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Census Records [Népszámlálás]
Census Records refer to population enumeration and description. For statistical purposes the government of Hungary periodically took a census of the population. The results were used to follow and regulate various aspects of society particularly taxation and con-scription. The first census of the inhabitants of the Kingdom of Hungary took place in 1784-1785 conducted under the Emperor Joseph. Some censuses were general. Others, such as the 1848 Hungarian census of the Jews, were taken of specific areas or for specific purposes.
Time period: The first census was made after the liberation of Hungary from the Turks. Taken in 1696, it was a census only of the residents of Buda. A countrywide census was taken in 1715, followed by two others in 1720 and 1728. The next census (ecclesiastical) was taken in 1747. The first official census was in 1784-1785. Other Hungarian censuses were conducted in 1808, 1828, 1848 (Jews only), 1850, 1857, 1869, 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930, 1941, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990.
Contents: The contents vary according to census. Some censuses list only head of household, conscription number of house, and taxable property. Many census returns of the 1800s give house number, head of household, names of members of the household (including servants), ages, occupations, religions, and relationships to head of household; some also give date and place of birth. Location: County archives under direction of the National Archives of Hungary [Országos Leveltár] in Budapest.
Research use: These records link families together and greatly supplement the research process. They establish family groups and relationships; ages, birth dates, and birth places which lead to primary vital records sources, valuable for pedigree links. Hungarian censuses may not be as helpful as censuses from other countries because better sources, such as church records and civil registration, are available for Hungary. Use census information carefully since accurate information may not have been given to or understood by the census taker.
Accessibility: Census materials, if they can be found, may be accessible for research in person. Nevertheless, permission may be denied in many cases. Aside from the materials in the collection of the Family History Library, few, if any, census materials are accessible for research.
Many early census records have been only partially preserved. Large parts of the 1784 census were destroyed. Census records are now kept under good storage conditions, but are subject to catastrophes. Records are considered confidential, particularly those less than 50 years old. Some sources indicate that the census returns for 1880 and later are statistical only and did not provide names.
1725-1775 Census of the Jews
- Available for various counties (mainly present-day Hungary, Slovakia, Sub-Carpathian Russia, Burgenland)
- Counties arranged alphabetically
- Name of the head of the house, sometimes wife’s and children’s names
- Number of servants and religion
- Name of the landlord
- Possessions and taxes assessed
1828 Land Census
1828 Land Census Published
1848 Census of the Jews
- Counties arranged alphabetically
- All members of the household and relationship to the head of the household, their ages and birthplaces
- Available for the following counties: Baranya, Békés, Bihar, Csanád, Csongrád, Esztergom, Fejér, Győr, Hajdu, Komárom, Krassó, Máramaros, Moson, Szabolcs, Szilágy, Tolna, Trencsén, Turócs, Ung, Vas, Veszprém, Zala
- Available for the following cities (county name given in parenthesis): Debreczen (Hajdú), Eperjes (Sáros), Gyöngyös (Heves), Győr (Győr), Miskolcz (Borsod), Modor (Pozsony), Nagyszombat (Pozsony), Pécs (Baranya), Sopron (Sopron), Szakolcza (Nyitra), Szentgyörgy, Ujvidék (Bacs), Temesvár (Temes), Trencsén (Trencsén), Zombor (Bacs)
- Available for parts of the following counties: Csanád, Esztergom, Sopron, Tolna, Vas, Zala, Zemplén
- Available for the following cities (county name given in parenthesis): Békéscsaba (Békés), Győr (Győr), Székesfehérvár (Fejér)
- All members of the household, relationship to the head of the household, birthdates, religion and sometimes birthplaces
- Available for the following counties: Abauj-Torna, Bars, Komárom, Nyitra, Szepes, Sáros, Zemplén and portions of Esztergom and Vas counties
- Some villages may be missing
- Available for the following cities (county name given in parenthesis): Győr (Győr), Hajduszoboszló (Hajdu), Nyiregyháza (Szabolcs), Szentes (Csongrád)
- All members of the household, relationship to the head of the household, birthdates and birthplaces