Difference between revisions of "Gloucestershire, England Genealogy"

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'''Gloucestershire or Gloucester is an inland but partly a maritime county located in the central part of [[England|England]].'''  
'''Gloucestershire or Gloucester County is an inland but partly a maritime county located in the central part of [[England|England]].'''  
== Featured Content   ==
== Featured Content   ==
== Topics <br> ==
== Topics <br> ==
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*[[Gloucestershire Societies|Societies]]  
*[[Gloucestershire Societies|Societies]]  
*[[Gloucestershire Taxation|Taxation]]  
*[[Gloucestershire Taxation|Taxation]]  
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== Jurisdictions  ==
== Jurisdictions  ==
= Parishes  =
=== Parishes  ===
= &nbsp;'''Cerney, North Parish'''  =
*[[North_Cerney,_Gloucestershire,_England|North Cerney]]
'''"Cerney North is so called from the point of distance it bears from Cirencester''', and in distinction to another village, which lies in the opposite direction (South Cerney).&nbsp; It is one of the parishes, by which the Hundred of Rapsgate is formed, in the Coteswold Division of the county; distant four miles from Cirenester, seven south-westerly from North Leach, and from Gloucester fourteen on the east.&nbsp; The extent of it is nearly six miles, the breadth less than three, of a light soil chiefly tilled, with many meadows on the river's side.&nbsp; The Village, on every approach to it, forms a pleasing and highly cultivated landscape; the acclivities upon which it is built being easy and picturesque."
(''Historical, Monumental and Genealogical Collections of Gloucester,'' FHL BRITISH Book Q Area, 942.41, v2b 1786) <br>
== &nbsp;Did You Know  ==
'''North Cerney is a Parish and a Village'''<br>[[Image:North-Cerney-Parish-Gloucestershire.jpg|thumb|left|North Cerney Parish, All Saints Church]]
== &nbsp;News and Events ==
'''North Cerney Parish''', All Saints Church,&nbsp; is located on a hill across the street from North Cerney Village.&nbsp; A small light shines through a stained glass window, bidding&nbsp; travelers welcome.<br>
"It is worth spending a short time walking round the outside of this little church, which has been described as one of the prettiest in rural Gloucestershire.&nbsp; Pearched on a hillside overlooking the village, which is across the main road.&nbsp; '''All Saints''' is a typical Churn valley church, with a lovely old slate roof and a charming low saddle-back tower.&nbsp; '''The grass in the churchyard is cropped in Spring and Summer by sheep."''' <ref>(All Saints Church, North Cerney (Church brochure) Rewritten by Mrs. V. A. Patuck, 1989, from information gathered by Canon A. James Turner, Vicar of North Cerney Church from 1952 to 1973.)</ref>
(All Saints Church, North Cerney (Church brochure) Rewritten by Mrs. V. A. Patuck, 1989, from information gathered by Canon A. James Turner, Vicar of North Cerney Church from 1952 to 1973.)
<br> <br>
'''North Cerney Parish Churchyard'''<br>
[[Image:North Cerney Parish, Showing Parish North Side and Parish Back.jpg|thumb|left|North side and back of the North Cerney Parish Churchyard, showing lack of graves on the north side.]]The picture at the left shows the north and the back side of the North Cerney Parish,<br>
&nbsp;showing few headstones on the north side.
"The Churchyard Cross dates from the 14th century, but has been completely restored within the past ten years.&nbsp; There are some interesting table tombs in the churchyard and there is a complete record of every memorial and inscription, marking where they are set.&nbsp; The Cross was originally the memorial for all those buried on the south side - '''There was a great fear of the north side and no burials took place there. &nbsp; The coffin was taken out through the north door - it still is, the only time this door is used - '''but burials now take place on all sides and as it is now the custom for indivual stones to be erected (this dates from the 17th century) it is impossible to re-use the ground as they did in medieval times."<br>
(All Saints Church, North Cerney (Church brochure) Rewritten by Mrs. V. A. Patuck, 1989, from information gathered by Canon A. James Turner, Vicar of North Cerney Church from 1952 to 1973.)<br>
'''North Cerney Parish Poorhouse'''<br>
"A parish poorhouse in Cerney village was recorded in 1799. (69) Glos. R.O. D 2525, N. Cerney leases 1799-1852.) In the early 19th century the number of people receiving permanent relief from the parish was c. 40-60. (70) ''Poor Law Abstract'', 1804, 180-1; 1818, 154-5.) In 1836 North Cerney became part of the Cirencester poor-law union (71) ''Poor Law Com''. 2nd Rep. p. 522.) and it was later in Cirencester rural district, (72) (''Census,'' 1911.) becoming part of the new Cotswold district in 1974.) (''The Victoria History Of The Counties of England, The History of Gloucester, ''Edited by N. M. Herbert, Volume VII, Page 160)<br><br>
== '''&nbsp;'''Gazetteer Description of North Cerney<br>  ==
"CERNEY (North), a parish in the Cirencester district, Gloucester; near Ermine-street, 4 miles N of Cirencester r. (railroad) station.&nbsp; It includes the tyhings of Calmsden and Woodmancote; and has a post-office under Cirencester.&nbsp; Acres, 4,158.&nbsp; Real property, L5,194.&nbsp; Pop., 692. Houses, 153.&nbsp; The property is divided among a few.&nbsp; Cerney House is the seat of the Croomes (The Croome family, who owned it at the time the gazeteer was printer).&nbsp; The living is a rectory in the diocese of Gloucester and Bristol.&nbsp; Value L654.&nbsp; Patron, University College, Oxford.&nbsp; The church is very good." (The Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales, page 390)<br>
=== Calmsden  ===
"Calmsden is a tithing and small hamlet, 2 miles east, and near the old Roman Rossway. A curious old wayside dial-cross stands here over a copious and perennial spring. The village consists of two or three farms and a few cottages. Parish Clerk, Henry James Mason."(Kelly's Directory of the County of Gloucester, 1914; Farmily History Library, British 942.41, E4ke)
=== <br> '''Woodmancote'''  ===
"Woodmancote is a hamlet 1 mile north-west. Here is a Plymouth Brethren Mission hall." (Kelly's Directory of the County of Gloucester, 1914; Farmily History Library, British 942.41, E4ke)
"Woodland recorded on Gilbert son of Turold's manor of Cerney in 1086 (80) [Com. Bk. (Rec. Com.), i. 168v.] evidently lay in the north-west part of the parish, where Woodmancote hamlet takes its name from a woodman's cottage. (81) [P.M. Glos. i. 148.]" (The Victoria History Of The Counties of England, The History of Gloucester, Edited by N. M. Herbert, Volume VII, Page 150)
=== <br> '''Cerney Downs'''  ===
"The slopes of the Churn valley, above the narrow belt of meadow-land in the valley bottom, and much of the Calmsden area were formerly cultivated as open fields while the high and level ground on the east side of the valley was occupied by extensive downland. In the early 18th centurh Cerney Downs were said to be famous for hawking, hunting, coursing, and racing (86) [Bodl. MS. Top. Glouc. c. 3, f.214.] and they were long the venue for the annual Cirencester races. (87) Glouc. Fnl. 5 May 1752; Rudder, Glos. 325.) (The Victoria History Of The Counties of England, The History of Gloucester, Edited by N. M. Herbert, Volume VII, Page 150) <br> __________________________________________________________________________________________________________
= Jurisdictions:  =
Deanery:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The Church belongs to the Deanery of Cirencester, and is dedicated to All Saints.
Diocese: &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; of Gloucester and Bristol.<br>
Hundred:&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Rapsgate
Union:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; Cirencester Union
Archdeaconry:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Archdeaconry of Cirencester and diocese of Gloucester.
Probate:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Bishop of Gloucester, (Episcopal Consistory) and Perogative Court of the Archbishop of Canterbury <br>
Parish Register:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Christenings were recorded beginning&nbsp; 1568 to 1875; Marriages 1620 to 1885<br>
= Inside North Cerney Parish, All Saints Church<br>  =
== '''North Cerney Parish Banner'''  ==
[[Image:North-Cerney-Parish-Banner-.jpg|thumb|left|North Cerney Parish Banner]]
A regal banner with scarlet side borders and vibrant blue embroidered letters introduces the North Cerney Parish and the Holy Mother Mary, holding baby Jesus.
Adjacent to the banner, on the left side, a corner of a North Cerney Memorial wall plaque is visible in the picture (to the left).&nbsp; The plaque is one of two plaques embedded in the parish walls, facing each other on opposite walls.&nbsp; It is interesting to note that both memorial plaques recognize and honor the early ancestral Painter families that lived and worked, and died in North Cerney.&nbsp; Their children and children's children also stayed to live, worship and work in the parish and now rest in the North Cerney Parish Churchyard.&nbsp; To list their individual names, would require a plaque that would cover an entire parish wall.<br>
The Townsend surname represents another large family of individuals who lived, worked, died, and now rest in the North Cerney Parish Churchyard.&nbsp; The first Townsend surname appears in the North Cerney Parish registers in 1660. Two ancestral North Cerney Parish families united when the William and Ann (Mustoe) Painter's son, Joseph married Hannah Townsend, the daughter of George and Margaret Townsend, as declared on the three-generation Painter Memorial Wall Plaque described below.<br>
= '''<br>'''North Cerney Parish Painter Family Memorial Wall Plaques  =
'''Honoring early Painter Family parishoners&nbsp; '''<br>
== '''William Painter and Ann Mustoe (3 generation wall plaque)&nbsp;&nbsp;'''  ==
The plaque records: "In this churchyard lie the bodies of '''William Painter and Ann (Mustoe) '''his wife, who both died in September 1727, both aged 65, also
'''Joseph Painter, their son,''' died May 1799, aged 85, and '''Hannah, his wife, daughter of George and Margaret Townsend,''' of North Cerney, buried 3rd January 1788, aged 71.
Also '''John Painter, son of Joseph and Hannah''', died 1800 aged 51, and
'''Elizabeth,''' his first wife, '''daughter of Jacoband Sarah Heaven,'''<span style="font-weight: bold;"> </span>of Frocester, died May 1783, aged 34.
In Piam Memoriam Proavorum Posuit A.C.P. MCMXIV."<br>
'''Additional Family Information:'''<br>North Cerney Parish Christening, Marriage, and Burial records provide vital information regarding the Painter family members honored on the plaque. '''William and Ann, married ''''''North Cerney Church 6 Jul 1703''', christened 7 children between May 7, 1704 and 17 Nov. 1715. Their names were Richard, William, John, Ann, Martha, Joseph, and Thomas.
'''Joseph and Hannah, married 14 Jun 1740, North Cerney,''' christened 8 children between 15 Mar 1740/1 and
8 Aug 1758. Their names were: Ann, William, Mary, Richard, Hannah, John, Margaret, and Betty.
'''John and Elizabeth, married 25 Oct 1772, North Cerney,''' christened 4 children between 11 Apr 1773 and 15 May 1781. Their names were: Joseph, Richard, William, and Thomas. <br>
== '''Richard Painter and Joyce Stockwell Memorial Wall Plaque'''<br>  ==
[[Image:North Cerney Parish Wall Plaque honoring Richard Painter & Joyce Stockwell.jpg|thumb|left|North Cerney Parish Memorial Wall Plaque honoring Richard Painter and Joyce Stockwell]]"Near this place lyeth the bodys of '''Richard Painter Sen. and Joyce, his wife, Daughter of Phillip and Prudence Stockwell.''' He died Aug: the 14, 1749, aged 75 years. She died December 15th, 1757, aged 85 years. "
"Here in the dust our bodys lyes, Till trumpet sound the dead arise. Then soul and body shall unite, in hopes of everlasting life."<br>
"This was erected by '''Richard Painter, their younger son.'''" <br>
'''Additional Information about Richard and Joyce Painter:'''<br>
North Cerney Christening records provide birthdates for 4 of Richard and Joyce's children, christened beginning 14 Sep 1701 through 26 May 1710. The children's names are: John, Prudence, Daniel, and William. Richard, jr., who erected the wall monument, is not listed in the Christening records.
The Victoria History of Gloucester gives additional information on&nbsp; Richard Painter:
'''"A new mill built on the Cerney Manor Estate by Richard Painter c. 1715 '''was probably Perrott's Brook Mill c. 600 m. upstream of the Perrott's Brook bridge."
(The Victoria History Of The Counties Of England, The History of Gloucester, Edited by N. M. Herbert, Volume VII, Brightwells Barrow and Rapsgate Hundreds, Oxford University Press 1981, British Q Area, 942. H2svg, V. 2. page 159.)
"The river Churn bisets the parish from north to south in a deep valley. From south of North Cerney village to near Perrott's Brook a straight channel was but in 1824 alongside the original meandering course of the river to supply a newly built cloth-mill (Glos. R.O., D 2525, loose deed 1824.) But in 1978 the new cut was dry and had been partly filled in."
(The Victoria History Of The Counties Of England Gloucester, Edited by N. M. Herbert, Volume VII, Brightwells Barrow and Rapsgate Hundreds, Oxford University Press 1981, British Q Area, 942 H2svg, V. 2, page 150) <br>
= Church Records<br>&nbsp; <br>  =
== LDS Family History Library Catalogue  ==
Parish register printouts of North Cerney, Gloucester, England; Christenings, 1578-1793
Authors:&nbsp; Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.&nbsp; Genealogical Society (Main Auathor) C-2741-1
FHL BRITISH Film # 932,902, Item 14.
Extracted from microfilm of North Cerney Bishop's transcripts FHL BRITISH Film # 417,134 (Several Missing Years)
Gloucestershire Marriage Index, 1525-1926
compiled by Eric Roe (Main Author)
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Genealogical Society (Added Author)
Call Number - Location
942.41 K29r volumes 1 through 25 - FHL BRITISH Book
942.41 K29r supp. FHL BRITISH Book (contains a list of parishes included in the marriage index.)
Note: Volumes 5, 16, and 19 are photocopies of original typescripts
(See the listing in the Family History Library Catalogue for listing of the contents of the 26 volumes of marriage records.) <br>
North Cerney Register of Burials, LDS BRITISH Microfilm # 991,301
Gloucestershire Record Office:
= '''North Cerney Village'''  =
"North Cerney Village stands in the centre of the parish on the east bank of the river Churn.&nbsp; '''The church stands by itself on the opposite bank, probably because it was founded by the owner of an estate which passed to the honor of Gloucester and included the land of Woodmancote tithing west of the river, while the village and land adjoining on the east of the river belonged to a manor held by the archbishops of York.&nbsp;''' From a crossing-point on the Churn the village developed up the hillside on the road leading up to the White way near Nordown; a small green was formed at the junction with the Calmsden road.&nbsp; '''The only large house is the former manor-house, Cerney Manor (formerly North Cerney Farm), at the bottom of the village.'''&nbsp; <br>
The village is [[Image:North-Cerney--Home-Top-of-V.jpg|thumb|left|New houses built of reconstructed stone were built at the top of the village in the 1960's and 1970's.]]formed mainly of stone cottages of the late 17th and 18th centuries, several of which were restored and modernized in the 1960's and 1970s when some new houses in reconstructed stone were built at the top of the village."
(''The Victoria History Of The Counties Of England, The History of Gloucester,'' Edited by N. M. Herbert Volume VII, Brightwells Barrow and Rapsgate Hundreds, Oxford University Press 1981, page 151)<br>
The picture at the left shows a home at the top of North&nbsp; village, probably constructed using the reconstructed stone, partially hidden and protected from the curving road, behind the tall village&nbsp; rock wall.<br>
== North Cerney Manor <br>  ==
[[Image:North-Cerney-Manor-House.jpg|thumb|left|North Cerney Ancient Farm Manor House]]The picturesque&nbsp; North Cerney ancient Farm Manor House is the largest house in the North Cerney Village.&nbsp; The stately mansion, resting on a carefully-trimmed velvet lawn, has been the village "anchor," marking the bottom of North Cerney Village. <br>
"Cerney Manor, at the bottom of North Cerney village, evidently occupies the site of the capital messuage of the manor recorded from the 1550. (62) (Req. 2/20/168; Glos. R.O., D 2525, N. Cerney man. 1552-1657, lease 1604.)&nbsp; '''For most of its history the house has been used merely as a farm-house; of the lords of the manor only Nathaniel Poole is recorded as being resident at Cerney.'''(63) (Glos. R.O., D 2525 N. Cerney man. 1625-81.)&nbsp; The house dates mainly from a rebuilding of c. 1700 and has a main range with a symmetrical front of seven bays and a short rear wing housing a staircase.&nbsp; Additons were made to the north in the later 18th century and to the east in the 19th and 20th." (''The Victoria History Of The Counties Of England, The History of Gloucester'', Edited by N. M. Herbert Volume VII, Brightwells Barrow and Rapsgate Hundreds, Oxford University Press 1981, page 153)<br>
'''The history of the land known as "the Manor of North Cerney," dates back to Beorhtwulf, king of the Mercians'''.<br>
"In 852 Beorhtwulf, king of the Mercians granted to Alfeah 12 hides of land in Cerney and Calmsden, evidently including the whole of the later parish of North Cerney. (45) [''Grundy, Saxon Charters,'' 56-61)&nbsp; Part of the estate, extended at 4 hides , later passed to St. Oswald's Priory, Gloucester, and was among the lands of the priory that the archbishop of York held in 1086. (46) [''Dom. Bk. ''Rec. Com.), i. 164v.] '''That land, known as the manor of North Cerney, was retained by the archbishop as a member of his&nbsp; barony of Churchdown''' (47) ''Feud. Aids, ''ii. 239, 299.)'''until 1545 when the manors of the barony were exchanged with the Crown.''' (48) ''L. &amp; P. Hen. VIII, ''xx(I), p. 214.])&nbsp; In 1552 they were granted to Sir Thomas Chamberlayne (49) [''Cal. Pat 1550-3, 357.'']) who sold North Cerney manor in 1556 to William Partridge (50) Glos. R.O., D 2525, N. Cerney man. 1552-1657]) (d. 1600) and Robert by his son John Partridge (52) [C 142/268 no. 146.]) of Synde who sold the manor in 1610 to his brother Anthony, of Wishanger. (53) [Glos. R.O., D 2525, N. Cerney man. 1581-1610)&nbsp; Anthony Partridge sold it in 1611 to William Poole of Long Newton (Wilts., later Glos.) (54) Ibid. N. Cerney man. 111-20) (d. 1625 or 26)." (''The Victoria History Of The Counties Of England, The History of Gloucester,'' Edited by N. M. Herbert Volume VII, Brightwells Barrow and Rapsgate Hundreds, Oxford University Press 1981, page 152.)<br>
'''From 1611 to 1715 William Poole's descendants and extended family members controlled the manorial rights&nbsp; in North Cerney manor until a sale was made to Allen Bathurst. ('''Ibid. 152)&nbsp; Additional property transfers were made until the estate was '''sold to William Croome in 1814 and the estate&nbsp; was held by&nbsp; the Croome family (mentioned in the Imperial Gazetteer, quotation above&nbsp; until 1930.'''<br>
&nbsp;On page 160, in the above referenced ''Victoria History of Gloucester,'' page 160, There is a more complete description of who held the manor property, through an advowson, and when and why it was transfered to the next owner--beginning with Richard de Clare, earl of Gloucester, who held the advowson in 1255....) <br>
== '''Village School'''  ==
'''North Cerney CE Primary School'''<br>
[[Image:North-Cerney-School-Sign.jpg|thumb|left|North Cerney Church of England Primary School Sign]]North Cerney CE Primary School.
Although the building for the The North Cerney Church of England Private Primary School was constructed many years ago, today dedicated teachers still strive to teach North Cerney Village children and give them a proper education, with lots of individual attention. The students range in ages between 4 and 11and students number 39.<br>
'''[[Image:North-Cerney-CE-School-Play.jpg|thumb|right|North Cerney Church of England School Play Yard]]'''<br>
The rectangular brick fence encloses the North Cerney Church of England Primary School Play Yard. Here the children run, play, and laugh much the same as early North Cerny students did many years ago.<br>
'''"What do our pupils do after leaving this school?"'''
"Our children transfer to a variety of schools.&nbsp; Our catchment area schools are Cirencester Kingshill and Deer Park school.&nbsp; However, some of our pupils transfer to Pates' Grammar School in Cheltenham and Farmor's Comprehensive School in Fairford.&nbsp; A small number of children join the independent sector at 11 years old."
North Cerney CE Primary School Profile:&nbsp; Google Search &lt; North Cerney school&gt; &nbsp;
== The North Cerney Manor Farm<br>  ==
[[Image:North-Cerney-Ancient-Manor-.jpg|thumb|left|North Cerney ancient Manor Farm Building]]This century old North Cerney Manor Farm brick building may have, at one time, housed farm laborers who worked among the large flocks of Cotswold sheep, helped herd the farm cattle, or plant the farm crops of corn, wheat, or rye-grass on the large arable open parish fields.
The North Cerney Manor Farm yard has many sheds and brick structures, forming a circle around the very large farm yard.
Directly across from this brick building the North Cerney Farm horses are stabled in a matching ancient brick building.
<br> [[Image:Horses-on-Manor-Farm.jpg|thumb|right|North Cerney Manor Farm Horses stabled in their snug ancient brick home.]]Friendly, well-groomed North Cerney Manor Farm horses stretch their necks to poke their<br>
heads over their stall doors in their ancient rock stable home.&nbsp; Bridles hang on the wall next to the first stall, ready to slide over the horses' muzzles and lead them out into the large farm yard.&nbsp; The North Cerney Manor Farm is one of the very largest farms in the area.&nbsp; Farm horses carried their riders all over the Churn River Valley.<br>
North Cerney Circular Farm Building&nbsp; <br>
[[Image:North-Cerney--Manor-Farm-Wo.jpg|thumb|left|North Cerney Circular Farm Building]]This fascinating circular building, with a very interesting roof, is part of the North Cerney Manor farm complex. The mushroom-shaped hitching posts in front of the building enabled riders to tie the horse reins while the riders went inside the building. The wood picket gate in the building door way suggests that the building might have been used for flocks of sheep, especially during spring lambing, or as a storage building for wool, hay, or other farm crops. <br>
== '''Agriculture''' '''and Livestock'''<br>  ==
== '''Sheep'''  ==
'''"For many centuries the county of Gloucester has held a prominent place in the agriculture of the kingdom, originally by reason of the native breed of sheep which takes its name from the Cotswold HIlls. '''The wool of this variety was once highly valued for the production of the fine fabrics that were formerly in great demand, not only in this country, but on the continent of Europe, and numerous large flocks were maintained in the country, which was for a long period the centre of the English wool trade." (The Victoria History Of The Counties Of England, The History of Gloucester, Edited by N. M. Herbert, Volume VII, Brightswells Barrow And Rapsgate Hundreds, Oxford University Press 1981, British Q Area, 942 H2svg, V. 2, Page 239.)
'''Agriculture and Live Stock'''
'''"Until the closing years of the eighteenth century the greater part of the arable land was cultivated on the unfenced, open-field system,''' it being the exception for agricultural holdings to be divided into fields by fences, or held, as it was then termed, 'in severalty.'&nbsp; There were generally two or three large arable fields in each parish divided into acre or half-acre strips among the tenants."&nbsp; ("The three tithings, Cerney, Woodmancote, and Calmsden, had their separate open fields.&nbsp; The north and south (or upper and lower) fields of Cerney, which comprised mainly the lands of the archbishop's manor, were recorded from 1401; they occupied the slopes on the east side of the Churn. (79) [Glos. R.W., D 2525, N. Cerney man, 1713-32 , partition 1712.]&nbsp; The two large Calmsden fields lay north and south of that hamlet. (80) [Ibid. Q/RI63]&nbsp; Woodmancote tithing appears to have had at least four open fields." (T''he Victoria History Of The Counties Of England, The History of Gloucester,'' Edited by N. M. Herbert Volume VII, Brightwells Barrow and Rapsgate Hundreds, Oxford University Press 1981, page 156)&nbsp; '''Owing to the absence of fences the whole of each field was of necessity in the same crop, '''and in the Vale the usual course was to plant two successive corn crops followed by a fallow, while on the lighter land of the hills a fallow followed each crop of corn.&nbsp; Adjoining the village were crofts or pastures attached to each holding of arable land, which were mown for hay, or a meadow, of which every tenant might mow a portion, and in some cases a sheep or cow common, where the stock might graze at such times as there was no other pasturage available, which would be during the late summer and autumn.&nbsp; Turnips not having been introduced, the fallow field was sometimes sown with rye-grass to be fed, but even if left uncroped there was a quantity of couch-grass and weeds which was fed off until June or July, when the land was ploughed for wheat.&nbsp; After harvest the stubbles were thrown open, as well as the grazing common, and as the season advanced the live stock was brought home, and, when the lattermath of the pasture was gone, was as far as possible carried through the winter on hay.&nbsp; This system was terribly wasteful."<br>
== Open Land Caused Livestock and Crop Problems<br>  ==
'''"The divisions, or baulks, in the arable fields occupied a considerable area of surface and bore no crop, while the absence of turnips, and consequent scarcity of winter food, made it impossible to carry the whole of the live stock through the winter.&nbsp; It was therefore necessary either to sell, or put out to agistment, every autumn, animals that should have been maintained on the holding.&nbsp; '''Beyond this the cultivation of the narrow detached strips entailed great waste of time, and these&nbsp; small holdings required a far larger strength in men, oxen, or horses, than would have been the case if they had formed part of a larger farm divided into fields and fenced.&nbsp; While each occupier's land lay in scattered strips all over the parish, any amelioration of the soil by drainage was impracticable, and '''it was hopeless to attempt any improvement in live stock so long as the sheep were sent out in a common flock, and the cattle in a common herd, to graze under the care of a common shepherd and herdsman respectively, the male animals being in some cases provided by the lord of the manor, and in others by the tenants.&nbsp; Under these conditions it was improssible to deal with the contagious diseases of live stock, and it will cause no surprise to find in the ''Agricultural Survey of Gloucestershire, ''drawn up by Rudge in 1805 for the Board of Agriculture, scab, or shab, described as 'a disease of the skin to which long-wooled sheep are more or less subject.'"'''<br>
"The remedy for this state of affairs was to consolidate the various occupations, allotting to each the equivalent in value of the former holdings, not in detached strips, but in compact blocks that might be enclosed within fences.&nbsp; Acts of Parliament were obtained to effect this change, the first Inclosure Act dealing with land in the county of Gloucester being that relating to the parish of Farmington, passed in 1714.&nbsp; Inclosures in the county did not, however, become general until the end of the eighteenth century, more than eighty Acts having been passed between 1760 and 1800." (The Victoria History Of The Counties of England, The History of Gloucester, Edited by N. M. Herbert, Volume VII, Page 239-240)
== North Cerney Parish Arable Land Enclosures  ==
"Inclosure of the Cerney fields had begun by the early 18th century, when Henry Combe's portion of the demesne farm included some newly inclosed arable, (8) Glos. R.O., D 2525, N. Cerney man. 1713-32]&nbsp; and was evidently completed by the Bathursts later in the century; new inclosures taken out of the south field were mentioned in 1751.&nbsp; Inclosure of the south part of Cerney Downs was in progress in 1755 (9) Ibid. N. Cerney leases 1715-89.] and by 1807 72 a. in the north part had also been inclosed and ploughed up.&nbsp; The remaining 244 a. of the downs were attached to North Cerney farm in 1807 (10) Ibid. D 1388, tithe papers, N. Cerney.] and comprised the land laying east of the White way bounded on the north and south by the roads from Calmsden to North Cerney and from Calmsden to Perrott's Brook.&nbsp; All pasture rights in that land apparently then belonged to the farm but other occupiers had furze-cutting rights.&nbsp; Those rights were apparently extinguished and inclosure of the downs completed by Lord Bathurst in the 1830s. (11) Ibid. D 2525, N. Cerney drarft leases 170-1833; cf. ibid. P 70A/PC I/I, entry for 1898.] (''The Victoria History Of The Counties of England, The History of Gloucester'', Edited by N. M. Herbert, Volume VII, Page 157) <br>
"'''Gloucestershire shared in the agricultural prosperity of the kingdom from 1853 to 1874 due to the expansion of trade and manufactures, the gold discoveries in Australia and California, and the generally favorable seasons.'''&nbsp; In spite of deplorable losses from rinderpest, pleuro-pneumonia, and foot-and-mouth disease, the numbers of cattle and sheep increased and agriculture flourished.&nbsp; Wages, however, did not rise as quickly as the prices of commodities, and in the early seventies there were numerous strikes of farm labourers that were unprofitable both to employer and employed and created much ill-feeling on either side."<br>
== North Cerney Farm's Cereal Crops  ==
"The general depression in the price of cereals, owing to imports from the United States, combined with the wet seasons, culminating in the disasterous year of 1879, occasioned great losses among arable farmers.&nbsp; In the Vale, in order to meet the altered circumstances, much of the heavier clay arable land was laid down to permanent pasture." ''The Victoria History Of The Counties Of England, The History of Gloucester,'' Edited by N. M. Herbert Volume VII, Brightwells Barrow and Rapsgate Hundreds, Oxford University Press 1981, page 242-243)<br>
"...c. 1899 the lease to a new tenant of North Cerney farm made particular allowances in respect of several fields that had degenerated to a foul condition. (39) [Glos. R.O., D 2299/1585.]&nbsp; The farms attempted to mitigate the effects of the slump in cereals by building up their flocks and introducing more beef and dairy cattle: ...(''The Victoria History Of The Counties of England, The History of Gloucester,'' Edited by N. M. Herbert, Volume VII, Page 158])<br>
"Dairying and cattle-raising were still important elements in the agriculture of the parish in the later 1970s, '''though the number of sheep had increased again to the late 19th century level and the two big farms, Calmsden and North Cerney, were devoted largely to growing cereal crops.''' (43) [Agric. Returns 1976; local information.])&nbsp; (T''he Victoria History Of The Counties of England, The History of Gloucester,'' Edited by N. M. Herbert, Volume VII, Page 159]
== North Cerney Tradesmen  ==
'''"Though predominantly agricultural, North Cerney parish usually had a fairly substantial number of tradesmen.'''&nbsp; Eight tradesmen, including the tucker mentioned above, were listed in 1608 compared with 21 men employed in agriculture, (55) [Smith, ''Men and Armour, ''252-3] and trade supported 33 families in 1831 compared with 90 supported by agriculture. (56) [''Census'', 1831]&nbsp; With the exception of the man described as parchment-maker in 1751 and glue-maker in 1778, the tradesmen found recorded during the 18th and 19th centuries were the usual village craftsmen together with a few small shopkeepers. (57) Glos. R. O., D 2525, N. Cerney leases 1715-89, 1749-1825; H.O. 107/1968; ''Kelly's Dir. Glos. ''(1856 and later edns.).]&nbsp; '''Carpenters were perhaps represented in more than usual numbers for a rural parish in 1851 when 12 lived in the parish; the 9 slaters and masons formed the next largest group''' while other trades had only one or two representatives. (58) [H.O. 107/1968.]&nbsp; <u>Weavers were occasionally recorded in the parish </u>(59) [Glos. R.O., D 326/E, abs. of title to cott. at Calmsden; Hockaday Abs. cxliii, 1816.] and in the early 19th century <u>it presumably had a number of cloth-workers;</u> '''the increase from 16 to 33 tradsman families between 1811 and 1831''' (60) [''Census, ''1811-1831.]'''may be partly explained by developments at Perrot's Brook mill. '''(See Perrot's Brook mIll below.) A few crafts survived into the mid 20th century:&nbsp; in 1939 Cerney village still had a boot repairer and Calmsden a blacksmith, (61) [''Kelly's Dir. Glos. ''(1939), 62.] and a firm of tailors established at Woodmancote before 1906 (62) [Ibid. (1906), 55.] remained in business in 1978.&nbsp; From 1927 a quarry beside the railway in the east corner of the parish was worked by the Fosse Lime and Limestone Co. which burnt lime for agricultural and building purposes; the firm employed 30 men in 1936 and remained at the site until at least 1959. (63) Glos. R.O., D 2299/5816; W.I. hist. of Chedworth (1959, TS. in Glos. Colln.), 70.] (''The Victoria History Of The Counties Of England, The History of Gloucester,'' Edited by N. M. Herbert, Volume VII, Brightswells Barrow And Rapsgate Hundreds, Oxford University Press 1981, British Q Area, 942 H2svg, V. 2, Page 159)<br>
== Developments at Perrot's Brook mill<br>  ==
"'''A new mill built on the Cerney manor estate by Richard Painter c. 1715 '''(49) [Glos. R.O., D 2525, N. Cerney man. 1713-32.] '''was probably Perrott's Brook mill c. 600 m. upstream of the Perrott's Brook bridge.&nbsp;''' In 1799 John Radway, a wool-stapler, became lessee of Perrott's Brook mill (50) [Ibid. D 182/III/203.] and he was succeeded there by Giles Radway before 1809, when the mill was described as formerly a grist-mill (51) [Ibid. D2525, N. Cerney leases 1804-62.] and had perhaps been converted to cloth-making.&nbsp; In or shortly before 1824 Giles Radway built a new cloth-mill south of the old mill (52) [Ibid. loose deed 1824; Bryant, Map of Glos. (1824).] and he was still working it in 1837. (53) [G.D.R., T 1/45.]&nbsp;&nbsp; In the later 19th century it was used as a corn mill. (54) O.S. Map 6", Glos. XLIII. SE. (1884 edn.)]&nbsp; Both the old and new mills survived together with some cottages in 1978 when the newer mill was used as a farm build for Perrott's Brook farm, which had its other buildings and its recently built new farm house at the site." (''The Victoria History Of The Counties Of England, The History of Gloucester,'' Edited by N. M. Herbert, Volume VII, Brightswells Barrow And Rapsgate Hundreds, Oxford University Press 1981, British Q Area, 942 H2svg, V. 2, Page 159)<br>
= '''Websites:''' =  =
'''Census Returns for Gloucestershire:&nbsp;'''&nbsp;
[http://www.genuki.org.uk http://www.genuki.org.uk]
(Gloucestershire - Census Returns 1801-1901)
(Genuki- "&lt;FreeCEN&gt; is an ongoing volunteer-based project to provide a&nbsp;free to view' online searchable database of the 19th century UK census returns.&nbsp; Volunteers are being sought to assist with transcribing - visit the &lt;FreeCen Project&gt; page to see each county's status as well as a FAQ for volunteers.")
(Genuki - "Index of names, and downloadable images of Census 1841-1901 are available from&lt; Ancestry.co.uk&gt;
Access is by Annual subscription, or Pay-per-View.&nbsp; A subscription includes access to other Ancestry resources.
[[Gloucestershire Probate Jurisdictions Parishes C through F|Gloucestershire Probate Jurisdictions Parishes C through F]]
[http://www.findmypast.com/parish-records-collection-search-start.action?redef=0&event=D FindMyPast.com]
'''Search for Ancestors:'''
[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/default.asp Familysearch.org]
[http://www.worldvitalrecords.com www.worldvitalrecords.com]
[http://www.aboutbritain.com/maps/north-cerney-map.asp Map of North Cerney]
[http://www.british-towns.net/en/level_4_display.asp?GetL3=2705 British Towns and Villages Network]&nbsp;
[http://www.axcis.co.uk34058.html North Cerney School]
[http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~engcots/NorthCerneyPhotos01.html North Cerney Parish Church]
== Did You Know  ==
== '''How closely North Cerney is tied to Cirencester?&nbsp;'''  ==
(For those of us who do not live in England) '''North Cerney is a lovely rural pastoral suburb of Cirencester, 4 miles from the railroad station in Cirencester, within walking distance.&nbsp;''' This North Cerney-Cirencester relationship has existed from very early years until today.&nbsp; North Cerney still receives&nbsp; mail through Cirencester.&nbsp; Children who graduate at age 11 from the North Cerney CE Primary School can continue their education through schools in Cirencester, and other locations.&nbsp; The North Cerney Parish is attached to the Cirencester Diocese.&nbsp; The fine quality wool, and probably the highly prized Cotswold sheep were sold and traded, through the large wool market at Cirencester, across the street from Cirencester Parish.&nbsp; People, involved in the Cotswold Cloth industry traveled from London, Northampton, Oxford, and Wiltshire, and other parts of Gloucester to the Cirencester wool market.&nbsp; They traveled on the heavily trafficked roads built by the Romans when they invaded England.&nbsp; After 1799, people from Cricklade and Swindon Wiltshire traveled to Cirencester via the railroad line Great Western Railroad opened at that time.&nbsp; Thus people could leave their ancestral famlies in North Cerney and,relocate to Wiltshire and, utilizing this convenient early train service, travel back home to visit their families, like many people today commute from their surban homes to business connections in larger cities. There were also canals and waterways that provided a means to bring goods to the Cirencester market. Our early ancestors were often a lot more mobile and traveled greater distances than we might ever think they would travel. '''Also, if you can't find family member's information in the Noth Cerney Parish Registers, you might consider looking in the Cirencester Parish Registers.'''<br>
=== '''How does understanding the North Cerney and Cirencester''' '''connection help me with family history research?'''  ===
Have you ever wondered how your ancestors came to settle in rural North Cerney or where they "vanished "or relocated&nbsp; when their names no longer appeared in the North Cerney Parish Registers?&nbsp; Profitable research might be be obtained by studying the wool trade routes and searching records in other counties and parishes tied to the wool trade along the roads that lead to Cirencester.<br>
'''Cirencester provided a travel portal to Gloucester, Oxford, Northampton, Wiltshire and London and gave them opportunities to associate with people from all of these other counties and form business relationships, that would encourage travel or relocation to other counties in England.&nbsp; '''Many families traveled to the wool market, thus providing social contact with famlies from other communities and many subsequent marriages might be traced back to the opportunity for young people to get acquainted through their wool business associations.<br>
== &nbsp;News and Events ==

Revision as of 23:37, 26 March 2009

Gloucestershire or Gloucester County is an inland but partly a maritime county located in the central part of England.

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