berry Creek Indian Rancheria (California)|Berry Creek Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: [[Maidu Indians|Maidu]]  
 
*[[Berry Creek Indian Rancheria (California)|Berry Creek Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: [[Maidu Indians|Maidu]]  
*[[Big Bend Indian Rancheria (California)|Big Bend Rancheria]], Federal, Tribe: Pitts
+
*[[Big Bend Indian Rancheria (California)|Big Bend Rancheria]], Federal, Tribe: Pit River 
*[[Big Lagoon Rancheria, California|Big Lagoon Rancheria]],State,&nbsp;under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency,&nbsp; Tribe:  
+
*[[Big Lagoon Rancheria, California|Big Lagoon Rancheria]],State,&nbsp;under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency,&nbsp; Tribe:     Nearest Town: Orick, California
*[[Big Sandy Indian Rancheria (California)|Big Sandy Rancheria]], State, under the&nbsp;jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: &nbsp;&nbsp;  
+
*[[Big Sandy Indian Rancheria (California)|Big Sandy Rancheria]], State, under the&nbsp;jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Mono&nbsp;Nearest Town: Auberry, California&nbsp;  
 
*[[Big Valley Indian Rancheria (California)|Big Valley Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:  
 
*[[Big Valley Indian Rancheria (California)|Big Valley Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:  
 
*[[Blue Lake Indian Rancheria (California)|Blue Lake Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Northern&nbsp;California Agency, Tribe: -- see Hoopa Valley Agency  
 
*[[Blue Lake Indian Rancheria (California)|Blue Lake Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Northern&nbsp;California Agency, Tribe: -- see Hoopa Valley Agency  
*Bridgeport Colony, State, under the jurisdiction of Central Califronia Agency, Tribe:&nbsp;  
+
*[[Bridgeport Paiute Indian Colony, California|Bridgeport Colony]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central Califronia Agency, Tribe:&nbsp;  
 
*[[Buena Vista Indian Rancheria (California)|Buena Vista Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:  
 
*[[Buena Vista Indian Rancheria (California)|Buena Vista Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:  
 
*[[Cedarville Indian Rancheria (California)|Cedarville Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe [[Paiute Indians|Paiute]]  
 
*[[Cedarville Indian Rancheria (California)|Cedarville Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe [[Paiute Indians|Paiute]]  
Line 285: Line 359:
 
*[[Chico Indian Rancheria (California)|Chico Rancheria]]  
 
*[[Chico Indian Rancheria (California)|Chico Rancheria]]  
 
*[[Cloverdale Indian Rancheria (California)|Cloverdale Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central&nbsp;California Agency,&nbsp;Tribe: &nbsp;  
 
*[[Cloverdale Indian Rancheria (California)|Cloverdale Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central&nbsp;California Agency,&nbsp;Tribe: &nbsp;  
*[[Cold Springs Indian Rancheria (California)|Cold Springs Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: [[Mono Indians|Mono]]  
+
*[[Cold Springs Indian Rancheria (California)|Cold Springs Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: [[Mono Indians|Mono]] Nearest Town: Tollhouse , California
*[[Colusa Indian Rancheria (California)|Colusa Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Cahil Dehe Band of Wintun  
+
*[[Colusa Indian Rancheria (California)|Colusa Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Cachil Dehe Band of Wintun  
*[[Cortina Indian Rancheria (California)|Cortina Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:&nbsp;[[Wintun Indians|Wintun]]  
+
*[[Cortina Indian Rancheria (California)|Cortina Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:&nbsp;[[Wintun Indians|Wintun]] Nearest Town: Williams, California
 
*[[Coyote Valley Indian Rancheria (California)|Coyote Valley Rancheria]], State under the jurisdiction of Cenrtal California Agency, Tribe: &nbsp;  
 
*[[Coyote Valley Indian Rancheria (California)|Coyote Valley Rancheria]], State under the jurisdiction of Cenrtal California Agency, Tribe: &nbsp;  
 
*Crescent City Rancheria -- see Hoopa Valley Agency  
 
*Crescent City Rancheria -- see Hoopa Valley Agency  
*[[Dry Creek Indian Rancheria (California)|Dry Creek Rancheria]], State,&nbsp;under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:  
+
*[[Dry Creek Indian Rancheria (California)|Dry Creek Rancheria]], State,&nbsp;under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Pomo Nearest Town: Geyserville, California
 
*Eel River Rancheria -- see Hoopa Valley Agency&nbsp;  
 
*Eel River Rancheria -- see Hoopa Valley Agency&nbsp;  
 
*[[Elk Valley Indian Rancheria (California)|Elk Valley Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe:&nbsp;  
 
*[[Elk Valley Indian Rancheria (California)|Elk Valley Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe:&nbsp;  
*[[Enterprise Indian Rancheria (California)|Enterprise Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: [[Maidu Indians|Maidu]]&nbsp;  
+
*[[Enterprise Indian Rancheria (California)|Enterprise Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: [[Maidu Indians|Maidu]]&nbsp; Nearest Town: Oroville, California
 
*[[Graton Indian Rancheria (California)|Graton Rancheria]]  
 
*[[Graton Indian Rancheria (California)|Graton Rancheria]]  
 
*[[Greenville Indian Rancheria (California)|Greenville Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Maidu&nbsp;  
 
*[[Greenville Indian Rancheria (California)|Greenville Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Maidu&nbsp;  
*[[Grindstone Indian Rancheria (California)|Grindstone Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Nomalaki-Wailaki&nbsp;  
+
*[[Grindstone Indian Rancheria (California)|Grindstone Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Nomalaki-Wailaki&nbsp;and Wintun Nearest Town: Orland, California
 
*[[Hopland Indian Rancheria (California)|Hopland Ranacheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: [[Pomo Ind|Pomo]]  
 
*[[Hopland Indian Rancheria (California)|Hopland Ranacheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: [[Pomo Ind|Pomo]]  
*[[Jackson Indian Rancheria (California)|Jackson Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Me-Wuk  
+
*[[Jackson Indian Rancheria (California)|Jackson Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Me-Wuk (Miwok)
 
*[[Jamul Indian Village (California)|Jamul Indian Village]], State, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe:  
 
*[[Jamul Indian Village (California)|Jamul Indian Village]], State, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe:  
*Karuk Tribe: State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe: [[Karuk Tribe of California|Karuk]]  
+
*[[Karuk Tribe of California|Karuk Tribe]]: State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe: [[Karuk Tribe of California|Karuk]]  
 
*[[Laytonville Indian Rancheria (California)|Laytonville Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: [[Cahto Indians|Cahto]]  
 
*[[Laytonville Indian Rancheria (California)|Laytonville Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: [[Cahto Indians|Cahto]]  
 
*[[Likely Indian Rancheria (California)|Likely Rancheria]], Federal, Tribe: [[Pit River Indians|Pit River]]  
 
*[[Likely Indian Rancheria (California)|Likely Rancheria]], Federal, Tribe: [[Pit River Indians|Pit River]]  
Line 306: Line 380:
 
*[[Lower Lake Indian Rancheria (California)|Lower Lake Rancheria]]  
 
*[[Lower Lake Indian Rancheria (California)|Lower Lake Rancheria]]  
 
*[[Lytton Indian Rancheria (California)|Lytton Rancheria]]  
 
*[[Lytton Indian Rancheria (California)|Lytton Rancheria]]  
*[[Manchester-Point Arena Indian Rancheria (California)|Manchester Point Arena Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:  
+
*[[Manchester-Point Arena Indian Rancheria (California)|Manchester Point Arena Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Pomo 
 
*[[Middletown Indian Rancheria (California)|Middletown Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Pomo-Patwin  
 
*[[Middletown Indian Rancheria (California)|Middletown Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Pomo-Patwin  
 
*[[Montgomery Creek Indian Rancheria (California)|Montgomery Creek Rancheria]] , Federal, Tribe: Pit River  
 
*[[Montgomery Creek Indian Rancheria (California)|Montgomery Creek Rancheria]] , Federal, Tribe: Pit River  
Line 312: Line 386:
 
*[[Northfork Indian Rancheria (California)|Northfork Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:  
 
*[[Northfork Indian Rancheria (California)|Northfork Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:  
 
*[[Picayune Indian Rancheria (California)|Picayune Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:  
 
*[[Picayune Indian Rancheria (California)|Picayune Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:  
*[[Pinoleville Indian Rancheria (California)|Pinoleville Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:  
+
*[[Pinoleville Indian Rancheria (California)|Pinoleville Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:Pit River Tribe, State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe: Pit River  
*Pit River Tribe, State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe: Pit River  
 
 
*[[Potter Valley Indian Rancheria (California)|Potter Valley Rancheria]], Stae, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:  
 
*[[Potter Valley Indian Rancheria (California)|Potter Valley Rancheria]], Stae, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:  
*Quartz Valley Rancheria, State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe:&nbsp;  
+
*[[Quartz Valley Indian Reservation (California)|Quartz Valley Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe:&nbsp;  
*[[Ramona Indian Rancheria (California)|Ramona Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Sourthern California Agency, Tribe: [[Ramona Band or Village of Cahuilla Mission Indians, California|Ramona Band]] of Cahuilla Mission Indians&nbsp;  
+
*[[Ramona Indian Rancheria (California)|Ramona Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Southern California Agency, Tribe: [[Ramona Band or Village of Cahuilla Mission Indians, California|Ramona Band]] of Cahuilla Mission Indians&nbsp;  
 
*[[Redding Indian Rancheria (California)|Redding Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe:  
 
*[[Redding Indian Rancheria (California)|Redding Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe:  
 
*[[Redwood Valley Indian Rancheria (California)|Redwood Valley Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of&nbsp;Central California Agency, Tribe: &nbsp;  
 
*[[Redwood Valley Indian Rancheria (California)|Redwood Valley Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of&nbsp;Central California Agency, Tribe: &nbsp;  
*[[Resighini Indian Rancheria (California)|Resighini Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe:  
+
*[[Resighini Indian Rancheria (California)|Resighini Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe: Yurok Nearest Town: Klamath, California
*[[Roaring Creek indian Rancheria (California)|Roaring Creek Rancheria]], Federal, Tribe: [[Pit River Indians|Pit River]]  
+
*[[Roaring Creek indian Rancheria (California)|Roaring Creek Rancheria]], Federal, Tribe: [[Pit River Indians|Pit River]] Nearest Town: Montgomery Creek, California
 
*[[Robinson Indian Rancheria (California)|Robinson Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:  
 
*[[Robinson Indian Rancheria (California)|Robinson Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:  
 
*[[Rohnerville Indian Rancheria (California)|Rohnerville Rancheria]] , State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe: [[Bear River Band of the Rohnerville Rancheria, California|Bear River ]]Band  
 
*[[Rohnerville Indian Rancheria (California)|Rohnerville Rancheria]] , State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe: [[Bear River Band of the Rohnerville Rancheria, California|Bear River ]]Band  
 
*[[Rumsey Indian Rancheria (California)|Rumsey Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: [[Wintun Indians|Wintun]]  
 
*[[Rumsey Indian Rancheria (California)|Rumsey Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: [[Wintun Indians|Wintun]]  
*[[Santa Rosa Indian Rancheria (California)|Santa Rosa Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Tache
+
*[[Santa Rosa Indian Rancheria (California)|Santa Rosa Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Tachi Nearest Town: Lemoore, California
*[[Sheep Ranch Indian Rancheria (California)|Sheep Ranch Rancheria]] , Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Me-Wuk  
+
*[[Sheep Ranch Indian Rancheria (California)|Sheep Ranch Rancheria]] , Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Me-Wuk (Miwok)
*[[Sherwood Valley Indian Rancheria (California)|Sherwood Valley Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:&nbsp;&nbsp;  
+
*[[Sherwood Valley Indian Rancheria (California)|Sherwood Valley Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:&nbsp;&nbsp;Nearest Town: Willits, California
*[[Shingle Springs Indian Rancheria (California)|Shingle Springs Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:  
+
*[[Shingle Springs Indian Rancheria (California)|Shingle Springs Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Miwok Nearest Town: El Dorado, California
 
*Smith Rancheria, State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe:  
 
*Smith Rancheria, State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe:  
 
*[[Smith River Indian Rancheria (California)|Smith River Rancheria]] -- see Hoopa Valley Agency  
 
*[[Smith River Indian Rancheria (California)|Smith River Rancheria]] -- see Hoopa Valley Agency  
*[[Stewarts Point Indian Rancheria (California)|Stewarts Point Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction&nbsp;of Central California&nbsp;Agency, Tribe: &nbsp;  
+
*[[Stewarts Point Indian Rancheria (California)|Stewarts Point Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction&nbsp;of Central California&nbsp;Agency, Tribe: &nbsp;KashiaBand of Pomo
*[[Sulphur Bank Indian Rancheria (California)|Sulphur Bank Rancheria]],&nbsp;Federal, under the jurisdiction of &nbsp;Central California Agency, Tribe: Pomo  
+
*Strathmore Rancheria, State, 
 +
*[[Sulphur Bank Indian Rancheria (California)|Sulphur Bank Rancheria]],&nbsp;Federal, under the jurisdiction of &nbsp;Central California Agency, Tribe: Pomo Nearest town: Clearlake Oaks, California
 
*[[Susanville Indian Rancheria (California)|Susanville Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribes: [[Paiute Indians|Paiute]], Maidu, Pit River and Washoe&nbsp;  
 
*[[Susanville Indian Rancheria (California)|Susanville Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribes: [[Paiute Indians|Paiute]], Maidu, Pit River and Washoe&nbsp;  
*Table Bluff Rancheria, State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe:  
+
*[[Table Bluff Indian Reservation (California)|Table Bluff Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency, Tribe:  
*[[Table Mountain Indian Rancheria (California)|Table Mountain Rancheria]] , State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:  
+
*[[Table Mountain Indian Rancheria (California)|Table Mountain Rancheria]] , State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: Chukchansi  Nearest town: Friant, California
*[[Trinidad Indian Rancheria (California)|Trinidad Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency,&nbsp;Tribe: &nbsp;  
+
*[[Trinidad Indian Rancheria (California)|Trinidad Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Northern California Agency,&nbsp;Tribe: Yurok  &nbsp;  
 
*[[Tuolumne Indian Rancheria (California)|Tuolumne Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: [[Tuolumne Band of Me-Wuk Indians, California|Tuolumne Band of Me-Wuk]]  
 
*[[Tuolumne Indian Rancheria (California)|Tuolumne Rancheria]], Federal, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe: [[Tuolumne Band of Me-Wuk Indians, California|Tuolumne Band of Me-Wuk]]  
*[[Upper Lake Indian Rancheria (California)|Upper Lake Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:&nbsp;  
+
*[[Upper Lake Indian Rancheria (California)|Upper Lake Rancheria]], State, under the jurisdiction of Central California Agency, Tribe:&nbsp;Pomo
*Woodfords Community, State, under the jurisdiction of Western Nevada Agency, Tribe
+
*[[Woodfords Indian Colony (California)|Woodfords Community]], State, under the jurisdiction of Western Nevada Agency, Tribe
 +
*X-L ranch Rancheria, State  Tribe: Pit River  Nearest town: Alturas, California
  
== Other Repositories  ==
+
=== Other Repositories  ===
  
 
American Indian Council of Central California, P.O. Box 3341, Bakersfield, CA, 93386  
 
American Indian Council of Central California, P.O. Box 3341, Bakersfield, CA, 93386  
Line 346: Line 421:
 
California Native American Heritage Commission, 915 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, DA, 95814  
 
California Native American Heritage Commission, 915 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, DA, 95814  
  
== See also:  ==
+
The American Indian Resource Center is located at Huntington Park Library, 6518 Miles Ave., Huntington Park, CA 90255, (323) 583-2794.&nbsp; To learn more about this facility, click [[County of Los Angeles Public Libraries#Native_American_Resources|here]].
 +
 
 +
=== See also:  ===
  
 
[[California Church Records|California_Church_Records]]&nbsp;for a list of missions  
 
[[California Church Records|California_Church_Records]]&nbsp;for a list of missions  
Line 354: Line 431:
 
[[California Military Records|California_Military_Records]]&nbsp;for a list of forts  
 
[[California Military Records|California_Military_Records]]&nbsp;for a list of forts  
  
== References  ==
+
=== References  ===
  
 
<references />  
 
<references />  
Line 366: Line 443:
 
*Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches''. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.  
 
*Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches''. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.  
 
*''Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880''. National Archives Microcopy T1105.  
 
*''Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880''. National Archives Microcopy T1105.  
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].  
+
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [https://archive.org/details/handbookamindians02hodgrich Available online].  
 
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.  
 
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.  
 
*Kroeber, Alfred L. ''Handbook of the Indians of California''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 78, 1925. Reprint. New York City: Dover Publications, [ca 2006] [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255854981&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255854981] [http://books.google.com/books?id=YDdn0WNMQMYC&dq=%22Handbook+of+the+Indians+of+California%22&printsec=frontcover&source=bn&hl=en&ei=o8N3Sp7cMIGqswPIlvjsBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8#v=onepage&q=&f=false Available online].  
 
*Kroeber, Alfred L. ''Handbook of the Indians of California''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 78, 1925. Reprint. New York City: Dover Publications, [ca 2006] [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255854981&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255854981] [http://books.google.com/books?id=YDdn0WNMQMYC&dq=%22Handbook+of+the+Indians+of+California%22&printsec=frontcover&source=bn&hl=en&ei=o8N3Sp7cMIGqswPIlvjsBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8#v=onepage&q=&f=false Available online].  
Line 373: Line 450:
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/california/index.htm Available online].
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/california/index.htm Available online].
  
{{American Indian}} {{California|California}}  
+
{{American Indian}}
  
[[Category:California]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]
+
[[Category:California Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]

Latest revision as of 02:55, 20 August 2017

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Indians of California

Learn of the Indians of California, tribes and bands, state recognized tribes, Spanish missions, agencies, reservations, rancherias, and records.

One of the difficulties with American Indian research in California is in the terminology used. In most of the United States, the difference between the term tribe and band is quite clear. In California, the Bureau of Indian Affairs seems to have used the two terms almost interchangeably. At least some bands, or subdivisions, of some tribes are sometimes identified as tribes. And in a few case, smaller trust areas of land are called villages or colonies or settlements.

What are called reservations in most states are sometimes identified as such in California, but smaller land areas are also called Rancherias. Rancheria is a small reservation, the land was purchased by small tribes or by the government in behalf to those tribes. The term is applied to the office for the tribe(s) occupying or owning the land.

Jurisdictions are also sometimes confusing. Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs certainly existed and operated in California, but sometimes the duties of an agency were carried out by a school or a subagency. While that happened in other states, too, it seems to have been more common in California.

Another unique part of California Indian research is the need to be fully aware of the influence of the Spanish Missions, especially from 1769 to the mid-1800s. Much of the native population associated with these early missions and some were converted to Catholicism and have their names included in the Mission records.

To learn how to get started with American Indian research, find research facilities, and American Indian websites click here.


Tribes and Bands of California

The following list of American Indians who have lived in California has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians...[1] and from Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America[2]. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.

Achomawi--or Pit River Indians occupied the drainage area of Pit river from a few miles below Round mountain up into the south end of Goose Lake Valley, about twenty miles above Alturas.

Agua Caliente -- A small Shoshonean division on the head waters of San Luis Rey r., s. Cal, forming one linguistic group with the Kawia, Luiseno, and Juaneño.

Alliklik -- Alliklik Indians are part of the Shoshonean division of the Indians of California. Living on the upper Santa Clara River in California.

Atsugewi -- They are very industrious and hardworking people. Depending on vegetables, acorns and fish to survive.

Bear River Traditionally living in the Cape Mendocino, in the vicinity of the Mattole and Bear rivers area.

Cahto Sometimes called "People of the Lake" or Lake People, refers to a Ancient lake shore where many of the people lived.

Cahuilla They are referred to as Desert, Mountain and Pass Cahuillas. The Cahuilla located their people near water and food sources.

Chasta A group of small tribes or divisions forming the Shastan linguistic family of north California and formerly extending into Oregon.

Chaushila --As a tribe they are now extinct.

Chemehuevi -- Chemehuevi. A Shoshonean tribe, apparently an offshoot of the Paiute, formerly inhabiting the east bank of the Rio Colorado

Chetco -- A group of former Athapascan villages situated on each side of the mouth of and about 14 miles up Chetco river, Oregon.

Chilula The Chilula villages were near lower Redwood Creek to several miles upstream, near Minor Creek. All but one were on the NE side of the river, where timber was not as dense.

Chimariko A small tribe, comprising the Chimarikan family, formerly on Trinity River, near the mouth of New River, Northern California, extending from Hawkins Bar to about Big Bar, and probably along lower New River; they adjoined the Hupa downstream and the Winton upstream.

Chumash The Chumash Indians were some of the first people to inhabit North America. Once a thriving culture, the Chumash, as did other Native American tribes, succumbed to Spanish conquistadors and American colonists.

Chumash Indians Coast Indian Community --There were at one time over 20,000 Chumash living along the California coastline.

Costanoan Are a Native American people of the central California coast.

Cupeno--Cupeño are a Native American tribe from Southern California. Their name in their own language is Kuupangaxwichem

Cuyapaipe Band -- The tribes had comparatively peaceful culture, living in costal plaines of California.

Dakubetede -- Inhabiting the territory between San Diego, southern California and the mouth of the Rio Colorado.

Diegueno--The Diegueno belonged to the Central division of the Yuman linguistic group.

Esselen -- Previously resided on the Central California Coast. They were one of the smallest native American tribes in California

Fernandeno -- The Tataviam people have continued to maintain a local tribal government since those times. Despite a lack of federal acknowledgement as a recognized American Indian Tribe, the Tribe defies limitations in its continued perseverance to defend the rights of Fernandeño Tataviam people as Indian people.

Gabrielino -While Gabrieleño (also Gabrielino) remains in use, the name Tongva has become increasingly preferred as a self-designation since the 1990's.

Halchidhoma--The Halchidhoma were part of an alliance that also included the Maricopa and Cocopa.

Hoopa--Native American tribes in Northwestern California.

Huchnom,

Hupa,

Juaneno, The Juanero Band of Mission Indians is the only a State Recognized Tribe - by California

Kamia, Karok, Kasihta, Kato,Kawaiisu, Kitanemake, Konkau, Konomihu, Koso, Lassik, Little Lake, Luiseno, Maidu, Mattole, Miwok, Modoc, Mohava, Mono, Nicoleno, Nongatl, Okwanuchu, Paiute (Northern), Patwin, Pomo, Quechan, Salinan, Serrano, Shasta, Shoshone, Sinkyone, Tolowa, Tubatulabal, Vanyume, Wailaki, Wappo, Washoe, Whilkut, Wintu, Wintun, Wiyot, Yahi, Yana, Yokuts, Yuki, Yuma, Yurok

Barona Group of Captian Grande Band,Coyote Valley Band,Inaja Cosmit Band, La Jolla Band, La Posta Band, Los Coyotes Band,  Romona Band, Paiute: Mono Lake

California State Recognized Tribes

Juaneno Band of Mission Indians

Historical Background

A number of tribes have resided in California, some centered around the Spanish missions there. Others had no connection to those missions. The Spanish missions were the first effort at encouraging good relationships between the natives and the Caucasian settlers. Efforts were made to teach the Indians about farming methods, the Catholic religion, and other matters.

Old Spanish Missions of California, with dates of their founding


Pablo Tac., An Indian Neophyte, Indian Life and Customs at Mission San Luis Rey. Written about 1835. Edited and translated by Minna and Gordon Hewes. FHL Collection WorldCat

Agencies and Subagencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same.Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in California has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[3], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[4], and others.

For a few years in the early Twentieth Century, there were Indian offices in California that acted as agencies but were called superintendencies. They have been included in this list of agencies and subagencies.

Records

The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:

Allotment Records

The General Allotment Act was passed by the U.S. Congress in 1887, marking the establishment of the allotment of land to individuals as the official and widespread policy of the federal government toward the Native Americans. Under this policy, land (formerly land held by the tribe or tribal land) was allotted to individuals to be held in trust until they had shown competency to handle their own affairs. The Bureau of Indian Affairs was the trustee.

Individual American Indians were given a prescribed amount of land on a reservation based upon what land was available and the number of tribal members living on that reservation. Generally, the amount of land allotted was 160 Acres for each head of family, 80 Acres for each single person over eighteen years of age, 80 Acres for each orphan child under eighteen years of age, and 40 Acres for each single person under eighteen years of age. This was dependent upon there being sufficient land available on the existing reservation. If the total acreage on the reservation was insufficient, the amounts of land were pro-rated accordingly.

Not all tribes and reservations were allotted.

Allotted Tribes of California

  • Agua Caliente Reservation, Cold Springs Rancheria, Fort Independence Reservation, Hoopa Valley Rancheria (Klamath River Reservation), Mission Agency Indian Reservations: Augustine, Cabazon, Cahuilla, La Jolla, Mission Creek, Morongo, Pala, Pauma, Rincon, Sycuan, Torres-Martinez. Round Valley Reservation, Tuolumne Rancheria, Yuma Reservation, Yurok Reservation, Colorado River (Mohave)

Church Records

  • Mission San Antonio, California 1771-1882. FHL films 913297-913299
  • Mission San Buena Ventura, California 1782-1915. FHL films 913170-913172
  • Mission San Carlos, Carmel by the Sea, California 1770-1915. FHL films 913159-913164, and 913167,913303, 913315 and 909228
  • Mission San Diego, California 1769-1822. FHL films 830163 - 944001
  • Mission San Luis Obispo, California 1772-1906. FHL films 913300-913302 and 909228
  • Mission San Miguel, California 1797-1937. FHL films 913312-913314
  • Mission San Rafael, California 1817-1907. FHL films 909235-909234
  • Mission Santa Cruz, California 1791-1894. FHL films 913304-913307

Search the FamilySearch catalog for author Zephyrin Engelhardt Father of the missions.

  • Powers, Laura Bride. The missions of California. San Francisco; William Doxey, 1897. FHL book 979.4 K2p

Indian Schools

The Office of Indian Affairs (now the Bureau of Indian Affairs) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.

In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. (read more...)

The following list of Indian Schools in California has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[5], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[6], and others.

Indian Health Facilities

Maps

Family History Library

For a complete list of available records search the FamilySearch Catalog by Tribe and locality (state and county)

FamilySearch Catalog California Native Races for over 150 titles

Reservations

From the mid-1800's, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

In the 19th Century, some of the Indian tribes in California were brought under the jurisdiction of the Office of Indian Affairs and were placed on reservations.

For a current reservation map - California - Indian Reservations - The National Atlas of the United States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. By the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[7], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[8], and other sources. Those reservations named in bold are current federally-recognized reservations located wholly or partially in California, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.

Rancherias

The San Diego State University's On-Line Encyclopedia of California Indians contains the following definition of rancherias in California:

The Spanish term for small Indian settlements. Rancherias are a particular California institution. A small area of land was set aside around an Indian settlement to create a rancheria. Some rancherias developed from small communities of Indians formed on the outskirts of American settlements who were fleeing Americans or avoiding removal to the reservations. Reservations represented lands bought for Indians previously without land, or lands traditionally uninhabited, as happened to Indian groups east of the Sierra divide. Before 1906, most land set aside for California Indians were designated as reservations. Between 1906 and 1934, 54 rancherias were established, as well as one "Indian village." Since 1934, five rancherias, an "Indian village," an "Indian community," and four reservations have been established. With the passage of Public Law 83-280 in the mid-1950's, terminating federal supervision and control over California tribes, some 40 rancherias lost the right to certain federal programs, and their lands no longer had the protection of federal status. In 1983, a lawsuit resulted in restoring federal recognition to 17 rancherias, with others still waiting for the reversal of their termination.[9]

Other Repositories

American Indian Council of Central California, P.O. Box 3341, Bakersfield, CA, 93386

California Native American Heritage Commission, 915 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, DA, 95814

The American Indian Resource Center is located at Huntington Park Library, 6518 Miles Ave., Huntington Park, CA 90255, (323) 583-2794.  To learn more about this facility, click here.

See also:

California_Church_Records for a list of missions

California_History for a calendar of events

California_Military_Records for a list of forts

References

  1. Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  2. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  3. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  4. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  5. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  6. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  7. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  8. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991 (Family History Library book 973 E5)
  9. San Diego State University's On-Line Encyclopedia of California Indians Available Online.

Bibliography

  • "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
  • American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
  • California Indians and Their Reservations: An Online Dictionary. Available online.
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
  • Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  • Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  • Kroeber, Alfred L. Handbook of the Indians of California. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 78, 1925. Reprint. New York City: Dover Publications, [ca 2006] WorldCat 255854981 Available online.
  • National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  • Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.