Great Genesee Road

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United States Gotoarrow.png Migration Gotoarrow.png Trails and Roads Gotoarrow.png New York Gotoarrow.png Great Genesee Road

The Great Genesee Road, also known as Mohawk Trail, Iroquois Trail, Great Indian Trail, and Seneca Turnpike, was built starting in 1794 by New York State to connect Fort Schuyler (now Utica, New York) on the Mohawk Trail and Mohawk River with Canawaugus (now Caledonia), Livingston County, New York on the Genesee River. In 1798 the legislature authorized a road extension to Buffalo, New York on Lake Erie. Another fork also went to Fort Niagara on the border with Canada.[1]
Great Genesee Road.png
Each end of the Great Genesee Road connected to other important migration pathways. The length of the road from Utica to Buffalo was 205 miles (330 km).

Historical Background

As westward expansion began after the American Revolution, the only central New York pathways west of Fort Schuyler (Utica, New York) were rivers and a footpath which was a western fork of the Mohawk Trail or Iroquois Trail that went to Fort Niagara. The land companies which began developing large tracts of land for settlement started clamoring for the state to make better roads for their customers.[1]

In 1794 the state legislature authorized the Great Genesee Road from Fort Schuyler to Canawaugus to help settlers reach the New Military Tract. This eight county tract was set aside to allow 500 acres of bounty land to pay each New York Revolutionary War veteran for his service. The new state road followed the route of a fork of the old Mohawk Trail. In 1797 a weekly stagecoach began service between Utica and Gevena on the Seneca/Ontario county line. Each leg of the trip took three days.[2] A state road extension to Buffalo was authorized four years later.[1]

However, the road construction was spotty and in places incomplete. In 1800 the legislature chartered the Seneca Road Company to charge tolls (six cents per mile) for improving the road. The road was macadamized to reduce pot holes. High-quality, privately-maintained, toll roads were called turnpikes. This one was completed in 1808[3] and was called the "Seneca Turnpike," 157 miles (253 km) from Utica to Canandaigua, longest such road in New York. In 1805 the western extension to Buffalo was changed from a public road to a private turnpike. This "Ontario and Genesee Turnpike" was completed in 1813.[3] In 1806 the Seneca Road Company began developing a more northerly alternate route to the Seneca Turnpike (Great Genesee Road) through Syracuse. In time this became the more popular route west.[1]

The completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 reduced traffic on the turnpikes. Also, in the 1840s railroads began to compete for traffic. Reduced revenue on the turnpikes made the road companies unprofitable. By 1852 the Seneca Road Company was dissolved and the company's turnpikes became public roads again.[1]


The counties along this migration route (east to west) were as follows:[4]

Settlers and Records


External Links


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Wikipedia contributors, "New York State Route 5" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at (accessed 28 June 2011).
  2. "The Way West Through Northern Seneca County," (accessed 29 June 2011).
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Seneca Turnpike" in Clinton Historical Society at (accessed 29 June 2011).
  4. Compare the more northerly route to Fort Niagara in Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 849, WorldCat entry, FHL Book 973 D27e 2002 with the more southerly route to Buffalo described in Wikipedia contributors, "New York State Route 5" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at (accessed 28 June 2011).