Difference between revisions of "India History"

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The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world, dates back at least 5,000 years. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated onto Indian lands about 1500 BC; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkish in the 12th were followed by those of European traders, beginning in the late 15th century.
+
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world, dates back at least 5,000 years. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated onto Indian lands about 1500 BC; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkish in the 12th were followed by those of European traders, beginning in the late 15th century.  
  
By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. (See the "[[British Presence in India]]" article in this outline.) Indian armed forces in the British army played a vital role in both World Wars. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU brought independence in 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan.
+
By the mid- to late 18th century, Britain's Honourable East India Company (HEIC or EIC) had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. (See "[[British Presence in India]]"). The HEIC controlled virtually all trade with India and performed all the functions of government until the Government of India Act of 1858, when full control was assumed by Queen Victoria as Empress of India.  
  
A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. Despite impressive gains in economic investment and output, India faces pressing problems such as the ongoing dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir, massive overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic and religious strife. '''<span></span>'''
+
Indian armed forces in the British army played a vital role in both World Wars. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU brought independence in 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan.  
  
{| class="plain"
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A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. Despite impressive gains in economic investment and output, India faces pressing problems such as the ongoing dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir, massive overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic and religious strife.
|
+
 
|
+
For fuller treatment of the history of India from a British perspective, see Wikipedia. <br>
<center>'''ANCIENT EMPIRES'''</center>
+
 
 +
{{wikipedia|East India Company}} {{wikipedia|Company_rule_in_India}} {{wikipedia|British_Raj}} <br>  
 +
 
 +
''You may be interested in listening to [https://www.familysearch.org/learningcenter/lesson/hidden-women-uncovering-the-veil-of-silence-during-the-partition-of-punjab-india-1947/296 "Hidden Women: Uncovering the Veil of Silence During the Partition of Punjab, India 1947" ]at the FamilySearch Learning Center.''  
 +
 
 +
<br>  
 +
 
 +
{| width="100%"
 
|-
 
|-
| '''2500 -<br />1600 BC'''
+
|
 +
| <center>'''ANCIENT EMPIRES'''</center>
 +
|-
 +
| '''2500 -<br>1600 BC'''  
 
| Indus Valley Culture
 
| Indus Valley Culture
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1500 - <br />500 BC''' <br />
+
| '''1500 - <br>500 BC'''&nbsp;<br>  
 
| Migrations of Aryan-speaking tribes; The Vedic Age
 
| Migrations of Aryan-speaking tribes; The Vedic Age
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1000 BC''' <br />
+
| '''1000 BC'''&nbsp;<br>  
| Settlement of Bengal by Davidian-speaking peoples<br />
+
| Settlement of Bengal by Davidian-speaking peoples<br>
 
|-
 
|-
| '''600 BC''' <br />
+
| '''600 BC'''&nbsp;<br>  
| Territorial states emerge: Magadha, Kosala, Kuru, and Gandhara <br />
+
| Territorial states emerge: Magadha, Kosala, Kuru, and Gandhara&nbsp;<br>
 
|-
 
|-
| '''500 BC<br />'''
+
| '''500 BC<br>'''  
|
+
|  
Most of northern India inhabited
+
Most of northern India inhabited  
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''563 - <br />483 BC''' <br />
+
| '''563 - <br>483 BC'''&nbsp;<br>  
| Life of Siddartha Gautama - the Buddha; founding of Buddhism<br />
+
| Life of Siddartha Gautama - the Buddha; founding of Buddhism<br>
 
|-
 
|-
| '''320 BC <span>− </span><br />550 AD'''<br />
+
| '''320 BC <span>−</span><br>550 AD'''<br>  
|
+
|  
Gupta Empire: Classical Age of a united India (confined mostly to the north)
+
Gupta Empire: Classical Age of a united India (confined mostly to the north)  
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''326 BC'''<br />
+
| '''326 BC'''<br>  
|
+
|  
Alexander the Great's Indus Campaign, fusing several Indo-Greek elements
+
Alexander the Great's Indus Campaign, fusing several Indo-Greek elements  
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''326 - <br />184 BC''' <br />
+
| '''326 - <br>184 BC'''&nbsp;<br>  
| Mauryan Empire; reign of Ashoka (269-232 BC); spread of Buddhism: First Indian imperial power<br />
+
| Mauryan Empire; reign of Ashoka (269-232 BC); spread of Buddhism: First Indian imperial power<br>
 
|-
 
|-
| '''180 BC -<br />150 AD''' <br />
+
| '''180 BC -<br>150 AD'''&nbsp;<br>  
| Shaka dynastics in Indus Valley<br />
+
| Shaka dynastics in Indus Valley<br>
 
|-
 
|-
| '''100 BC <span>− </span>300 AD''' <br />
+
| '''100 BC <span>−</span>300 AD'''&nbsp;<br>  
|
+
|  
Deccan Indian Kingdoms: Power decentralized in the hands of local chieftains
+
Deccan Indian Kingdoms: Power decentralized in the hands of local chieftains  
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''606 - <br />47 AD''' <br />
+
| '''606 - <br>47 AD'''&nbsp;<br>  
| North Indian empire of Harsha<br />
+
| North Indian empire of Harsha<br>
 
|-
 
|-
| '''711 AD''' <br />
+
| '''711 AD'''&nbsp;<br>  
| Arab invaders conquer Sindh, establish Islamic presence in India <br />
+
| Arab invaders conquer Sindh, establish Islamic presence in India&nbsp;<br>
 
|-
 
|-
| '''750 -<br />1150 AD''' <br />
+
| '''750 -<br>1150 AD'''&nbsp;<br>  
| Pala Dynasty<br />
+
| Pala Dynasty<br>
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1150 -<br />1202 AD<br />'''
+
| '''1150 -<br>1202 AD<br>'''  
| Sena Dynasty<br />
+
| Sena Dynasty<br>
 
|-
 
|-
|
+
|  
|
+
| <center>&nbsp;'''GROWTH OF ISLAM'''</center>
<center> '''GROWTH OF ISLAM'''</center>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''997 -<br />1027''' '''AD'''<br />
+
| '''997 -<br>1027'''&nbsp;'''AD'''<br>  
| Mahmud of Ghazni raids Indian subcontinent from Afghanistan<br />
+
| Mahmud of Ghazni raids Indian subcontinent from Afghanistan<br>
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1202 AD'''
+
| '''1202 AD'''  
|
+
|  
Turkish conquerors defeat Sena Dynasty and overrun Bengal
+
Turkish conquerors defeat Sena Dynasty and overrun Bengal  
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1206 -<br />1398 AD<br />'''
+
| '''1206 -<br>1398 AD<br>'''  
|
+
|  
Delhi Sultanate
+
Delhi Sultanate  
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1336 <span>−</span><br />1527 AD'''<br />
+
| '''1336 <span>−</span><br>1527 AD'''<br>  
|
+
|  
Southern Dynasties in India establish rule
+
Southern Dynasties in India establish rule  
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1398 AD<br />'''
+
| '''1398 AD<br>'''  
|
+
|  
Timur sacks Delhi
+
Timur sacks Delhi  
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1414 -<br />1450 AD'''
+
| '''1414 -<br>1450 AD'''  
|
+
|  
Sayyid Dynasty; renewal of Delhi Sultanate
+
Sayyid Dynasty; renewal of Delhi Sultanate  
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1451 - <br />1526 AD<br />'''
+
| '''1451 - <br>1526 AD<br>'''  
|
+
|  
Lodi Dynasty
+
Lodi Dynasty  
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
|
+
|  
|
+
| <center>'''THE MUGHAL PERIOD'''</center>
<center>'''THE MUGHAL PERIOD'''</center>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1526 AD'''
+
| '''1526 AD'''  
 
| Babur lays foundation of Mughal Empire; wins First Battle of Panipat
 
| Babur lays foundation of Mughal Empire; wins First Battle of Panipat
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1556 -<br />1605 AD''' <br />
+
| '''1556 -<br>1605 AD'''&nbsp;<br>  
| Akbar expands and reforms the empire; Mughals win Second Battle of Panipat<br />
+
| Akbar expands and reforms the empire; Mughals win Second Battle of Panipat<br>
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1605 -<br />1627 AD''' <br />
+
| '''1600 AD'''  
| Reign of Jahangir; in 1612 East India Company opens first trading post (factory)<br />
+
| East India Company granted British Crown charter with exclusive rights to India
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1619 AD'''<br />
+
| '''1605 -<br>1627 AD'''&nbsp;<br>  
|
+
| Reign of Jahangir; in 1612 East India Company opens first trading post (factory)<br>
English East India Company establishes outpost at Surat on the northwestern coast
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1628 -<br />1658 AD''' <br />
+
| '''1619 AD'''<br>  
| Reign of Shah Jahan <br />
+
|  
 +
English East India Company establishes outpost at Surat on the northwestern coast
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
|
+
| '''1628 -<br>1658 AD'''&nbsp;<br>
'''1658 -<br />1707 AD'''
+
| Reign of Shah Jahan&nbsp;<br>
 +
|-
 +
|  
 +
'''1658 -<br>1707&nbsp;AD'''  
 +
 
 
| Reign of Aurangzeb, last great Mughal ruler
 
| Reign of Aurangzeb, last great Mughal ruler
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1707 -<br />1858 AD''' <br />
+
| '''1707 -<br>1858 AD'''&nbsp;<br>  
| Lesser emperors; decline of the Mughal Empire <br />
+
| Lesser emperors; decline of the Mughal Empire&nbsp;<br>
 
|-
 
|-
|
+
|  
|
+
| <center>'''BRITISH PERIOD'''</center>
<center>'''BRITISH PERIOD'''</center>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1757 AD''' <br />
+
| '''1757&nbsp;AD'''&nbsp;<br>  
| Battle of Plassey - British victory of Mughal forces in Bengal; British rule in India begins<br />
+
| Battle of Plassey - British victory of Mughal forces in Bengal; British rule in India begins<br>
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1835 AD''' <br />
+
| '''1835 AD'''&nbsp;<br>  
| Institution of British educaiton and other reform measures<br />
+
| Institution of British educaiton and other reform measures<br>
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1857 -<br />1858 AD''' <br />
+
| '''1857 -<br>1858 AD'''&nbsp;<br>  
| Revolt of Indian sepoys (soldiers) agains East India Company<br />
+
| Revolt of Indian sepoys (soldiers) agains East India Company<br>
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1858 AD'''<br />
+
| '''1858 AD'''<br>  
|
+
|  
East India Company abolished and Queen Victoria becomes Empress of India (the British Raj); begins with Government of India Act; formal end of Mughal Empire
+
East India Company abolished and Queen Victoria becomes Empress of India (the British Raj); begins with Government of India Act; formal end of Mughal Empire  
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1869 AD'''<br />
+
| '''1869 AD'''<br>  
|
+
|  
The creation of the Suez canal radically reduces journey time from India
+
The creation of the Suez canal radically reduces journey time from India  
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1885 AD'''<br />
+
| '''1885 AD'''<br>  
| Indian National Congress formed<br />
+
| Indian National Congress formed<br>
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1892 AD'''<br />
+
| '''1892 AD'''<br>  
|
+
|  
Dadabhai Naoroji first Indian to win a Parliamentary seat in England
+
Dadabhai Naoroji first Indian to win a Parliamentary seat in England  
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1897 AD'''<br />
+
| '''1897 AD'''<br>  
|
+
|  
Ayah's Home established in Aldgate, London
+
Ayah's Home established in Aldgate, London  
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1916 AD''' <br />
+
| '''1916 AD'''&nbsp;<br>  
| Congress-League Scheme of Reforms (Lucknow Pact) signed<br />
+
| Congress-League Scheme of Reforms (Lucknow Pact) signed<br>
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1935 AD''' <br />
+
| '''1935 AD'''&nbsp;<br>  
| Government of India Act of 1935 <br />
+
| Government of India Act of 1935&nbsp;<br>
 
|-
 
|-
|
+
|  
|
+
| <center>'''INDEPENDENT INDIA'''</center>
<center>'''INDEPENDENT INDIA'''</center>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''15 August<br />1947 AD'''
+
| '''15&nbsp;August<br>1947 AD'''  
| Partition of British India; India achieves independence and incorporates West Bengal and Assam;Jawaharlal Nehru becomes prime minister of India. Pakistan is created and incorporates East Bengal and territory in the northwest.<br />
+
| Partition of British India; India achieves independence and incorporates West Bengal and&nbsp;Assam;Jawaharlal Nehru becomes prime minister of India. Pakistan&nbsp;is created and incorporates East Bengal and territory in the northwest.<br>
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1962 AD'''<br />
+
| '''1962 AD'''<br>  
|
+
|  
Commonwealth Immigrants Act limits the migration of South Asians to England
+
Commonwealth Immigrants Act limits the migration of South Asians to England  
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''1968 AD'''<br />
+
| '''1968 AD'''<br>  
|
+
|  
"Rivers of Blood" Speech: Enoch Powell calls for forced return of immigrants settled in england
+
"Rivers of Blood" Speech: Enoch Powell calls for forced return of immigrants settled in england  
 +
 
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
[[Category:India]]

Revision as of 17:53, 10 May 2013

The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world, dates back at least 5,000 years. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated onto Indian lands about 1500 BC; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkish in the 12th were followed by those of European traders, beginning in the late 15th century.

By the mid- to late 18th century, Britain's Honourable East India Company (HEIC or EIC) had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. (See "British Presence in India"). The HEIC controlled virtually all trade with India and performed all the functions of government until the Government of India Act of 1858, when full control was assumed by Queen Victoria as Empress of India.

Indian armed forces in the British army played a vital role in both World Wars. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU brought independence in 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan.

A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. Despite impressive gains in economic investment and output, India faces pressing problems such as the ongoing dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir, massive overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic and religious strife.

For fuller treatment of the history of India from a British perspective, see Wikipedia.

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has more about this subject: East India Company
Wikipedia
Wikipedia has more about this subject: Company_rule_in_India
Wikipedia
Wikipedia has more about this subject: British_Raj

You may be interested in listening to "Hidden Women: Uncovering the Veil of Silence During the Partition of Punjab, India 1947" at the FamilySearch Learning Center.


ANCIENT EMPIRES
2500 -
1600 BC
Indus Valley Culture
1500 -
500 BC
 
Migrations of Aryan-speaking tribes; The Vedic Age
1000 BC 
Settlement of Bengal by Davidian-speaking peoples
600 BC 
Territorial states emerge: Magadha, Kosala, Kuru, and Gandhara 
500 BC

Most of northern India inhabited

563 -
483 BC
 
Life of Siddartha Gautama - the Buddha; founding of Buddhism
320 BC
550 AD

Gupta Empire: Classical Age of a united India (confined mostly to the north)

326 BC

Alexander the Great's Indus Campaign, fusing several Indo-Greek elements

326 -
184 BC
 
Mauryan Empire; reign of Ashoka (269-232 BC); spread of Buddhism: First Indian imperial power
180 BC -
150 AD
 
Shaka dynastics in Indus Valley
100 BC 300 AD 

Deccan Indian Kingdoms: Power decentralized in the hands of local chieftains

606 -
47 AD
 
North Indian empire of Harsha
711 AD 
Arab invaders conquer Sindh, establish Islamic presence in India 
750 -
1150 AD
 
Pala Dynasty
1150 -
1202 AD
Sena Dynasty
 GROWTH OF ISLAM
997 -
1027
 AD
Mahmud of Ghazni raids Indian subcontinent from Afghanistan
1202 AD

Turkish conquerors defeat Sena Dynasty and overrun Bengal

1206 -
1398 AD

Delhi Sultanate

1336
1527 AD

Southern Dynasties in India establish rule

1398 AD

Timur sacks Delhi

1414 -
1450 AD

Sayyid Dynasty; renewal of Delhi Sultanate

1451 -
1526 AD

Lodi Dynasty

THE MUGHAL PERIOD
1526 AD Babur lays foundation of Mughal Empire; wins First Battle of Panipat
1556 -
1605 AD
 
Akbar expands and reforms the empire; Mughals win Second Battle of Panipat
1600 AD East India Company granted British Crown charter with exclusive rights to India
1605 -
1627 AD
 
Reign of Jahangir; in 1612 East India Company opens first trading post (factory)
1619 AD

English East India Company establishes outpost at Surat on the northwestern coast

1628 -
1658 AD
 
Reign of Shah Jahan 

1658 -
1707 AD

Reign of Aurangzeb, last great Mughal ruler
1707 -
1858 AD
 
Lesser emperors; decline of the Mughal Empire 
BRITISH PERIOD
1757 AD 
Battle of Plassey - British victory of Mughal forces in Bengal; British rule in India begins
1835 AD 
Institution of British educaiton and other reform measures
1857 -
1858 AD
 
Revolt of Indian sepoys (soldiers) agains East India Company
1858 AD

East India Company abolished and Queen Victoria becomes Empress of India (the British Raj); begins with Government of India Act; formal end of Mughal Empire

1869 AD

The creation of the Suez canal radically reduces journey time from India

1885 AD
Indian National Congress formed
1892 AD

Dadabhai Naoroji first Indian to win a Parliamentary seat in England

1897 AD

Ayah's Home established in Aldgate, London

1916 AD 
Congress-League Scheme of Reforms (Lucknow Pact) signed
1935 AD 
Government of India Act of 1935 
INDEPENDENT INDIA
15 August
1947 AD
Partition of British India; India achieves independence and incorporates West Bengal and Assam;Jawaharlal Nehru becomes prime minister of India. Pakistan is created and incorporates East Bengal and territory in the northwest.
1962 AD

Commonwealth Immigrants Act limits the migration of South Asians to England

1968 AD

"Rivers of Blood" Speech: Enoch Powell calls for forced return of immigrants settled in england