Difference between revisions of "Flathead Indians"

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{{stub}} 
 
 
 
The Flathead were also known by the name Salish  
 
The Flathead were also known by the name Salish  
  
 
'''Ancestral homeland: '''western Montana and northern Idaho  
 
'''Ancestral homeland: '''western Montana and northern Idaho  
 
<br>
 
  
 
== History  ==
 
== History  ==
Line 11: Line 7:
 
==== Brief Timeline  ====
 
==== Brief Timeline  ====
  
*'''1806:''' Lewis and Clark Expedition&nbsp;made contact with the tribe  
+
*'''1806:''' Lewis and Clark Expedition made contact with the tribe  
 
*'''1840-1846:''' Jesuit missionary- Father Pierre Jean de Smet lived in the area  
 
*'''1840-1846:''' Jesuit missionary- Father Pierre Jean de Smet lived in the area  
*'''1855:''' treaty ceded land in Montana and Idaho  
+
*'''1841:''' St. Mary's Mission established by Catholics in Bitter Root Valley
*'''1872:''' ceded land
+
*'''1854:''' St. Ignatius Mission established on the Jocko River
 +
*'''1855:''' Hellgate Treaty ceded land in Montana and Idaho  
 +
*'''1872:''' ceded land  
 +
*'''1890-1891:''' Removed from Bitter Root Valley to Jocko Reservation
  
 
==== Brief History  ====
 
==== Brief History  ====
Line 20: Line 19:
 
The first recorded contact between the Flathead or Salish Tribe and non-Indian explorers occurred in 1806 when the Lewis and Clark Expedition passed through what was later to become Montana.  
 
The first recorded contact between the Flathead or Salish Tribe and non-Indian explorers occurred in 1806 when the Lewis and Clark Expedition passed through what was later to become Montana.  
  
Although Victor, the head chief of the Flathead, signed the Hellgate Treaty in 1855, the Flathead Tribe was allowed to remain in Bitter Root Valley until further surveys toi determine if there was a better&nbsp;place&nbsp;for a reservation for the&nbsp;tribe, rather than assigning them to the Jocko Reservation.<ref>[http://www.cskt.org/documents/gov/helgatetreaty.pdf Treaty of Hellgate], Treaty of July 16, 1855, 12 Stat. 975, Ratified March 8, 1859.</ref>  
+
After several requests were made made delegations from the tribe, the Catholics established a mission among the Flatheads in the Bitter Root Valley in the 1840s. That mission, called St. Mary's, closed in 1849, but another mission known as St. Ignatius was established in 1854.<ref>Catholic Encyclopedia</ref>  
  
In 1890, members of the Flathead Tribe were removed from the Bitter Root Valley to the Jocko Reservation, now known as the Flathead Reservation.<ref>'''Flathead Indians of Bitter Root Valley'''</ref>&nbsp;
+
Although Victor, the head chief of the Flathead, signed the Hellgate Treaty in 1855, the Flathead Tribe was allowed to remain in Bitter Root Valley until further surveys toi determine if there was a better place for a reservation for the tribe, rather than assigning them to the Jocko Reservation.<ref>[http://www.cskt.org/documents/gov/helgatetreaty.pdf Treaty of Hellgate], Treaty of July 16, 1855, 12 Stat. 975, Ratified March 8, 1859.</ref>
 +
 
 +
In 1890, members of the Flathead Tribe were removed from the Bitter Root Valley to the Jocko Reservation, now known as the Flathead Reservation.<ref>'''Flathead Indians of Bitter Root Valley'''</ref>  
 +
 
 +
The allotment of land to members of the Flathead Tribe was begun in 1904. Following that allotment, nearly 1/2 million acres passed out of tribal ownership as surplus land.
  
 
==== Reservations  ====
 
==== Reservations  ====
  
The principle reservation occupied by the Flathead Indians is currently called the [[Flathead_Indian_Reservation_(Montana)|Flathead Reservation]], formerly known as the [[Jocko_Indian_Reservation_(Montana)|Jocko Reservation]], because of its location on the Jocko River in northern Montana.
+
The principle reservation occupied by the Flathead Indians is currently called the [[Flathead Indian Reservation (Montana)|Flathead Reservation]], formerly known as the [[Jocko Indian Reservation (Montana)|Jocko Reservation]], because of its location on the Jocko River in northern Montana.  
  
 
==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe and/or Band  ====
 
==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe and/or Band  ====
Line 33: Line 36:
  
 
== Tribal Headquarters  ==
 
== Tribal Headquarters  ==
 +
 +
Confederated Salish &amp; Kootenai Tribes<br>42487 Complex Blvd.<br>PO Box 278<br>Pablo, MT 59855<br>Ph. 406-675-2700<br>Toll free 888-835-8766<br>Fax 406-675-2806<br>Email - info@cskt.org
  
 
== Records  ==
 
== Records  ==
Line 48: Line 53:
 
M234 RG 75 Rolls 962  
 
M234 RG 75 Rolls 962  
  
Roll Number
+
Roll Number  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
FHL&nbsp;&nbsp;  
 
FHL&nbsp;&nbsp;  
  
Film Number
+
Film Number  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
Post-1885 Census M595 RG 75 Roll 693  
 
Post-1885 Census M595 RG 75 Roll 693  
  
&nbsp;Roll Number
+
&nbsp;Roll Number  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
FHL&nbsp;  
 
FHL&nbsp;  
  
Film Number
+
Film Number  
  
 
|-
 
|-
Line 102: Line 107:
 
== References  ==
 
== References  ==
  
<references />
+
<references />  
  
 
==== Bibliography  ====
 
==== Bibliography  ====
Line 119: Line 124:
  
 
:Volume 1 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 1 -- Not yet published  
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>
+
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>  
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>
+
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>  
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4].<br>
+
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4].<br>  
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5].<br>
+
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5].<br>  
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6].<br>
+
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6].<br>  
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>
+
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>  
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8].<br>
+
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8].<br>  
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9].<br>
+
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9].<br>  
 
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10].  
 
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10].  
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11].<br>
+
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11].<br>  
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12].<br>
+
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12].<br>  
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>
+
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15].<br>
+
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15].<br>  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>
+
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>  
 
:Volume 18 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 18 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 19 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 19 -- Not yet published  

Revision as of 17:11, 25 February 2010

The Flathead were also known by the name Salish

Ancestral homeland: western Montana and northern Idaho

History

Brief Timeline

  • 1806: Lewis and Clark Expedition made contact with the tribe
  • 1840-1846: Jesuit missionary- Father Pierre Jean de Smet lived in the area
  • 1841: St. Mary's Mission established by Catholics in Bitter Root Valley
  • 1854: St. Ignatius Mission established on the Jocko River
  • 1855: Hellgate Treaty ceded land in Montana and Idaho
  • 1872: ceded land
  • 1890-1891: Removed from Bitter Root Valley to Jocko Reservation

Brief History

The first recorded contact between the Flathead or Salish Tribe and non-Indian explorers occurred in 1806 when the Lewis and Clark Expedition passed through what was later to become Montana.

After several requests were made made delegations from the tribe, the Catholics established a mission among the Flatheads in the Bitter Root Valley in the 1840s. That mission, called St. Mary's, closed in 1849, but another mission known as St. Ignatius was established in 1854.[1]

Although Victor, the head chief of the Flathead, signed the Hellgate Treaty in 1855, the Flathead Tribe was allowed to remain in Bitter Root Valley until further surveys toi determine if there was a better place for a reservation for the tribe, rather than assigning them to the Jocko Reservation.[2]

In 1890, members of the Flathead Tribe were removed from the Bitter Root Valley to the Jocko Reservation, now known as the Flathead Reservation.[3]

The allotment of land to members of the Flathead Tribe was begun in 1904. Following that allotment, nearly 1/2 million acres passed out of tribal ownership as surplus land.

Reservations

The principle reservation occupied by the Flathead Indians is currently called the Flathead Reservation, formerly known as the Jocko Reservation, because of its location on the Jocko River in northern Montana.

Additional References to the History of the Tribe and/or Band

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Flathead tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods.

Tribal Headquarters

Confederated Salish & Kootenai Tribes
42487 Complex Blvd.
PO Box 278
Pablo, MT 59855
Ph. 406-675-2700
Toll free 888-835-8766
Fax 406-675-2806
Email - info@cskt.org

Records

Correspondence and Census

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records

Pre-1880 Correspondence

M234 RG 75 Rolls 962

Roll Number

FHL  

Film Number

Post-1885 Census M595 RG 75 Roll 693

 Roll Number

FHL 

Film Number

Flathead Montana Superintendency, 1864-1952 Washington D.C. Rolls 488-518 - - -
Flathead Flathead Agency, 1875-1952 Seattle - - Rolls 107-16 575799-800, 576464-471

Removal Records

Those who signed consents to be removed from the Bitter Root Valley to the Jocko Reservation in 1890 are included in a list taken from the book entitled Flathead Indians of Bitter Root Valley, also available online.

Treaties

  •  1855  October 17, Territory of Nebraska, Treaty with the Blackfeet 
  •  1855  July 16, at Hell Gate in Bitter Root Valley,Treaty with Flatheads Etc., 


Vital Records

  • Flathead Agency, M595, births and deaths, 1924-1934, FHL Film: 576469 and births and deaths, 1927-1937, FHL Film: 576471.  FHL Film: 576468 also includes supplemental rolls of the Flathead (Montana) Agency

Important Web Sites

References

  1. Catholic Encyclopedia
  2. Treaty of Hellgate, Treaty of July 16, 1855, 12 Stat. 975, Ratified March 8, 1859.
  3. Flathead Indians of Bitter Root Valley

Bibliography

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published