One descriptive gazetteer for the Grand Duchy of Hessen is
Das Grossherzogthum Hessen nach Geschichte, Land, Volk, Staat, und Oertlichkeit (The Grand Duchy of Hessen with its History, Geography, People, State, and Places)
by Dr. Ph. A. F. Walther
published in Darmstadt 1854, Verlag der Hofbuchhandlung von G. Jonghaus
This book is written in German. An extensive historical section is followed by a listing of all places from highest to lowest jurisdictions. The book includes a place name index in the back.
The digital library DigiBib on Genealogy. net includes a gazetteer called
Alphabetisches Verzeichnis der Wohnplaetze im Grossherzogthum Hessen
(Alphabetical Rgister of inhabited places in the Grand Duchy of Hessen) ,
published by the Grossherzogliche Centalstelle fuer die Landesstatistik (Grand Ducal Office for State Statstics) in 1863. This book can be accessed here.
An 1877 edition of this gazetteer is available in the digital reading room of the University- and State Library Darmstadt.