Germany Church Records
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For information about records for non-Christian religions in Germany, go to the Religious Records page.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Information Recorded in Church Records
- 3 Locating Church Records
- 4 Reading the Records
- 5 Research Tips
- 6 Search Strategies and Steps
- 7 References
Church records (parish registers, church books) are an important source for genealogical research in Germany before 1876. They recorded details of baptisms, marriages, deaths and burials. The vast majority of the population was mentioned. In addition, church records can contain financial account books, (the record charges for toll bells, fees for masses for the dead, and so on), lists of confirmation, penance register communion lists, lists of members and the family register.
Church records also often contain information on local minority faith populations. For example often Evangelical Registers in West Prussia are also populated with Mennonite data, when Mennonites lived in those regions.
In general you will need to know the religion of your ancestors as different religions kept separate records. The main religious division in Germany was between Catholics (Katholische) and Protestants, comprised mainly of Lutherans (Evangelisch) and Reformed. Catholic records are generally written in Latin, while other records will be written in the local language.
In many regions, it was also common for the local church records to function in the role of Civil Registries. This is especially true in the further Eastern regions (ie. West Prussia, East Prussia).
- The practice of keeping parish registers evolved slowly.
- Lutheran churches in general began requiring records around 1540.
- Catholics began in 1563.
- By 1650 most Reformed parishes began keeping records.
- Many church records were destroyed in the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648).
- In addition, records for some parishes in the Pfalz and Rheinland were interrupted for several years when the French controlled those areas of Germany from 1792 to 1815 and introduced civil registration.
Duplicate Church Records (Kirchenbuchduplikate)
Use duplicates, where available, to supplement parish registers that are missing or illegible.
- Concerns about war or fire destruction led authorities in some areas to require the pastor to create a copy of each year's baptism-, marriage-, and burial entries. Most begin in the late 18th century.
- After the defeat of Napoleon in 1812, local governments often found it helpful to have access to the birth-, marriage-, and death records kept by the clergy. Soon local pastors were required to provide the town administration with a yearly copy of these records.
- Most are housed in central church archives or state archives, not at the local church.
Keep in mind that duplicates often differ slightly from the originals.
- Baptisms, marriages, deaths, and sometimes confirmations for each year are grouped together year by year, instead of being grouped by record type over a longer time period.
- Community members belonging to a minority religion may not be recorded in the majority faith's original church books. Instead they may only be included in the Kirchenbuchduplikat, labelled as "birth register" rather than "baptism book."
- A parish may have kept separate books for affiliated villages, both in the original and as duplicates. The parish in question may have included several villages, but only the book for one village has survived.
Information Recorded in Church Records
Later records usually give more complete information than earlier ones. The most important church records for genealogical research are baptism, marriage, and burial registers. Other helpful church records may include confirmation lists, family registers, lists of pastors, lists of members, account books, receipt books, and communion records.
Early records were usually written in paragraph form. As record keeping improved, columns were often used in the entries. Some areas used preprinted forms that required specific information. This format is usually easier to read because the vital information is in the same place in each entry.
Children were usually baptized a few days after birth. Baptism registers usually give:
- the infant's name,
- parents' names,
- status of legitimacy, (sometimes by a note in the margin or an upside-down or sideways entry)
- names of witnesses or godparents (taufzeugen, gevattern, paten), who may be relatives, and
- baptism date.
You may also find:
- the child's birth date,
- the father's occupation, and
- the family's place of residence,
- death information, as an added note or signified by a cross. The cross alone does NOT imply that the individual died as a young child.
Marriage registers give:
- the marriage date and
- the names of the bride and groom.
The registers may also:
- indicate whether they were single or widowed and
- give the names of witnesses.
- include other information about the bride and groom is often included, such as
- their ages,
- their birth dates and places
- birthplaces, and
- parents' names (after 1800)
- the names of previous spouses and their death dates.
The earliest marriage records may give only the names of the bride and groom and have little or no information about the couple's parents. Couples were often married in the bride's home parish. If there were no marriage restrictions, girls typically married for the first time between ages 18 and 25. Men typically married for the first time in their mid-twenties.
Marriage Banns or Proclamations (Aufgebote)
The marriage registers of some churches give the dates on which the marriage banns were announced. For two or three weeks before the marriage, marriage banns (announcements of the intention to marry) were read and/or posted in church. This gave community members a chance to object to the marriage. Most proclamations took place on consecutive Sundays.
- If the future spouses were from different parishes, the banns were read in each church. Before the marriage ceremony could take place, the non-local party was required to present the officiating pastor with a paper stating that the proclamations had been read, and there were no objections. A note stating that this person had been "dismissed" to marry elsewhere may be found in the marriage register.
- The marriage banns themselves may exist in a separate record. Some parishes kept the marriage banns and other marriage information instead of marriage registers.
- If a couple needed to get married quickly, permission to skip the proclamations could be obtained for a fee. This special permission is called a dispensation. Common reasons for a hasty marriage include pregnancy and imminent emigration.
- Formal engagements were often associated with a celebration that required the families to purchase a certain amount of alcoholic beverages from the local pub. This custom was known as the "Weinkauf". Engagement dates may be given in the parish register as " der Weinkauf" or "weinkaeuflich ".
Burial registers may give
- the name of the deceased and
- the date and place of death or burial.
- the deceased's age,
- place of residence, and
- cause of death (list of old German causes of death, and
- the names of survivors
- deceased's birth date and place and
- parents' names
Information about parents, birth dates, and birthplaces may be inaccurate, depending on the informant's knowledge.
Funeral sermons:If the burial record mentions a sermon, you may be able to find a printed copy at a local library or archive. Funeral sermons often mentioned several generations of ancestors. See Germany Obituaries for more details.
Stillbirths were not recorded the same way in all churches. The pastor or priest often determined how to record stillbirths in his parish. In some areas, stillbirths were recorded in birth records. In other areas, stillbirths were recorded in death records. Some parishes listed stillbirths in both birth and death records. You should check both birth and death records if you suspect that a child was stillborn.
Protestants were usually confirmed around age 14, Catholics about age 12. Some confirmation registers merely list:
- the names of those being confirmed and
- the confirmation date.
Other confirmation registers give additional information about those being confirmed, including:
- their ages or birth dates,
- and fathers' names.
Family Registers (Familienbücher)
Some parishes kept family registers that give information about each family group in the parish. Family registers are more common in southern Germany, especially in Württemberg and Baden after 1808. These registers list:
- the names of the husband and wife
- their birth dates and places,
- their marriage date and place,
- their parents' names, occupations, and residence.
Children are usually listed in chronological order with their:
- birth dates,
- confirmation dates,
- marriage dates, and
- death dates may be listed.
In some registers, when a child married and remained in the same parish, the register gives a “see” reference and a page number where that particular child appears as the head of a household. Some family registers indicate whether the family moved to another village or emigrated to another country.
The information in family registers was compiled from other church books or obtained from the head of the household, and it is subject to error. Whenever possible, you should confirm all information found in family registers with baptism, marriage, and burial records.
Use the following Guides to help locate Family Registers specific to the area where your ancestors lived: Baden, Germany, Church Record Family Register 1500-1874 Guide
Parish Genealogy (Ortssippenbuch)
Pastors or genealogists sometimes compiled a village lineage book (Ortssippenbuch), which included each family in a parish. For details see Germany Town Genealogies and Parish Register Inventories on the Internet.
Locating Church Records
Church records were kept in the local parish of the church. The term parish refers to the jurisdiction of a church minister. Parishes are local congregations that may have included many neighboring villages in their boundaries. You might find them digitized and available online, or you might have to write to the local church or to a centralized archive where they are stored.
To use church records, you must know both your ancestor's religion and the town where he or she lived. You must also determine in which parish the town was located. Consult the 1871 Meyer's Gazetteer Online. This will tell you whether the Catholic or Protestant church is in the town, and give you a list of the closest parish churches to the town.
FamilySearch has acquired images of many, though not all, church records from various parts of the former German Empire. These can be found by searching for the parish in the FamilySearch catalog. An increasing number have been digitized and are available online. However, some collections must be viewed at a family history center (FHC), affiliate library or may be restricted to members of supporting organizations, including members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Please review individual FamilySearch collections "Learn more" Wiki articles for information regarding restrictions.
- Archion ($), is a website containing church records from many Protestant archives from many areas in Germany.
- Matricula contains images, but no indexes, of Catholic church records from several dioceses.
- Ancestry has many German church records, mostly Lutheran, and especially from Württemberg, Baden and Saxony
Church Records Tools
- Finding Parish Registers for Germany Areas Now in Other Countries.
- Pdf Archive Inventory Part 1 of 2: Church records in Archives" - an inventory of localities and the location or archive where the records should be found. The list of archives with addresses which correspond to the localities list are found at this link Archive Addresses Please note that in the second column, with the heading of "key" matches the Archive "number" in the first link which contains the database.
- Berlin Evangelical Central Archive Inventory Online - The Evangelical Central Archive in Berlin (EZAB) holds many Lutheran church records from Eastern areas, including Ostpreussen, Schlesien, Posen, Brandenburg, Pommern, and Westpreussen. On the Website the box titled "Familienforschung" (family history research) includes a link to the listing of accessible parish registers under "Kirchenbuch-Suche".
FamilySearch Historical Records
Local Churches and Archives
If the records you need are not at the Family History Library, you may find baptism, marriage, and burial records by contacting or visiting German parishes or archives.
Germany has no single repository of church records. The present location of a church record depends on several factors, including national borders, religion, and local history. Records may be located in one or more or the following places:
- Local parishes. Most church registers are still maintained by the parish. You might obtain information by writing to the parish. Parish employees will usually answer correspondence written in German. Your request may be forwarded if the records have been sent to a central repository.
- State archives. Duplicate records from some parishes are in the state archives. Many of these records have been microfilmed and are available at the Family History Library. However, for records that are not microfilmed, you can sometimes write to the state archives to request searches of the duplicates. For more information, see Germany Archives and Libraries.
- Central church archives. In a few parts of Germany, church records or duplicates have been gathered from the local parishes into central archives. Some gaps in the church records of local parishes could be filled using these records. Church archives are often unable to handle genealogical requests, but they can determine whether they have specific records you need, or they may recommend a researcher who can search the records for you.
Church Record Inventories
Church record inventories are essential tools for finding German records. They identify what records should be available for a specified parish and where to write for information on these records. They list the church records, their