German Language and Languages
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Most materials used in German research are written in German. However, you do not need to speak or read German to do research in German records. You will need to know some key words and phrases to understand the records.
Because of Germany's history, you may also find several other languages in German records. Latin was frequently used in Roman Catholic church records. French was often used in Elsaß-Lothringen and during the French domination of the area west of the Rhein river (1806-1815). Danish was used in much of Schleswig-Holstein until Preußen annexed that area in 1864.
German grammar may affect the way names appear in genealogical records, so your ancestor's name in German may vary from record to record. For help in understanding name variations, see the “Names, Personal” section.
Click here for information on how dialects affect German names.
Click here for information on spelling variations in German documents.
The German Word List includes symbols commonly used in German genealogical sources. For more information about reading German writing, see Germany Handwriting.
The following books and English-German dictionaries can help in your research. You can find these and similar materials at many research libraries.
Thode, Ernest. German-English Genealogical Dictionary. Baltimore, Maryland, USA: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1992. (FHL book 433.21 T352g 1992.)
Langenscheidts German-English, English-German Dictionary = Langenscheidts Deutsch-Englisches, Englisch-Deutches Wörterbuch. New York, NY, USA: Pocket Books, 1952, 1993. (FHL book 433.21 L262g.)
Grimms Dictionary online can be found at this link Dictionary of German historical words.
Other language aids, including dictionaries of various dialects and time periods, are listed in the Place Search of the Family History Library Catalog under:
Also check the Subject Search of the catalog under:
Other language aids for parish Latin can be found at these links:
In some genealogical records, numbers are spelled out. This is especially true of dates. The following list gives the cardinal (1, 2, 3) and the ordinal (1st, 2nd, 3rd) versions of each number. Days of the month are written in ordinal form. Ordinal forms may have other endings, for example: erste, ersten.
1 eins 1st erste
2 zwei 2nd zweite, zweyte
3 drei 3rd dritte
4 vier 4th vierte
5 fünf 5th fünfte
6 sechs 6th sechste
7 sieben 7th siebte, siebente
8 acht 8th achte
9 neun 9th neunte
10 zehn 10th zehnte
11 elf 11th elfte
12 zwölf 12th zwölfte
13 dreizehn 13th dreizehnte
14 vierzehn 14th vierzehnte
15 fünfzehn 15th fünfzehnte
16 sechzehn 16th sechzehnte
17 siebzehn 17th siebzehnte
18 achtzehn 18th achtzehnte
19 neunzehn 19th neunzehnte
20 zwanzig 20th zwanzigste
21 einundzwanzig 21st einundzwanzigste
22 zweiundzwanzig 22nd zweiundzwanzigste
23 dreiundzwanzig 23rd dreiundzwanzigste
24 vierundzwanzig 24th vierundzwanzigste
25 fünfundzwanzig 25th fünfundzwanzigste
26 sechsundzwanzig 26th sechsundzwanzigste
27 siebenundzwanzig 27th siebenundzwanzigste
28 achtundzwanzig 28th achtundzwanzigste
29 neunundzwanzig 29th neunundzwanzigste
30 dreißig 30th dreißigste
31 einunddreißig 31st einunddreißigste
40 vierzig 40th vierzigste
50 fünfzig 50th fünfzigste
60 sechzig 60th sechzigste
70 siebzig 70th siebzigste
80 achtzig 80th achtzigste
90 neunzig 90th neunzigste
100 hundert 100th hunderste
200 zweihundert 200th zwei hunderste
1000 tausend 1000th tausendste
Dates and Time
In German records, dates are often written out. For example:
Freitag den vierzehnten Februar achtzehnhundert sechs und dreißig [Friday, the 14th of February, eighteen hundred six and thirty (1836)].
To understand German dates, use the following lists as well as the preceding “Numbers” section.
January Januar, Jänner, Hartung, Jenner
February Februar, Hornung
March März, Frühlingsmonat
April April, Ostermonat, Osteren
May Mai, Wonnemonat, Blütemonat
June Juni, Brachmonat
July Juli, Heuert, Heumonat, Heuet
August August, Erntemonat, Hitzmonat
September September, Fruchtmonat, Herbstmonat, Herpsten, 7ber, 7bris
October Oktober, Weinmonat, 8ber, 8bris
November November, Wintermonat, 9ber, 9bris
December Dezember, Christmonat, 10ber, 10bris, Xber, Xbris
Click here for an extensive list of month names in German.
Days of the Week
Friday Freitag, Freytag
Saturday Samstag, Sonnabend
Click here for an article on special symbols used for week days.
Times of the Day
German birth and death records often indicated the exact time of day when the birth or death occurred. This is usually written out.
ein Uhr one (o’clock)
zwei Uhr two (o’clock)
drei Uhr three (o’clock)
halb eins half one = 12:30
halb zwei half two = 1:30
halbe Stunde half hour
früh early (a.m.)
spät late (p.m.)
morgens in the morning
vormittags in the forenoon
mittags at noon
nachmittags in the afternoon
abends in the evening
mitternachts at midnight
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The following symbols are commonly used in German genealogical sources.
common law marriage, illegitimate
killed in action
died of battle wounds
Paper publication: Third edition 1997. English approval: 4/97.