German Genealogical Word List

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This list contains German words with their English translations. The words included here are those that you are likely to find in genealogical sources. If the word you are looking for is not on this list, please consult a German-English dictionary. Latin words are often found in German records, and a few are included in this list. See the Latin Word List (34077).

German is spoken in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. Records written in German may be found in these countries and also in parts of Poland, Denmark, Luxembourg, Czech Republic, Hungary, and wherever German people settled. There are several different dialects in the German language. For example, in the province of Westfalen and other areas of Germany that border the Netherlands, you may notice words that are closely related to Dutch words. You may find the Dutch word list useful when working with these records.

In addition, German is found in some early records of the United States, such as in Pennsylvania, Texas, Wisconsin, and other states where Germans lived.

Language Characteristics

German words for persons, places, and things (nouns) are always capitalized. All nouns are classified as masculine, feminine, or neuter. This classification is called gender. The gender of a noun is indicated by der (masculine), die (feminine), and das (neuter), which translates as "the." Word endings may vary, depending on the way the words are used in the sentence.

Variant Forms of Words

In German, as in English, the forms of some words will vary according to how they are used in the sentence. Who—whose—whom or marry—marries— married are examples of words in English with variant forms. In German, the form of many words can change greatly. This word list gives the standard form of each German word. As you read German records, you will need to be aware that some words vary with usage.

The endings of words in a document may differ from those on this list. For example, the document may use the word junger, but you will find it in this word list as jung. In addition, the suffixes -chen and -lein are often added to words to indicate "little." Therefore, the word Söhnchen means "little or young son," and Töchterlein means "little or young daughter."

Adjectives describe nouns and must have the proper masculine, feminine, or neuter endings. For example, in German you would say "junger Mann" (young man) or "junges Mädchen" (young maiden) if man and maiden are the subjects of a sentence. Adjective endings can change depending on usage and gender.

Plural words are usually formed by adding -er, -en, or -e. Thus the word Kind becomes Kinder, Frau becomes Frauen, and Aufgebot becomes Aufgebote. Plurality may also change the vowel slightly. For example, Mann becomes Männer.

In German, many words are formed by joining two or more words. Very few of these compound words are included in this list. You will need to look up each part of the word separately. For example, Geburtstag is a combination of two words, Geburt (birth) and Tag (day).

Diacritic Marks

Written German uses several letters in addition to the 26 letters used in the English alphabet. These are Ä (ä), Ö (ö), Ü (ü), and ß. Historically, German also included Ÿ (ÿ) which today have been primarily replaced phonetically with the letters I (i) and Ü (ü).

For data entry and some searches, it is useful to know how to create these characters. Note: Do not use diacritics when searching in the Family History Library catalog.

From a PC keyboard, these letters may be created by using the following keystroke combinations:

Letter Code Letter Code
Ä Alt + 0196 ä Alt + 0228
Ö Alt + 0214 ö Alt + 0246
Ü Alt + 0220 ü Alt + 0252
ß Alt + 0223    
Ÿ Alt + 0159 ÿ Alt + 0225

Alphabetical Order

German letters with diacritic marks will be alphabetized in this publication as though they were a, o, u, and ss. However, many dictionaries and gazetteers will alphabetize these characters as if they were ae, oe, ue, and ss.


Because spelling rules were not standardized in earlier centuries, spelling variations are common. Local dialect often affects the spelling in genealogical records. In German records, the following letters are sometimes used interchangeably:

  • p used for b
  • a used for e
  • t used for d or dt
  • s used for z
  • ck used for k
  • y used for i or j
  • v used for w or f
  • k used for g
  • tz used for z
  • ig used for isch or ich
  • t used for th
  • u used for i


  • Freytag for Freitag
  • Burckhart for Burkhard
  • Waldpurga for Waldburga
  • undt for und

Additional Resources

This word list includes only words most commonly found in genealogical sources. For further help, use a German-English dictionary. Several German-English dictionaries are available in the Family History Library. These are in the European collection. The call numbers begin with 433.21.

Particularly helpful dictionaries include:

  • Langenscheidt New Muret-Sanders Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English and German Languages. Berlin, Germany: Langenscheidt, 1969, 1974 (FHL book 433.21 Sp83n).
  • The New Cassell’s German Dictionary, German-English, English-German. New York, NY, USA: Funk and Wagnalls, Inc., 1971 (FHL book 433.211 C272 1971).
  • Das Deutsche Wörterbuch / Deutsches Wörterbuch (DWB, The "German Dictionary" / "German Dictionary") is one of the most important dictionaries of the German language. Written entirely in German, the dictionary contains 32 volumes and includes about 350,000 main entries. It is particularly useful for finding the meaning of words in genealogical documents that are no longer used in modern German. It can be searched online by clicking here and selecting the link "Online-Wörterbuch aufschlagen." Note: This site is intermittently not available.

Additional dictionaries are listed in the subject section of the Family History Library Catalog under GERMAN LANGUAGE - DICTIONARIES or in the locality section under GERMANY - LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGES.

Key Words

To find and use specific types of German records, you will need to know some key words in German. This section gives key genealogical terms in English and the German words with the same or similar meanings.

For example, in the first column you will find the English word marriage. In the second column you will find German words with meanings such as marry, marriage, wedding, wedlock, unite, joined, and other words used in German records to indicate marriage.

English German
birth Geburten, Geburtsregister, Geborene, geboren
burial Beerdigungen, begraben, Begräbnisse, bestattet, beerdigt
Catholic katholisch
child Kind, Kinder
christening Taufe, Taufen, Getaufte
confirmations Konfirmationen, Firmungen
civil registry Standesamt
death Tote, Tod, sterben, starb, verstorben, gestorben, Sterbefall
father Vater
husband Mann, Ehemann, Gatte
index Verzeichnis, Register
Jewish jüdisch, Jude(n), israelitisch
marriage banns Proklamationen, Aufgebote, Verkündigungen
marriage Heiraten, Trauungen, Getraute, Ehe, Kopulation, kopulieren, verheiratet, Verehelichungen, Eheschliessungen
month Monat
mother Mutter
name, given Vorname, Name
name, surname Zuname, Familienname, Geschlechtsname, Name
parents Eltern
parish Pfarrei, Kirchspiel, Gemeinde
Protestant evangelisch, lutherisch, Protestant
Reformed reformiert
wife Frau, Ehegattin, Weib, Ehefrau, Hausfrau, Gattin
year Jahr

General Word List

Note: In German, letters with diacritical marks are alphabetized as if they did not have a diacritical mark. In some other languages, they are alphabetized separately.


German English
ab from, since
Abbauer tenant on a (new, split-off) farm; heir with a small part of a farm (usually a second son)
Abdecker skinner
Abend evening
Abendmahlgast communicant
abends in the evening
Abenteurer jeweler, jewel trader; adventurer
aber but
abgestorben deceased
Ablader longshoreman
Abnahmemann retired farmer on life estate
Abnehmer photographer
Abschiedsmann man retired on life estate
absterben to die, to die off
Abstreifer renderer; flayer
acht eight
achte eighth
Achter juryman
achtundzwanzigste twenty-eighth
achtzehn eighteen
achtzehnhundert eighteen hundred
achtzehnte eighteenth
achtzig eighty
achtzigste eightieth
Ackermann farmer
Adel gentry, nobleman
a.D. = außer Dienst formerly employed, retired
adoptiert adopted
Ahnen ancestors
Ahnentafel pedigree chart
Akten documents
alle all
allhier in this place
alt old
Altbürger full citizen
Alter age
Altersschwäche weakness of old age
ältest eldest
alt-katholisch old Catholic
Amman bailiff, magistrate
Amt office, district
Anbauer peasant
andere other, next
Angeber informant
angeblich alleged, assumed
Anmerkungen remarks
Anspänner farmer
apostolisch Apostolic
April April
Arbeiter laborer, worker
Archiv archive
arm poor
Armut poverty
Arzt physician
auch also, too
auf on, upon, at
aufbieten post banns
Aufenthaltserlaubnis residence permit
Aufenthaltsort residence
Aufgebot publication of banns
August August
aus from, out of
außen outside
äußere outside, outward, external
außerehelich illegitimate
Auswanderer emigrant
Auswanderung emigration
Auszehrung consumption or emaciation (especially from TB)
Auszug extract


German English
Bäcker baker
Bad spa, resort
Badeort spa, health resort
Band volume
Baptist Baptist
Baron baron
Bauer farmer, peasant
Bayern Bavaria
Bd. = Band volume
Beamter official, registrar
Beck(er) baker
beerdigt buried
Beerdigung burial, interment
beglaubigt certified, attested
begraben buried
Begräbnis burial
Beichte confession
beide both
Beilage supplement
Bekannte(r) acquaintance
Bekehrung conversion
Belege proof, documentation
Bemerkungen remarks
Berg hill, mountain
Bergmann miner
Beruf occupation, profession
Beschreibung description
Besitzer possessor, proprietor, owner
bestätigt confirmed, verified
bestattet buried
bettlägerig bedridden
Bettler beggar
Bevölkerungsregister population register
bevorstehend previously mentioned
Bezirk district
Biographie biography
Bischof bishop
Bistum diocese
Blattern smallpox
blutend bleeding
Blütenmonat May
Blutsverwandschaft blood relationship
Böhmen Bohemia
Bootsmann bargeman, boatman
Böttcher cooper, barrel maker
Brauer brewer
Bräune diptheria
Braut bride
Bräutigam bridegroom
Brücke bridge
Bruder brother
Bub boy
Buch book
Büdner cottager
Burg castle, fortress
Bürger burgher, citizen, citizens
Bürgerbuch citizen register
Bürgermeister mayor
Büttner barrel maker


German English
ca. = circa about
Chirug surgeon
Christmonat December
Colonist settler, tenant farmer
copulieren to marry
cribrarius sieve maker (Latin)


German English
d. = der, dem, des, die, das the
Dachdecker roofer
dänisch Danish
das the
daselbst residing in this place
Datum date
Dekanat deanery
dem, den the
der the, of the
derselbe the same
des of the
deutsch German
Deutschland Germany
Dezember December
die the
Diener servant
Dienst service, employment
Dienstag Tuesday
Dienstmagd servant girl
dieser this, these
Domäne domain
Donnerstag Thursday
Dorf village
dort there
drei three
dreißig thirty
dreißigste thirtieth
dreiundzwanzigste twenty-third
dreizehn thirteen
dreizehnte thirteenth
dritte third
Duplikat duplicate record
durch through
Durchfall diarrhea


German English
ebenda at the same place
Ehe marriage
Ehebrecher adulterer
Ehebruch adultery
Ehefrau wife, housewife
Ehehindernis hinderance to marriage
ehel. = ehelich legitimate
eheleiblich legitimate
Eheleute married couple
ehelich legitimate
ehemals formerly
Ehemann husband
Ehepaar married couple
Ehescheidung divorce
Eheschließung marriage
Ehestand married state
Eheverkündigungen marriage banns
Eheversprechen, Eheverspruch betrothal, engagement
Eidam (Eidmann) son-in-law
Eigentümer proprietor, property owner
ein, eine a, one, an
Einbürgerung naturalization
Einlieger landless farm laborer
eins one
Einsender informant, declarant
eintausendachthundert eighteen hundred
eintausendfünfhundert fifteen hundred
eintausendneunhundert nineteen hundred
eintausendsechshundert sixteen hundred
eintausendsiebenhundert seventeen hundred
einunddreissig thirty-one
einunddreissigste thirty-first
einundzwanzigste twenty-first
Einwanderer immigrant
Einwanderung immigration
Einwilligung permission
Einwohner inhabitant
einzige only
Eisenbahn railroad
Eiterbeule abscess
elf eleven
elfte eleventh
Eltern parents
Enkel grandson
Enkelin granddaughter
Enkelkind grandchild
eod(em) the same, ditto
Epilepsie epilepsy
er he
Erben heirs
Erbschaft inheritance
erhalten received, receive
erklärt declared
Erlassung dispensation, permission
Ermächtigung authorization
Ernting August
errechnet approximated, calculated
erschien appeared
erste first
erstgeboren firstborn
ertrank, ertrunken drowned
erzeugen beget
erzeugt begat
es it
et uxor and wife (Latin)
evangelisch evangelical


German English
Fabrikant manufacturer
Familie family
Familienbuch family register
Familienforschung genealogical research
Familienregister family register
Färber dyer
Faßbinder cooper, barrel maker
Fäule cancer
Februar February
Fehlgeburt miscarriage
Festtag feast day, festival day, holy day
Festung fortress
Fieber fever
Findling foundling
Firmung confirmation
Fischer fisher
Fl. = Florin standard monetary unit
Flecken hamlet, also measles or spots
Fleckfieber spotted fever, typhus
Fleischer butcher
Fleischhauer butcher
Flüchtling refugee, deserter
Fluß river
folgende following, next
Forst forest
Förster forester
Fraisen convulsions, epilepsy, seizures, spasms
Frankreich France
Frau Mrs., wife, woman
Fräulein Miss, unmarried woman
Freibauer farmer who owns his own land
Freiherr baron
Freitag Friday
fremd foreign, strange
Freund friend
Friedhof cemetery
früh early (a.m.)
früher former, formerly
fünf five
fünfte fifth
fünfundzwanzigste twenty-fifth
fünfzehn fifteen
fünfzehnhundert fifteen hundred
fünfzehnte fifteenth
fünfzig fifty
fünfzigste fiftieth
für for
Fürst prince, count
Fürstentum principality


German English
Gärtner gardener
Gastwirt innkeeper
Gatte husband
Gattin wife
geb. = geboren born, maiden name
geben, gab given, gave
Gebiet region, area, zone
geboren born, maiden name
Gebühren fees
Geburt birth
Geburtsort place of birth
Geburtsschein birth certificate
Geburtsurkunde birth certificate
gegen against, towards
geheiratet married
gehört belongs (to)
Geistliche(r) clergyman
Gelbsucht jaundice
Geld money
Gemahl(in) spouse, husband, wife
Gemeinde community, municipality, parish, town
Gemeindemann village official, village resident
Gemeindsmann citizen with full rights
gemelli twins
genannt named, alias, called
Genealogie genealogy
Gerber tanner
Gericht court
Gerichtsmann juryman
Gerichtsschreiber court clerk
Gerichtsverwandter member of the judicial court
gesagt said, stated
Geschichte history
geschieden divorced
Geschlecht gender, sex, lineage
Geschlechterbücher lineage books
Geschlechtsname surname
Geschwister siblings, brothers and sisters
Geschwulst swelling, tumor
Geselle journeyman
Gesellschaft society, group
Gesetz law
gesetzlich legal
gest. = gestorben died
gestern yesterday
gestorben died
get. = getauft baptized, christened
Getaufte person who was baptized
getr. = getraut married
Getraute married couple
Gevatter godfather
Gewerbe trade, occupation
Gicht gout, arthritis
Gilde guild
Glaube belief, faith
Glauben religious affiliation
gleich same, alike, similar, right away
Graf count (nobleman), earl
Grafschaft county
Grenze border
groß big, great, large
Großeltern grandparents
großjährig of age
Großmutter grandmother
Großneffe great-nephew
Großnichte great-niece
Großvater grandfather
Grundbuch land register
Gulden standard monetary unit, florin
Gut property, estate
gut good


German English
haben to have
halb half
halb drei half three = 2:30 (time)
halb eins half one = 12:30 (time)
halb zwei half two = 1:30 (time)
Halbbauer small farmer
Halbmeier small farmer
Händler trader, merchant, peddler
Hartung January
Haupt- chief, main
Haus house
Hausfrau housewife
Häusler cottager
Hausmädchen housemaid
Hebamme midwife
Heilquelle spa, bath
Heimat home, native place, homeland
Heimatschein domicile or residency certificate
Heimatsort place of birth, home town
Heirat marriage
heiraten to marry
Heiratsantrag marriage intentions
Heiratsbelege marriage supplements
Heiratskontrakt marriage contracts
Heiratsprotokolle marriage records
Heiratsschein marriage certificate
heißt is named
Hektar hectare (10,000 square meters or 2.47 U.S. acres)
Heraldik heraldry
Herkunftsort place of origin
Herr Mister, Lord, lord
Herrschaft estate, dominion
Herzog duke
Herzogtum duchy
Hessische Hessian
Heuerling dayworker, hireling
Heuert, Heumonat July
heute today
hier here
hiesiger Ort this place
Hinterbliebene survivors
hinterlassen surviving, left behind
Hirt herdsman
hitziges Fieber burning fever, high fever
hoch high
Hochzeit wedding
Hof courtyard, farm, yard, estate
Hofprediger chaplain
Holländer Dutchman, dairykeeper
Hornung February
Hüfner farmer
Hufschmied blacksmith
Hügel hill
hundert hundred
Hurenkind illegitimate child
Husten cough


German English
ihr, ihr- their, her
im in the
immer always
in in, at
Inhalt content(s)
innerhalb inside of
Innung guild
Instmann tenant farmer
ist is


German English
Jäger hunter, rifleman in the military
Jahr year
Jahrestag anniversary
Jahreszeit season
Jahrhundert century
jährlich annual, yearly
Jahrzehnt decade
Jänner January
Januar January
jeder (jede, jedes) each, every
Jgfr. = Jungfrau, Jungfer maiden, virgin, unmarried woman
jüdisch Jewish
Jugend youth, adolescence
Juli July
Julmonat December
jung young
Junge a youth (male)
Jungfrau, Jungfer maiden, virgin, unmarried woman
Junggeselle bachelor
Jüngling bachelor, young man
Juni June


German English
K.K. = kaiserlich königlich royal imperial
Kantor choirmaster, organist
Karpe carpenter
Karte map
Karrer carter
Kartei card index
Käthner, Kätner cottager
katholisch Catholic
kaufen to buy
Kaufmann merchant
kein no, not any, none
Keller wine steward; cellar, basement
Kellner waiter, receiver of revenues; steward
Kessler kettlemaker
Keuchhusten whooping cough
Kiefer cooper, barrel maker
Kind baby
Kindbettfieber childbed fever
Kinder children
Kirche church
Kirchenältester churchwarden, church elder, vestryman
Kirchenbuch parish register
Kirchengemeinde parish
Kirchenpfleger churchwarden
Kirchenrodel parish register
Kirchensprengel parish
Kirchenvorsteher churchwarden
kirchlich pertaining to church
Kirchrat member of a church council
Kirchspiel parish
klein little
Knabe boy
Knecht servant
Kolonist settler, colonist, farmer
Kommunikant communicant
Kommunion communion
Konfirmation confirmation
König king
königlich royal
Königreich kingdom
Kopulation marriage
kopulieren to marry
Kossät, Kossath cottager
Kötter, Kötner small farmer, cottager
Krämer grocer, small retailer
Krämpfe cramps,, convulsions
Krankheit disease, sickness
Krebs cancer
Kreis county
Krieg war
Kröger, Krogmann innkeeper
Küfer cooper, barrel maker
Kuhhirte cowherd
Kupferschmied coppersmith
Kurort spa
Kusine female cousin
Kutscher coachman


German English
Land land, country
Landarbeiter farmhand
Landkarte map
Landwirt farmer
lassen to let, leave, allow
lebendig living
ledig single, unmarried
legitimiert made legitimate, legitimized
Lehrer teacher
Lehrling apprentice
Leiche corpse, body
Leichenpredigt funeral sermon
Leinenweber linen weaver
Lenz spring (season)
letzte Ölung last rites, extreme unction
letzte Salbung last rites, extreme unction
Letzter latter, last
letzter Wille last will
links left
Lungenentzündung pneumonia
Lungenschwindsucht consumption, tuberculosis
lutherisch Lutheran


German English
Mädchen girl
Mädel girl
Magd maiden, maid, servant girl
Mägdlein girl, little girl
Mai May
Maler painter
Mann husband, man
männlich male
Markt market
März March
Masern measles
Matrikel register
Maurer mason
Meister, -meister master
Mennoniten Mennonites
Metzger butcher
Militär military
minderjährig underaged, minor
mit with, via, by
Mitglied member
Mittag midday
mittags at noon
Mitternacht midnight
Mittwoch Wednesday
Monat month
Montag Monday
Morgen morning, tomorrow
Morgen (morgen) measure of land, 0.6 to 0.9 acres
morgens in the morning
Mühle mill
mündlich verbal, verbally
Mutter Mother


German English
N.N. = nomen nescio name not known
nach to, after, according to
Nachbar neighbor
Nachbarschaft neighborhood
nachgelassen surviving
Nachlaß estate, inheritance
Nachmittag afternoon
nachmittags in the afternoon
nächst(e) next
Nacht night
Näherin seamstress
Name name
nat. = natus, nata born
natus, nata born
neben next to
Nebenfrau concubine
Neffe nephew
Nervenfieber nervous fever
neu new
neun nine
neunte ninth
neunundzwanzigte twenty-ninth
neunzehn nineteen
neunzehnhundert nineteen hundred
neunzehnte nineteenth
neunzig ninety
neunzigste ninetieth
Nicht not
Nichte niece
nichts nothing
nie never
nieder lower
niederländisch Dutch, of the Netherlands
noch still
noch lebende still living
noch nicht not yet
Nord north
Notizen notices, miscellaneous records
Nottaufe emergency baptism
November November
Nummer number
nur only


German English
O.A. = Oberamt governing district office
ober upper, over
ober-, Ober-
(comb. form)
chief, head; upper, over
Oberamt governing district office
oder or
öffentlich bekanntmachen make known publicly
oft often
Oheim uncle
ohne without
Oktober October
Onkel uncle
Ort place, town
Ortslexikon gazetteer
Osten east
Ostern Easter (could be March or April)
Ostermonat April
Ostern Easter
Österreich Austria
österreichisch Austrian


German English
Pächter leaseholder
Pate godfather
Paten godparents
Pest plague
Pfalz Palatinate
Pfarramt parish office
Pfarrbuch parish register
Pfarrei parish
Pfarrer parish minister, pastor
Pflegekind foster child
Pflegesohn foster son
Pflegetochter foster daughter
Platz place (location)
Pocken pox, smallpox
Polen Poland
polnisch Polish
preußisch Prussia
Priester priest
Prinz prince
Prinzessin princess
protestantisch Protestant
Provinz province
provinzial provincial


German English
Räbbe rabies
Räcke stiffness of the limbs
Racker renderer
Rademacher, Radmacher wheelwright
Radhauer wheelwright
Rathaus city hall
Ratsherr alderman
Ratsmann councilman; town councilor
Rechnung account; bill
rechtgläubig orthodox
Rechsanwalt lawyer
reformiert reformed
Regierungsbezirk administrative area (a political jurisdiction)
Register register (a book or list)
Reich empire; kingdom
Reifer ropemaker; rope merchant
Reiter rider; cavalryman
relicta widow
relictus widower
Religion religion
ren. = renatus, renata baptized, christened
Rentner retired person
Rheuma rheumatism
Richter judge
Rodel register
Röseler whitewasher
Rössler horseman; tanner
römisch katholisch Roman Catholic
Röt measles; bloody diarrhea
Rotgerber red tanner
Ruhestand retirement
Ruhr dysentery
russisch Russian
Rußland Russia


German English
S. = Seite page
s. = siehe see the following reference
Sachsen Saxony
Sackhuhn sailmaker
Säger sawyer
Salbung anointing
Salzvogt salt works overseer
Samstag Saturday
Sarkhauer stonemason
Satertag Saturday
Sattler saddler, leather worker
Schacherer peddler
Schäfer shepherd
Schaffer worker; laborer; administrator
Schäf(f)ler cooper
Schaffmann worker
Schaffner conductor
Schalck, Schall servant
Scharlach, Scharlachfieber scarlet fever
Scharnemann merchant in a market
Scharrmacher wagon builder
Scharwerker day laborer on a farm
Schatter, Schattmann tax assessor
Schatzmann moneychanger; treasurer
Schatzmeister treasurer
Scheibenreisser glazier
Scheibler salt carrier
Scheiding September
Scheidler knife-blade maker
Scheidung divorce
Schein certificate
Schenkungen donations
Scherer barber; beardcutter; cloth cutter
Schichtmeister mine paymaster
Schiffbauer shipbuilder
Schiffer shipper; seaman
Schiffmann sailor
Schiffsmakler shipbroker; shipping agent
Schilderer sign painter
Schindeldecker roofer of shingle roofs
Schindelmacher shingle maker
Schinner renderer, skinner
Schirmmacher umbrella maker
Schirrmacher wagon maker
Schirrmeister master wagon maker
Schlachter, Schlächter butcher
Schlachtmann butcher
Schlachtwanter clothing wholesaler
Schlafbaas innkeeper
Schlaganfall stroke, seizure
Schlagfluß stroke
Schlieper knifemaker; cutler
Schlieter merchant
Schloß castle
Schlosser locksmith
Schlotfeger chimneysweep
Schlotthauer locksmith
Schmied smith
Schneider tailor
Schnitzer, Schnitzler woodcarver
Schopper ship's carpenter
Schornsteinfeger chimneysweep
Schosserheber tax collector
Schösser tax collector
Schotte peddler
Schottler turner; key maker
Schottilier turner; carpenter
Schreiber scribe, clerk
Schreiner cabinetmaker, joiner
Schriftsetzer typesetter
Schroder, Schröder tailor
Schröer tailor
Schröter tailor; carter; driver; cooper
Schubarth, Schuberth, Schubring shoemaker
Schuchard, Schucherd, Schuchmann, Schuckert shoemaker
Schuhmacher shoemaker, cobbler
Schule school
Schullehrer schoolteacher
Schultheiß, Schulze village mayor, head of town council
Schüssler bowl maker
Schuster shoemaker, cobbler
Schuwarte shoemaker
Schwäche weakness
Schwager brother-in-law
Schwägerin sister-in-law
Schwaiger shepherd
schwanger pregnant
schwarz black
schwarzer Tod black death; plague
Schwarzgiesser iron smelter
Schwein(e)hirt(h) pigherd
Schweisser welder
Schweiz Switzerland
Schweizer Swiss; also a dairyman
Schwendimann settler on recently burned woodland
Schwerdtfeger armorer
Schwester sister
Schwiegermutter mother-in-law
Schwiegersohn son-in-law
Schwiegertochter daughter-in-law
Schwiegervater father-in-law
Schwindsucht consumption
S.d. = Sohn des, der son of
sechs six
sechste sixth
sechsundzwanzig twenty-six
sechsundzwanzigste twenty-sixth
sechzehnhundert sixteen hundred
sechzehn sixteen
sechzehnte sixteenth
sechzig sixty
sechzigste sixtieth
See lake
Seelen souls
Seelenregister church membership list
Seelsorger minister, chaplain
Seemann sailor
Segner fisherman
Seifensieder soap maker
Seigner fisherman
Seiler rope maker
sein to be; his
seit since
Seite page
selige (the) late, blessed
September September
Sibber sieve maker
Sibmacher sieve maker
sich himself, herself, itself
sie she, they
Sie you
sieben seven
siebente seventh
siebenundzwanzigste twenty-seventh
siebte seventh
siebzehn seventeen
siebzehnhundert seventeen hundred
siebzehnte seventeenth
siebzig seventy
siebzigste seventieth
Sieder soap maker
siehe see
Sigrist sexton
sind are
so as, so, thus, such
Sohn son
Söhnlein, Söhnchen young son
Soldat soldier
Söldner mercenary soldier; day laborer
sollen should
Sonnabend Saturday
Sonntag Sunday
spät late (p.m.)
Spengler plumber; tinsmith
spur. = spurius, spuria illegitimate
Staat state
Staatsangehörigkeit citizenship, nationality
Staatsarchiv state archives
Stadt city
Stammbaum family tree, pedigree
Stand occupation, status, condition
Standesamt civil registrar’s office
starb died
Steinhauer stonecutter
Steinmetz stonemason
stellen place, put, impose
Stellmacher wheelwright
Sterbefälle deaths
sterben to die
Steuer tax
Stickfluß asthma
Stiefbruder half brother, stepbrother
Stiefkind stepchild
Stiefmutter stepmother
Stiefschwester half sister, stepsister
Stiefvater stepfather
Stillgeburt stillbirth
Straße street
Stunde hour
Sucht sickness, mania, rage
Süden south
S.v. = Sohn von son of


German English
T.d. = Tochter des, der daughter of
T.v. = Tochter von daughter of
Tabelle index, table
Tag day
Tagelöhner day laborer
Tagner day laborer
Tal, Thal valley
Tante aunt
Tapazier (wall)paper hanger
Taufe baptism
taufen to baptize
Taufpaten godparents
Taufschein baptismal certificate
tausend thousand
Testament will
Tischler cabinetmaker, furniture maker
Tochter daughter
Töchterchen young daughter
Töchterlein young daughter
Tochtermann son-in-law
Tod death
Todesart manner of death
Töpfer potter
tot dead
Totengräber grave digger
totgeboren stillborn
Trauung marriage
Trennung separation, divorce
tschechisch Czech
Tschechoslowakai Czechoslovakia
Tuberkulose tuberculosis
Tuchmacher cloth maker, draper
Tumor tumor



German English
u.d. = und des, und der and of
über about, concerning, over
überleben survive
Uhr o’clock, clock, watch
um at, about, around, concerning
unbekannt unknown
und and
und der and of
und des and of
unehelich illegitimate
ungarisch Hungarian
Ungarn Hungary
ungefähr about, circa, approximately
uns us
unter under, lower
Unterrichter judge
Unterschrieben signed
Unterschrift signature
Unterzeichnete the undersigned
unverheiratet unmarried
Urenkelkind great-grandchild
Urgroßmutter great-grandmother
Urgroßvater great-grandfather
Urkunde record, document
Ururgroßmutter great-great-grandmother
Ururgroßvater great-great-grandfather
ux. = uxor wife


German English
Vater father
verehelicht married
Verehelichung marriage
vergangen past
vergraben buried
verh. = verheiratet married
Verkäufer seller, vendor
verl. = verlobt engaged
verlebte deceased
verloben, sich to become engaged
Verlobte fiancée
Verlobter fiancé
Verlobung betrothal, engagement
Vermieter landlord, lessor
Vermögen estate, assets
Verpächter landlord, lessor
verrichtet performed
verschiedene various
Verstopfung constipation
verstorben deceased, defunct
Verstorbene the deceased
Verwaltung administration
Verwandten relatives
Verwandtschaft relationship
verwitwet widowed
Verzeichnis register, list, index
Vetter male cousin
vid. = viduus, vidua widower, widow
vielleicht perhaps, maybe
vier four
vierte fourth
vierundzwanzigste twenty-fourth
vierzehn fourteen
vierzehnte fourteenth
vierzig forty
vierzigste fortieth
Vogt steward, overseer
Voigt steward, overseer
Volkszählung census
volljährig of age, of legal age
vollzogen performed
von of, from, by
vor before; ago
vorherig previous, preceding
vorheriger Tag the previous day
vorläufig for the time being
vormals formerly
Vormittags in the morning
Vormund guardian
Vorname given name
Vorstadt suburbs, outskirts of town


German English
Wagner cartwright
Waise orphan
Wald forest, woods
wann when
Wappen coat of arms
Wappenkunde heraldry
war was
waren were
warum why
was what
Wassersucht dropsy, edema
Weber weaver
Weduwe widow
wegen because of
Wehmutter midwife
Weib wife, woman
weiblich female
weil. = weiland deceased
weiland deceased
Weiland the deceased
Weiler hamlet
weiß white
Weißgerber tanner
welche which
wer who
werden to become
West west
weyland deceased
wie how
Windpocken chicken pox
Wintermonat November
Wirt innkeeper
Wittib widow
Wittiber widower
Witwer widower
wo where
Woche week
Wochenbett childbed
woher from where
wohnen to live, residing
Wohnort place of residence
Wohnplatz place of residence
Wohnung domicile, residence
wollen to want
Wonnemonat May
Wörterbuch dictionary
wurde geboren was born
wurde getauft was baptized
würdig worthy
Wwe. = Witwe widow
Wwer. = Witwer widower


German English
Xber, Xbris December


German English
zählen to count
Zahnkrämpfe teething
Zahnung teething
zehn ten
Zehnt(en)buch tithing book
zehnte tenth
Zehnten tithes
zehrendes Fieber consumptive fever
Zehrung consuption
Zeit time
Zeuge witness
Ziegler brick maker
Zimmermann Carpenter
Zivilstandsamt civil registrar's office
Zöllner publican, tax collector
zu Hause at home
Zukunft future
Zuname surname, last name
zusammen together
zwanzig twenty
zwanzigte twentieth
zwei two
zweihundert two hundred
zwei tausend two thousand
zweite second
zweiundzwanzigste twenty-second
Zwilling(e) twin, twins
zwischen between
zwölf twelve
Zwölfer member of a council
zwölfte twelfth