Difference between revisions of "Hiring a DNA Testing Company"

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(Expanded Y chromosome entry. Added mitochondrial and autosomal DNA entry. Added few links.)
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''[[Hiring a Professional Researcher|Hiring a Professional Researcher]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png|go to]]  [[Hiring_a_DNA_Testing_Company|Hiring a DNA Testing Company]]''  
 
''[[Hiring a Professional Researcher|Hiring a Professional Researcher]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png|go to]]  [[Hiring_a_DNA_Testing_Company|Hiring a DNA Testing Company]]''  
  
DNA testing has become an accepted tool for identifying ancestors and for verifying genealogical leads. It is also used frequently to learn about our deep ancestry.
+
DNA testing has become an accepted tool for identifying ancestors and for verifying genealogical leads. It is also used frequently to learn about our deep ancestry.  
  
 
[[Image:DNA Double Helix.png|right|300px|DNA Double Helix.png]]  
 
[[Image:DNA Double Helix.png|right|300px|DNA Double Helix.png]]  
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== Y-DNA Testing  ==
 
== Y-DNA Testing  ==
  
Information stored in the Y chromosome (Ycs) passes virtually unchanged from father-to-son for centuries. Analysis of this genetic information, found in living people, can help you determine whether you share a common paternal ancestor with another person alive today. Based on the number of genetic markers shared on the Ycs with another person, you can also estimate how many generation in the past your common paternal ancestor lived. This is called Time to the Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) and it is based on a mutation rate calculated on many thousands of father/son pairs. Ycs testing can help in verifying a common paternal ancestor, or learn about the origin of a particular surname. Additionally, each Ycs can be predicted into a specific branch of the large Ycs tree based on the set of Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) tested by many companies and using an [http://www.hprg.com/hapest5/ online predictor], or it can be accurately assigned to one of these branches through the test of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) (see the Ycs [http://isogg.org/tree/index.html ISOGG] tree).
+
Information stored in the Y chromosome (Ycs) passes virtually unchanged from father-to-son for centuries. Analysis of this genetic information, found in living people, can help you determine whether you share a common paternal ancestor with another person alive today. Based on the number of genetic markers shared on the Ycs with another person, you can also estimate how many generation in the past your common paternal ancestor lived. This is called Time to the Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) and it is based on a mutation rate calculated on many thousands of father/son pairs. Ycs testing can help in verifying a common paternal ancestor, or learn about the origin of a particular surname. Additionally, each Ycs can be predicted into a specific branch of the large Ycs tree based on the set of Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) tested by many companies and using an [http://www.hprg.com/hapest5/ online predictor], or it can be accurately assigned to one of these branches through the test of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) (see the Ycs [http://isogg.org/tree/index.html ISOGG] tree).  
  
Note: Only males carry the Ycs, but a woman can have a male relative tested in her stead to obtain such information.
+
Note: Only males carry the Ycs, but a woman can have a male relative tested in her stead to obtain such information.  
  
 
== MTDNA Testing  ==
 
== MTDNA Testing  ==
  
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a small circular genetic molecule found outside the nucleus in organelles called mitochondria. It is inherited exclusively from our mothers and it follows an unbroken maternal line. MtDNA is helpful in verifying the existence of a common maternal ancestor or to study the ancient origins of our maternal line. MtDNA lineages can be grouped together in a large [http://www.phylotree.org/ mtDNA tree]. Each branch of this tree may have a specific geographic distribution that might help someone locate the country of origin of their maternal line.
+
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a small circular genetic molecule found outside the nucleus in organelles called mitochondria. It is inherited exclusively from our mothers and it follows an unbroken maternal line. MtDNA is helpful in verifying the existence of a common maternal ancestor or to study the ancient origins of our maternal line. MtDNA lineages can be grouped together in a large [http://www.phylotree.org/ mtDNA tree]. Each branch of this tree may have a specific geographic distribution that might help someone locate the country of origin of their maternal line.  
  
MtDNA testing can be done for a small section of the genome called the control region (which usually include the segments HVR1, 2 and/or 3), or for the full molecule (16569 bases). [http://www.familytreedna.com/mt-dna-compare.aspx Family Tree DNA] is currently the only commercial laboratort offering the complete mtDNA sequence to its costumers.
+
MtDNA testing can be done for a small section of the genome called the control region (which usually include the segments HVR1, 2 and/or 3), or for the full molecule (16569 bases). [http://www.familytreedna.com/mt-dna-compare.aspx Family Tree DNA] is currently the only commercial laboratort offering the complete mtDNA sequence to its costumers.  
  
Note: Although mtDNA is inherited exclusively along the maternal side, both males and females carry it. Only females will pass it on to their children.
+
Note: Although mtDNA is inherited exclusively along the maternal side, both males and females carry it. Only females will pass it on to their children.  
  
 
== Autosomal DNA Testing  ==
 
== Autosomal DNA Testing  ==
  
Autosomal DNA is the DNA found in the 22 pairs of nuclear chromosomes. They are shuffled at each generation and only half of it is passed to our offspring. It does not follow a clear and straight path of inheritance as the Ycs and mtDNA described above. However, current testing provides a survey of one million or more sites on a person nuclear genome. This information is helpful in identifying distant cousins, or the ethnic origins of our family tree. Companies like [http://23andme.com/ 23andMe], [http://www.familytreedna.com/family-finder-compare.aspx Family Tree DNA], and [http://dna.ancestry.com/ Ancestry] all offer autosomal testing for genealogical purposes. [http://shop.nationalgeographic.com/ngs/browse/productDetail.jsp?productId=2001246&gsk The Genographic Project] recently launched an autosomal test that offers insights into our deep ancestry. These tests offer a lot of information about our DNA and they may be difficult to understand. Each company offering such tests has numerous tutorials and aids on their website to assist with the interpretation of such results. Additionally, [https://www.23andme.com/ 23andMe] offers information about medical predispositions and traits.
+
Autosomal DNA is the DNA found in the 22 pairs of nuclear chromosomes. They are shuffled at each generation and only half of it is passed to our offspring. It does not follow a clear and straight path of inheritance as the Ycs and mtDNA described above. However, current testing provides a survey of one million or more sites on a person nuclear genome. This information is helpful in identifying distant cousins, or the ethnic origins of our family tree. Companies like [http://23andme.com/ 23andMe], [http://www.familytreedna.com/family-finder-compare.aspx Family Tree DNA], and [http://dna.ancestry.com/ Ancestry] all offer autosomal testing for genealogical purposes. [http://shop.nationalgeographic.com/ngs/browse/productDetail.jsp?productId=2001246&gsk The Genographic Project] recently launched an autosomal test that offers insights into our deep ancestry. These tests offer a lot of information about our DNA and they may be difficult to understand. Each company offering such tests has numerous tutorials and aids on their website to assist with the interpretation of such results. Additionally, [https://www.23andme.com/ 23andMe] offers information about medical predispositions and traits.  
  
 
== DNA Testing Companies  ==
 
== DNA Testing Companies  ==
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Some major commercial DNA testing companies are listed below in alphabetical order. Please visit their websites to learn more about their services:<br>  
 
Some major commercial DNA testing companies are listed below in alphabetical order. Please visit their websites to learn more about their services:<br>  
  
*[https://www.23andme.com/ 23andMe]: Autosomal DNA test only (Relative Finder), with Ycs and mtDNA haplogroup assignment and information about diseases and traits.
+
*[https://www.23andme.com/ 23andMe]: Autosomal DNA test only (Relative Finder), with Ycs and mtDNA haplogroup assignment and information about diseases and traits.  
*[http://dna.ancestry.com/welcome.aspx Ancestry DNA]: Ycs and mtDNA profiles sold separately. Plus a new autosomal DNA test.
+
*[http://dna.ancestry.com/welcome.aspx Ancestry DNA]: Ycs and mtDNA profiles sold separately. Plus a new autosomal DNA test.  
 
*[http://dnaconsultants.com/ DNA Consulting<br>]  
 
*[http://dnaconsultants.com/ DNA Consulting<br>]  
*[http://www.familytreedna.com/faq/ Family Tree DNA]: A large variety of DNA tests available, including the largest set of Ycs STRs (111) and the only complete mtDNA sequence. Their autosomal test is called Family Finder.
+
*[http://www.familytreedna.com/faq/ Family Tree DNA]: A large variety of DNA tests available, including the largest set of Ycs STRs (111) and the only complete mtDNA sequence. Their autosomal test is called Family Finder.  
 
*[http://www.oxfordancestors.com/ Oxford Ancestors]
 
*[http://www.oxfordancestors.com/ Oxford Ancestors]
  
 
== Public DNA Databases  ==
 
== Public DNA Databases  ==
  
*[http://www.ysearch.org/ YSearch]: Ycs data only.
+
*[http://www.ysearch.org/ YSearch]: Ycs data only.  
*[http://www.yhrd.org/ YHRD]: Forensic database for Ycs.
+
*[http://www.yhrd.org/ YHRD]: Forensic database for Ycs.  
 
*[http://www.genebase.com/ GeneBase]  
 
*[http://www.genebase.com/ GeneBase]  
*[http://www.mitosearch.org/ Mitosearch:] mtDNA data only.
+
*[http://www.mitosearch.org/ Mitosearch:] mtDNA data only.  
*[http://www.smgf.org/ Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation] (formerly sponsored by Brigham Young University). SMGF has been recently acquired by [http://www.ancestry.com/ Ancestry]. The website offers a large Ycs and mtDNA databases correlated to known pedigree data.
+
*[http://www.smgf.org/ Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation] (formerly sponsored by Brigham Young University). SMGF has been recently acquired by [http://www.ancestry.com/ Ancestry]. The website offers a large Ycs and mtDNA databases correlated to known pedigree data.  
 +
*[http://www.gedmatch.com/ Gedmatch]: autosomal raw data only
  
 
== Result Interpretation Assistance  ==
 
== Result Interpretation Assistance  ==
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DNA research is based on the 46 chromosomes that every human being has (with few exceptions). The gender determining chromosomes are X from the mother and either X or Y from the father.&nbsp; If X from the father, the child is female and if Y from the father the child is male.&nbsp; The Y-chromosome can be traced from father to son to son and so on.  
 
DNA research is based on the 46 chromosomes that every human being has (with few exceptions). The gender determining chromosomes are X from the mother and either X or Y from the father.&nbsp; If X from the father, the child is female and if Y from the father the child is male.&nbsp; The Y-chromosome can be traced from father to son to son and so on.  
  
In addition, each human being carries a genetic molecule in their cells called the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). This genetic component is found in organelles called mitochondria, which produce energy for the hosting cell. MtDNA is inherited exclusively along the mother side. Both males and females carry mtDNA, but only women will pass their mtDNA to their children.
+
In addition, each human being carries a genetic molecule in their cells called the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). This genetic component is found in organelles called mitochondria, which produce energy for the hosting cell. MtDNA is inherited exclusively along the mother side. Both males and females carry mtDNA, but only women will pass their mtDNA to their children.  
  
 
Since the mutation of chromosomes is very slow the study of the Y-chromosome or the mtDNA trail forms the basis of the DNA genealogy.  
 
Since the mutation of chromosomes is very slow the study of the Y-chromosome or the mtDNA trail forms the basis of the DNA genealogy.  
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== DNA in the news  ==
 
== DNA in the news  ==
  
*[http://www.josephsmithdna.com/molecular-genealogy.html Some articles on DNA and genealogy].
+
*[http://www.josephsmithdna.com/molecular-genealogy.html Some articles on DNA and genealogy].  
 
*[http://blog.eogn.com/.services/blog/6a00d8341c767353ef00e55065e13d8833/search/page/1/?filter.q=DNA DNA blog posts] at EOGN.com  
 
*[http://blog.eogn.com/.services/blog/6a00d8341c767353ef00e55065e13d8833/search/page/1/?filter.q=DNA DNA blog posts] at EOGN.com  
 
*[http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/24/us/with-dna-testing-adoptees-find-a-way-to-connect-with-family.html With DNA Testing, Suddenly They Are Family] by Rachel L. Swarns (''New York Times'', 23 January 2012). Discusses DNA tests for adopted people.  
 
*[http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/24/us/with-dna-testing-adoptees-find-a-way-to-connect-with-family.html With DNA Testing, Suddenly They Are Family] by Rachel L. Swarns (''New York Times'', 23 January 2012). Discusses DNA tests for adopted people.  
 
*[http://www.deseretnews.com/article/700150651/DNA-solves-a-Joseph-Smith-mystery.html DNA solves a Joseph Smith mystery] by Michael De Groote (''Deseret News'', 9 July 2011)  
 
*[http://www.deseretnews.com/article/700150651/DNA-solves-a-Joseph-Smith-mystery.html DNA solves a Joseph Smith mystery] by Michael De Groote (''Deseret News'', 9 July 2011)  
 
*[http://www.deseretnews.com/article/700249298/DNA-shows-Joseph-Smith-was-Irish.html DNA shows Joseph Smith was Irish] by Michael De Groote (''Deseret News'', 8 August 2011)  
 
*[http://www.deseretnews.com/article/700249298/DNA-shows-Joseph-Smith-was-Irish.html DNA shows Joseph Smith was Irish] by Michael De Groote (''Deseret News'', 8 August 2011)  
 +
*[http://www.theroot.com/views/tracing-dna-not-just-africa-one-tribe Pinpointing DNA Ancestry in Africa] by Linda Heywood, Ph.D. and John Thornton, Ph.D. (''The Root'', 1 October 2011)
 
*[http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/14/fashion/14spit.html When in Doubt, Spit It Out] by Allen Salkin (''New York Times'', 12 September 2008). DNA testing parties.  
 
*[http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/14/fashion/14spit.html When in Doubt, Spit It Out] by Allen Salkin (''New York Times'', 12 September 2008). DNA testing parties.  
 
*[http://www.deseretnews.com/article/600129402/Sorenson-compiling-huge-DNA-database.html Sorenson compiling huge DNA database] by George Anders (''Wall Street Journal'', 27 April 2005)
 
*[http://www.deseretnews.com/article/600129402/Sorenson-compiling-huge-DNA-database.html Sorenson compiling huge DNA database] by George Anders (''Wall Street Journal'', 27 April 2005)
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*[http://www.dnaandfamilyhistory.com/ Chris Pomery: DNA&nbsp;&amp; Family History]. Online resources include DNA talks, books, papers, articles, blogs, presentations, podcasts, and websites by an expert in the field.  
 
*[http://www.dnaandfamilyhistory.com/ Chris Pomery: DNA&nbsp;&amp; Family History]. Online resources include DNA talks, books, papers, articles, blogs, presentations, podcasts, and websites by an expert in the field.  
 
*[http://www.jogg.info/ Journal of Genetic Genealogy]. Free articles from leading scholars in the field.  
 
*[http://www.jogg.info/ Journal of Genetic Genealogy]. Free articles from leading scholars in the field.  
*[http://www.geneticgenealogyconsultant.com Genetic Genealogy Consultant]. Free tutorials and resources for understanding DNA results within a genealogical and ancestral context.
+
*[http://www.geneticgenealogyconsultant.com Genetic Genealogy Consultant]. Free tutorials and resources for understanding DNA results within a genealogical and ancestral context.
 +
*[http://www.yourgeneticgenealogist.com/ Your Genetic Genealogist]. This Blog strives to make the subject of genetic genealogy accessible and understandable for the non-scientist. Written by CeCe Moore, a professional genetic genealogist and experienced personal genomics consumer.
  
 
== References  ==
 
== References  ==

Revision as of 20:37, 4 October 2012

Hiring a Professional Researcher go to  Hiring a DNA Testing Company

DNA testing has become an accepted tool for identifying ancestors and for verifying genealogical leads. It is also used frequently to learn about our deep ancestry.

DNA Double Helix.png

Frequently Asked Questions

Genealogy courses: Learn how to research from an expert in GeneTech: YDNA Solutions to Common Genealogical Problems.


  1. How can DNA testing help me in my genealogical research?
  2. Which company should I pick?
  3. How much does it cost?
  4. Who can be tested?
  5. How do I interpret my DNA results?

A lecture given at RootsTech 2012 can help you answer these questions:

CeCe Moore's "DNA Testing for Genealogy - Getting Started" series is a great place for beginners. Read her posts at the Geni blog:

Y-DNA Testing

Information stored in the Y chromosome (Ycs) passes virtually unchanged from father-to-son for centuries. Analysis of this genetic information, found in living people, can help you determine whether you share a common paternal ancestor with another person alive today. Based on the number of genetic markers shared on the Ycs with another person, you can also estimate how many generation in the past your common paternal ancestor lived. This is called Time to the Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) and it is based on a mutation rate calculated on many thousands of father/son pairs. Ycs testing can help in verifying a common paternal ancestor, or learn about the origin of a particular surname. Additionally, each Ycs can be predicted into a specific branch of the large Ycs tree based on the set of Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) tested by many companies and using an online predictor, or it can be accurately assigned to one of these branches through the test of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) (see the Ycs ISOGG tree).

Note: Only males carry the Ycs, but a woman can have a male relative tested in her stead to obtain such information.

MTDNA Testing

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a small circular genetic molecule found outside the nucleus in organelles called mitochondria. It is inherited exclusively from our mothers and it follows an unbroken maternal line. MtDNA is helpful in verifying the existence of a common maternal ancestor or to study the ancient origins of our maternal line. MtDNA lineages can be grouped together in a large mtDNA tree. Each branch of this tree may have a specific geographic distribution that might help someone locate the country of origin of their maternal line.

MtDNA testing can be done for a small section of the genome called the control region (which usually include the segments HVR1, 2 and/or 3), or for the full molecule (16569 bases). Family Tree DNA is currently the only commercial laboratort offering the complete mtDNA sequence to its costumers.

Note: Although mtDNA is inherited exclusively along the maternal side, both males and females carry it. Only females will pass it on to their children.

Autosomal DNA Testing

Autosomal DNA is the DNA found in the 22 pairs of nuclear chromosomes. They are shuffled at each generation and only half of it is passed to our offspring. It does not follow a clear and straight path of inheritance as the Ycs and mtDNA described above. However, current testing provides a survey of one million or more sites on a person nuclear genome. This information is helpful in identifying distant cousins, or the ethnic origins of our family tree. Companies like 23andMe, Family Tree DNA, and Ancestry all offer autosomal testing for genealogical purposes. The Genographic Project recently launched an autosomal test that offers insights into our deep ancestry. These tests offer a lot of information about our DNA and they may be difficult to understand. Each company offering such tests has numerous tutorials and aids on their website to assist with the interpretation of such results. Additionally, 23andMe offers information about medical predispositions and traits.

DNA Testing Companies

Some major commercial DNA testing companies are listed below in alphabetical order. Please visit their websites to learn more about their services:

  • 23andMe: Autosomal DNA test only (Relative Finder), with Ycs and mtDNA haplogroup assignment and information about diseases and traits.
  • Ancestry DNA: Ycs and mtDNA profiles sold separately. Plus a new autosomal DNA test.
  • DNA Consulting
  • Family Tree DNA: A large variety of DNA tests available, including the largest set of Ycs STRs (111) and the only complete mtDNA sequence. Their autosomal test is called Family Finder.
  • Oxford Ancestors

Public DNA Databases

Result Interpretation Assistance

Organizations, such as The Genetic Genealogy Consultant, provide services to help you interpret your DNA results and get the most out of what they can tell you about your roots.

DNA Projects

Thousands of DNA Projects, usually focused on a particular surname, location, or ethnicity, are active around the world. To determine if a DNA project is underway for your ancestor's surname, start with World Families Network.

Other DNA projects can be found on the Internet by using a search engine, such as Google, with the words "Genealogy DNA". Contact each organization for additional information.

Examples of individual projects include:

What is DNA?

DNA research is based on the 46 chromosomes that every human being has (with few exceptions). The gender determining chromosomes are X from the mother and either X or Y from the father.  If X from the father, the child is female and if Y from the father the child is male.  The Y-chromosome can be traced from father to son to son and so on.

In addition, each human being carries a genetic molecule in their cells called the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). This genetic component is found in organelles called mitochondria, which produce energy for the hosting cell. MtDNA is inherited exclusively along the mother side. Both males and females carry mtDNA, but only women will pass their mtDNA to their children.

Since the mutation of chromosomes is very slow the study of the Y-chromosome or the mtDNA trail forms the basis of the DNA genealogy.

DNA in the news

Websites

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has more about this subject: Genetic genealogy

References

  1. Dick Eastman, "Getting Started in Genetic Genealogy Part #4," Eastman's Online Genealogy Newsletter, 11 August 2012, http://blog.eogn.com/eastmans_online_genealogy/2012/08/getting-started-in-genetic-genealogy-part-4.html.

Disclaimer

Neither The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints nor FamilySearch is associated in any way with any DNA studies. As a non-profit organization, FamilySearch cannot recommend a specific DNA-testing company to you.