To request editing rights on the Wiki, click here.

Difference between revisions of "Houghton County, Michigan Genealogy"

From FamilySearch Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
m (Broken link proj - Updated URLs and other info; re-entered history book that had been removed; moved library entry to Lib section; some formatting to standard; removed genealogyinc links per DB)
(86 intermediate revisions by 37 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
{{stub}}&nbsp;''[[United States|United States&nbsp;]] &gt; [[Michigan|Michigan]]&nbsp;&gt; Houghton County'' <br>
+
{{breadcrumb
 +
| link1=[[United States Genealogy|United States]]
 +
| link2= [[Michigan Genealogy|Michigan]]
 +
| link3=
 +
| link4=
 +
| link5=[[Houghton County, Michigan Genealogy|Houghton County]]
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Guide to '''Houghton County, Michigan ancestry, family history, and genealogy''' birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, family history, and military records.
 +
{{Click|Image:MI_ORP.png|Michigan Online Genealogy Records}}  
 +
{{Infobox U.S. County
 +
| county = Houghton County
 +
| county_map =
 +
| state = Michigan
 +
| state_map = Michigan.png
 +
| latd =
 +
| longd =
 +
| founded year = 1845
 +
| founded date = March 19
 +
| seat = Houghton
 +
| building image = Houghton County Michigan Courthouse.jpg
 +
| building address = '''Houghton County Courthouse'''<br>401 E Houghton Avenue<br>Houghton, MI 49931<br>Phone: 906-482-1150 <br> [http://www.houghtoncounty.net/ Houghton County Website] }}
 +
 
 +
=== County Information  ===
 +
 
 +
==== Description ==== 
 +
 
 +
The County was named for Douglass Houghton. The County has Houghton as its seat and the County was created 1846. The County is located in the northwest area of the state.<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Houghton County, Michigan" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'', "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Houghton_County,_Michigan."</ref>
 +
 
 +
====Houghton County, Michigan Record Dates====
 +
 
 +
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
 +
|-
 +
| bgcolor="#e4d8e5" align="center" colspan="7" | <center>'''Known Beginning Dates for Major County Records'''<ref>''Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America'', 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Houghton County, Michigan . Page 343-351 {{WorldCat|50140092|disp=At various libraries (WorldCat)}}; {{FHL|1049485|item|disp=FHL Book 973 D27e 2002}}; Alice Eichholz, ed. Ancestry’s Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources, Third ed. (Provo, Utah: Ancestry, 2004), 346-349.</ref></center>
 +
|-
 +
| width="14.2%" bgcolor="#e4d8e5" align="center" | '''[[Houghton County, Michigan Genealogy#Birth|Birth*]]'''
 +
| width="14.2%" bgcolor="#e4d8e5" align="center" | '''[[Houghton County, Michigan Genealogy#Marriage|Marriage]]'''
 +
| width="14.2%" bgcolor="#e4d8e5" align="center" | '''[[Houghton County, Michigan Genealogy#Death|Death*]]'''
 +
| width="14.2%" bgcolor="#e4d8e5" align="center" | '''[[Houghton County, Michigan Genealogy#Court Records|Court]]'''
 +
| width="14.2%" bgcolor="#e4d8e5" align="center" | '''[[Houghton County, Michigan Genealogy#Land and Property Records|Land]]'''
 +
| width="14.2%" bgcolor="#e4d8e5" align="center" | '''[[Houghton County, Michigan Genealogy#Probate Records|Probate]]'''
 +
| width="14.2%" bgcolor="#e4d8e5" align="center" | '''[[Houghton County, Michigan Genealogy#Census Records|Census]]'''
 +
|-
 +
| width="14.2%" align="center" |1867
 +
| width="14.2%" align="center" |1855
 +
| width="14.2%" align="center" |1867
 +
| width="14.2%" align="center" |1853
 +
| width="14.2%" align="center" |1847
 +
| width="14.2%" align="center" |1872
 +
| width="14.2%" align="center" |1820
 +
|-
 +
| colspan="7"| <center>Statewide registration started in 1867 for births and deaths. General compliance by 1915.</center>
 +
|}
  
 
== County Courthouse  ==
 
== County Courthouse  ==
 +
 +
[[Image:Houghton County Michigan Courthouse.jpg|thumb|right|200px]]
 +
 +
<br>[http://www.houghtoncounty.net/directory-clerk.php County Clerk] has birth and death records from 1867, marriage records from 1855, divorce and court records from 1853, land records from 1847, naturalization records from 1848 and military records. <br> [http://www.houghtoncounty.net/directory-probate-family-court.php Probate Judge] has probate records. <ref name="HBG">''Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America'', 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Houghton County, Michigan page 346, {{WorldCat|50140092|disp=At various libraries (WorldCat)}}; {{FHL|1049485|item|disp=FHL Book 973 D27e 2002}}.</ref>
  
 
== History  ==
 
== History  ==
Line 7: Line 63:
 
==== Parent County  ====
 
==== Parent County  ====
  
'''1845--'''Houghton County was created 19 March 1845&nbsp;from [[Marquette_County,_Michigan|Marquette]] and [[Ontonagon_County,_Michigan|Ontonagon]] Counties. It was attached to Chippewa County prior to organization 18 May 1846.&nbsp; '''County seat:''' Houghton <ref name="Handybook">''The Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America'',10th ed. (Draper, UT:Everton Publishers, 2002).</ref>
+
'''1845--'''Houghton County was created 19 March 1845 from [[Marquette County, Michigan Genealogy|Marquette]] and [[Ontonagon County, Michigan Genealogy|Ontonagon]] Counties. It was attached to Chippewa County prior to organization 18 May 1846. '''County seat:''' Houghton <ref>''The Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America'',10th ed. (Draper, UT:Everton Publishers, 2002).</ref>  
  
 
==== Boundary Changes  ====
 
==== Boundary Changes  ====
 +
 +
For animated maps illustrating Michigan county boundary changes, [http://www.mapofus.org/michigan/ "Rotating Formation Michigan County Boundary Maps"] (1790-1897) may be viewed for free at the MapofUS.org website.
  
 
==== Record Loss  ====
 
==== Record Loss  ====
  
== Places/Localities ==
+
There is no known history of courthouse disasters in this county.
 +
 
 +
== Places/Localities ==
  
==== Populated Places ====
+
==== Populated Places ====
  
 
==== Neighboring Counties  ====
 
==== Neighboring Counties  ====
  
*[[Baraga_County,_Michigan|Baraga]]
+
[[Baraga County, Michigan Genealogy|Baraga]] {{•}} [[Iron County, Michigan Genealogy|Iron]] {{•}} [[Keweenaw County, Michigan Genealogy|Keweenaw]] {{•}} [[Ontonagon County, Michigan Genealogy|Ontonagon]]
*[[Iron_County,_Michigan|Iron]]
 
*[[Keweenaw_County,_Michigan|Keweenaw]]
 
*[[Ontonagon_County,_Michigan|Ontonagon]]
 
  
 
== Resources  ==
 
== Resources  ==
 +
 +
A Guide to Genealogical Resources and researching their special collections may be viewed at [http://www.lib.mtu.edu/mtuarchives/GenealogicalSources.pdf MTU Archives]. Perhaps the most interesting item in the collection are the employment records of now defunct mining companies that give names, birth date and place of birth and the names, ages of children and also extended family employed worked for the mining companies from 1880 to 1920. This is especially valuable since the majority of the miners were immigrants from Europe. Please read the guide carefully for the resources that will help you 'cross the pond'.
  
 
==== Cemeteries  ====
 
==== Cemeteries  ====
 +
 +
{| width="80%" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
 +
|-
 +
| width="30%" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" align="center" | '''Tombstone Transcriptions Online'''
 +
| width="30%" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" align="center" | '''Tombstone Transcriptions in Print'''
 +
| width="30%" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" align="center" | '''List of Cemeteries in the county'''
 +
|-
 +
| bgcolor="#F0F0F0" | [https://www.findagrave.com/memorial Findagrave.com]
 +
| bgcolor="#F0F0F0" | {{FHL|452615|subject-id|disp=Family History Library}}
 +
| bgcolor="#F0F0F0" | [https://www.findagrave.com/cemetery-browse/USA/Michigan/Houghton-County?id=county_1257 Findagrave.com]
 +
|-
 +
| bgcolor="#F0F0F0" | [http://www.mfhn.com/houghton/cemeteries.asp USGenWeb]
 +
| bgcolor="#F0F0F0" | [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=su%3Acemetery+Houghton+Michigan&qt=results_page WorldCat]
 +
| bgcolor="#F0F0F0" | [https://billiongraves.com/search/cemetery Billion Graves]
 +
|-
 +
| bgcolor="#F0F0F0" | [http://www.usgwarchives.net/mi/houghton/3101cemeteries.htm MIGenWeb Archives]
 +
| bgcolor="#F0F0F0" |
 +
| bgcolor="#F0F0F0" |
 +
|-
 +
| bgcolor="#F0F0F0" | [http://www.usgwtombstones.org/michigan/houghton.htm Tombstone Project]
 +
| bgcolor="#F0F0F0" |
 +
| bgcolor="#F0F0F0" |
 +
|-
 +
| bgcolor="#F0F0F0" | [http://www.epodunk.com/cgi-bin/localList.php?local=21870&locTGroup=Cemeteries&direction=down&sec=0&qty=20&stateAbbv=&stateName= EPodunk]
 +
| bgcolor="#F0F0F0" |
 +
| bgcolor="#F0F0F0" |
 +
|-
 +
| bgcolor="#F0F0F0" |[https://billiongraves.com/search# Billion Graves]
 +
| bgcolor="#F0F0F0" |
 +
| bgcolor="#F0F0F0" |
 +
|-
 +
| bgcolor="#F0F0F0" colspan="3" | See [[Michigan Cemeteries| Michigan Cemeteries]] for more information.
 +
|}
 +
 +
==== Census ====
 +
''' State Census'''
 +
*'''1894''' - {{RecordSearch|1825187|Michigan State Census, 1894}} at [https://www.familysearch.org/search FamilySearch] — index
  
 
==== Church  ====
 
==== Church  ====
 +
 +
{{MI Church Intro}}
 +
*'''1819-1991''' - {{RecordSearch|2787825|Michigan, Church Records, 1819-1991}} at [https://familysearch.org/search FamilySearch] — index
  
 
==== Court  ====
 
==== Court  ====
  
 +
==== Emigration and Immigration ====
 +
*'''1929-1966''' {{RecordSearch|2426314|Michigan, Crew Lists for various ports, 1929-1966}} at [https://www.familysearch.org/search FamilySearch] — index and images
 
==== Land  ====
 
==== Land  ====
 +
 +
{{MI Land Intro}}
  
 
==== Local Histories  ====
 
==== Local Histories  ====
 +
 +
{{MI History Intro}}
 +
*''History of Ingham and Eaton Counties Michigan''. By Samuel W. Durant. 1880. Philadelphia : D.W. Ensign & Co.  Online at: [https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001265170 Hathitrust]; [https://archive.org/details/historyofinghame00indura/page/n8 Internet Archive]; [https://books.google.com/books?id=eoz2jflPnDMC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false Google Books]; [https://www.ancestry.com/search/collections/genealogy-glh20141698/ Ancestry ($)]
  
 
==== Maps  ====
 
==== Maps  ====
 +
{{MI Neighboring Counties Intro|county={{MI Houghton County}}}}
 +
*[http://www.mapofus.org/michigan/ Maps of Michigan (1790-1897)]
  
 
==== Military  ====
 
==== Military  ====
 +
 +
===== Civil War =====
 +
 +
*{{RecordSearch|3246416|Michigan, Civil War Centennial Observance Commission, Committee on Civil War Grave Registration, Burial Records}} at [https://familysearch.org/search FamilySearch] — index
 +
 +
===== World War I =====
 +
 +
*'''1917-1919''' - {{RecordSearch|3007553|Michigan, Census of World War I Veterans with Card Index, 1917-1919}} at [https://familysearch.org/search FamilySearch] — index
  
 
==== Newspapers  ====
 
==== Newspapers  ====
 +
 +
{{MI Newspaper abstracts|Houghton}}
 +
 +
==== Obituaries ====
 +
 +
*'''1820-2006''' - {{RecordSearch|2215693|Michigan Obituaries, 1820-2006}} at [https://www.familysearch.org/search FamilySearch] — index and images
  
 
==== Probate  ====
 
==== Probate  ====
 +
 +
{{MI Probate Intro|Houghton}}
 +
 +
'''Online Probate Records'''
 +
 +
*'''1784–1980''' [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=8793 Michigan Wills and Probate Records 1784-1980] at [http://home.ancestry.com/ Ancestry] — index and images $
 +
*'''1797–1973''' {{RecordSearch|2013878|Michigan Probate Records 1797-1973}} at [https://familysearch.org FamilySearch] — images
  
 
==== Taxation  ====
 
==== Taxation  ====
Line 48: Line 177:
 
==== Vital Records  ====
 
==== Vital Records  ====
  
== Societies and Libraries ==
+
{{MI Vital Intro}}
 +
*[http://www.genealogyinc.com/michigan/mi-vital-records/ How to order Michigan Vital Records]
 +
=====Birth=====
 +
*'''1867-1917''' - {{RecordSearch|1923472|Michigan, County Births, 1867-1917}} at [https://familysearch.org/search FamilySearch] — index and images
 +
*'''1867-1902''' - [https://familysearch.org/search/collection/1459684 Michigan Birth Registrations, 1867-1902] — index and images
 +
 
 +
=====Marriage=====
 +
*'''1585-1945''' - [https://search.findmypast.com/search-world-records/united-states-marriages?state=michigan%2cmi Michigan, United States Marriages] at [http://findmypast.com/ FindMyPast] — index $
 +
*'''1820-1937''' - {{RecordSearch|2473289|Michigan, County Marriages Index, 1820-1937}} at [https://www.familysearch.org/search FamilySearch] — index
 +
*'''1820-1940''' - {{RecordSearch|1810350|Michigan, County Marriages, 1820-1940}} at [https://familysearch.org/search FamilySearch] — index and images
 +
*'''1868-1925''' - [https://familysearch.org/search/collection/1452395 Michigan Marriage Registrations, 1868-1925] — index and images
 +
 
 +
=====Death=====
 +
*'''1850-1880''' - {{RecordSearch|2632078|Michigan Mortality Schedules, 1850-1880}} at [https://familysearch.org/search FamilySearch] — index and images
 +
*'''1867-1897''' - [https://familysearch.org/search/collection/1452402 Michigan Death Registrations, 1867-1897] — index and images
 +
*'''1897-1920''' - [http://seekingmichigan.org/discover/death-records-1897-1920 Michigan Death Records, 1897-1920] -- Free index and images of death certificates located at the Michigan State Archives website (SeekingMichigan.org)
 +
*'''1921-1952''' - [http://seekingmichigan.org/discover/death-records-1921-1952 Michigan Death Records, 1921-1952] -- Free index and images of death certificates for 1921-1941 located at the Michigan State Archives website (SeekingMichigan.org).  Free index only for death records from 1942-1952.
  
== Web Sites  ==
+
== Societies and Libraries  ==
  
*USGenWeb project. May have maps, name indexes, history or other information for this county. Select the state, then the county.
+
*'''Houghton County Historical Society'''<br>53102 Hwy M-26<br>PO Box 127<br>Lake Linden, MI 49945<br>[http://www.houghtonhistory.org/ Website]
*[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=localitydetails&subject=199797&subject_disp=Michigan%2C+Houghton&columns=*,0,0 Family History Library Catalog]
+
*'''Houghton-Keweenaw County Genealogical Society'''<br>PO Box 72<br>Houghton, MI 49931<br>Email: [mailto:HKCGSociety@gmail.com HKCGSociety@gmail.com]
 +
*'''J. Robert Van Pelt and John and Ruanne Opie Library'''<br>Michigan Technological University<br>Houghton, MI 49931<br>Phone: 906-487-2505<br>Fax: 906-487-2357<br>Email: [mailto:copper@mtu.edu copper@mtu.edu]<br>[http://www.mtu.edu/library/ Website]
 +
 
 +
==== Family History Centers  ====
 +
 
 +
{{Family History Centers Intro}}
 +
 
 +
*[[Introduction to Family History Centers]]
 +
 
 +
*[[Houghton Michigan Family History Center]] 47691 Meadow St, Houghton, MI 47691 United States
 +
 
 +
== Websites  ==
 +
 
 +
*[https://plus.google.com/u/0/communities/117010845362856133445 Michigan Genealogy Network Community on Google+]
 +
*[https://www.facebook.com/groups/241315555879711/ Michigan Genealogy Network Group on Facebook]
 +
*[http://www.mfhn.com/houghton/ USGenWeb project.] May have maps, name indexes, history or other information for this county.  
 +
*{{FHL|Michigan%2C+Houghton|subject|disp=FamilySearch Catalog}}
 +
*[http://ldsgenealogy.com/MI/Houghton-County.htm Houghton County MI Genealogy] (ldsgenealogy.com)
 +
*[http://habitant.org/houghton/fcgenealogy.htm French-Canadians in Houghton<br>]
  
 
== References  ==
 
== References  ==
  
<references/>
+
<references />  
 +
 
 +
{{Michigan|Michigan}}
 +
 
 
[[Category:Houghton_County,_Michigan]]
 
[[Category:Houghton_County,_Michigan]]

Revision as of 17:21, 1 September 2019

Guide to Houghton County, Michigan ancestry, family history, and genealogy birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, family history, and military records.

{{{link}}}

Houghton County, Michigan
Map
Map of the U.S. highlighting Michigan
Location of Michigan in the U.S.
Facts
Founded March 19, 1845
County Seat Houghton
Courthouse
Houghton County Michigan Courthouse.jpg
Address Houghton County Courthouse
401 E Houghton Avenue
Houghton, MI 49931
Phone: 906-482-1150
Houghton County Website


County Information[edit | edit source]

Description[edit | edit source]

The County was named for Douglass Houghton. The County has Houghton as its seat and the County was created 1846. The County is located in the northwest area of the state.[1]

Houghton County, Michigan Record Dates[edit | edit source]

Known Beginning Dates for Major County Records[2]
Birth* Marriage Death* Court Land Probate Census
1867 1855 1867 1853 1847 1872 1820
Statewide registration started in 1867 for births and deaths. General compliance by 1915.

County Courthouse[edit | edit source]

Houghton County Michigan Courthouse.jpg


County Clerk has birth and death records from 1867, marriage records from 1855, divorce and court records from 1853, land records from 1847, naturalization records from 1848 and military records.
Probate Judge has probate records. [3]

History[edit | edit source]

Parent County[edit | edit source]

1845--Houghton County was created 19 March 1845 from Marquette and Ontonagon Counties. It was attached to Chippewa County prior to organization 18 May 1846. County seat: Houghton [4]

Boundary Changes[edit | edit source]

For animated maps illustrating Michigan county boundary changes, "Rotating Formation Michigan County Boundary Maps" (1790-1897) may be viewed for free at the MapofUS.org website.

Record Loss[edit | edit source]

There is no known history of courthouse disasters in this county.

Places/Localities[edit | edit source]

Populated Places[edit | edit source]

Neighboring Counties[edit | edit source]

Baraga  • Iron  • Keweenaw  • Ontonagon

Resources[edit | edit source]

A Guide to Genealogical Resources and researching their special collections may be viewed at MTU Archives. Perhaps the most interesting item in the collection are the employment records of now defunct mining companies that give names, birth date and place of birth and the names, ages of children and also extended family employed worked for the mining companies from 1880 to 1920. This is especially valuable since the majority of the miners were immigrants from Europe. Please read the guide carefully for the resources that will help you 'cross the pond'.

Cemeteries[edit | edit source]

Tombstone Transcriptions Online Tombstone Transcriptions in Print List of Cemeteries in the county
Findagrave.com Family History Library Findagrave.com
USGenWeb WorldCat Billion Graves
MIGenWeb Archives
Tombstone Project
EPodunk
Billion Graves
See Michigan Cemeteries for more information.

Census[edit | edit source]

State Census

Church[edit | edit source]

Church records and the information they provide vary significantly depending on the denomination and the record keeper. They may contain information about members of the congregation, such as age, date of baptism, christening, or birth; marriage information and maiden names; and death date. For general information about Michigan denominations, view the Michigan Church Records wiki page.

Court[edit | edit source]

Emigration and Immigration[edit | edit source]

Land[edit | edit source]

Land and property records can place an ancestor in a particular location, provide economic information, and reveal family relationships. Land records include: deeds, abstracts and indexes, mortgages, leases, grants and land patents.

See Michigan Land and Property for additional information about early Michigan land grants. After land was transferred to private ownership, subsequent transactions were usually recorded at the county courthouse and where records are currently housed.

Local Histories[edit | edit source]

Local histories are available for Houghton County, Michigan Genealogy. County histories may include biographies, church, school and government history, and military information. For more information about local histories, see the wiki page section Michigan Local Histories.

Maps[edit | edit source]

Keweenaw CountyKeweenaw CountyBaraga CountyIron CountyOntonagon CountyMI HOUGHTON.PNG
Click a neighboring county
for more resources


Military[edit | edit source]

Civil War[edit | edit source]
World War I[edit | edit source]

Newspapers[edit | edit source]

Finding More Michigan Newspapers[edit source]

Additional newspapers abstracts can sometimes be found using search phrases such as Houghton County, Michigan Genealogy newspapers in online catalogs like:

Obituaries[edit | edit source]

Probate[edit | edit source]

In most counties in Michigan, probate records have been kept by the county judge. They include wills, fee books, claim registers, legacy records, inheritance records, probate packets, and dockets. The records are available at the county courthouse.

The FamilySearch Catalog lists films of probate records. To find the records for this county, use the Place Search for Michigan, Houghton and search for Probate records in the list.

Note: Not every county in Michigan will have Probate Records in the FamilySearch Catalog.

Online Probate Records

Taxation[edit | edit source]

Vital Records[edit | edit source]

Vital Records consist of births, adoptions, marriages, divorces, and deaths recorded on registers, certificates, and documents. A copy or an extract of most original records can be purchased as shown below:

Birth Records and Death Records from the Michigan Department of Community Health (from 1867) or the County Clerk's office of the county where the event occurred.
Marriage Records (from 1867) and Divorce Records (from 1897) from the County Clerk.

Birth[edit | edit source]
Marriage[edit | edit source]
Death[edit | edit source]

Societies and Libraries[edit | edit source]

  • Houghton County Historical Society
    53102 Hwy M-26
    PO Box 127
    Lake Linden, MI 49945
    Website
  • Houghton-Keweenaw County Genealogical Society
    PO Box 72
    Houghton, MI 49931
    Email: HKCGSociety@gmail.com
  • J. Robert Van Pelt and John and Ruanne Opie Library
    Michigan Technological University
    Houghton, MI 49931
    Phone: 906-487-2505
    Fax: 906-487-2357
    Email: copper@mtu.edu
    Website

Family History Centers[edit | edit source]

Family History Centers provide one-on-one assistance and free access to premium genealogical websites. In addition, many centers have free how-to genealogy classes.

Websites[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Wikipedia contributors, "Houghton County, Michigan" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Houghton_County,_Michigan."
  2. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Houghton County, Michigan . Page 343-351 At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002; Alice Eichholz, ed. Ancestry’s Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources, Third ed. (Provo, Utah: Ancestry, 2004), 346-349.
  3. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Houghton County, Michigan page 346, At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002.
  4. The Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America,10th ed. (Draper, UT:Everton Publishers, 2002).