Difference between revisions of "Flathead Indians"

From FamilySearch Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
m
(45 intermediate revisions by 4 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
{{stub}} 
+
To ge started in [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]]
  
The Flathead were also known by the name Salish
+
''[[Indians of Montana|Indians of Montana]] > Flathead Indians''
  
'''Ancestral homeland: '''western Montana and northern Idaho  
+
'''Alternate Names:''' Bitter Root Salish<br>{{infobox ethnic group
 +
|group = Flathead
 +
|image = [[Image:Flathead chief's granddaughter-AngelicLaMoose-inbeaded dress-atFlathead-Reservation,MT-byH.T.CorySept1913-No.27a.jpg|232x231px]]
 +
|poptime =
 +
<table style="background: none; width: 100%;" rules="rows">
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>1980</td>
 +
<td style="text-align: right;">3,771</td><td style="width: 2px;">{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
</table>
 +
<small></small>
 +
|popplace = '''Ancestral Homelands''': Western Montana and parts of northern Idaho, British Columbia, and Wyoming<br>
 +
'''Descendants''':<br>
 +
[[Flathead Indian Reservation (Montana)|Flathead Reservation]] in Montana, formerly the [[Jocko Indian Reservation (Montana)|Jocko Reservation]]<br>
 +
|status = Federally recognized
 +
|linguistic = not yet researched
 +
|cultural = not yet researched
 +
|related-c = Kootenai
 +
}}
  
<br>
+
=== Tribal Headquarters  ===
 +
 
 +
Confederated Salish &amp; Kootenai Tribes<br>42487 Complex Blvd.<br>PO Box 278<br>Pablo, MT 59855<br>Ph. 1.406-675-2700<br>Toll free 1.888-835-8766<br>Fax 1.406-675-2806<br>Email - info@cskt.org
 +
 
 +
*Tribal website for the [http://www.cskt.org/ Confederated Salish &amp; Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation of Montana]
 +
 
 +
=== History  ===
 +
 
 +
The first recorded contact between the Flathead or Salish Tribe and non-Indian explorers occurred in 1806 when the Lewis and Clark Expedition passed through what was later to become Montana.
 +
 
 +
After several requests were made delegations from the tribe, the Catholics established a mission among the Flatheads in the Bitter Root Valley in the 1840s. That mission, called St. Mary's, closed in 1849, but another mission known as St. Ignatius was established in 1854.<ref>Catholic Encyclopedia</ref>
 +
 
 +
Although Victor, the head chief of the Flathead, signed the Hellgate Treaty in 1855, the Flathead Tribe was allowed to remain in Bitter Root Valley until further surveys were made to determine if there was a better place for a reservation for the tribe, rather than assigning them to the Jocko Reservation.<ref>[http://www.cskt.org/documents/gov/helgatetreaty.pdf Treaty of Hellgate], Treaty of July 16, 1855, 12 Stat. 975, Ratified March 8, 1859.</ref>
 +
 
 +
In 1890, members of the Flathead Tribe were removed from the Bitter Root Valley to the Jocko Reservation, now known as the Flathead Reservation.<ref>'''Flathead Indians of Bitter Root Valley'''</ref>  
  
== History  ==
+
The allotment of land to members of the Flathead Tribe was begun in 1904. Following that allotment, nearly 1/2 million acres passed out of tribal ownership as surplus land.
  
 
==== Brief Timeline  ====
 
==== Brief Timeline  ====
  
*'''1806:''' Lewis and Clark Expedition&nbsp;made contact with the tribe  
+
*'''1806:''' Lewis and Clark Expedition made contact with the tribe  
*'''1840-1846:''' Jesuit missionary- Father Pierre Jean de Smet lived in the area  
+
*'''1840-1846:''' Jesuit missionary - Father Pierre Jean de Smet - lived in the area  
*'''1855:''' treaty ceded land in Montana and Idaho  
+
*'''1841:''' St. Mary's Mission established by Catholics in Bitter Root Valley
*'''1872:''' ceded land
+
*'''1853:''' United States terminated its relationship with the sovereign nations of Flathead by the U.S. Congress under House Concurrent Resolution 108.
 +
*'''1854:''' St. Ignatius Mission established on the Jocko River
 +
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/bla0736.htm 1855]October 17, Territory of Nebraska, Treaty with the Blackfeet&nbsp;
 +
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/fla0722.htm 1855] July 16, at Hell Gate in Bitter Root Valley,Treaty with Flatheads Etc.,land in Montana and Idaho was ceded.
 +
*'''1864-80:''' The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the [[Montana Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Montana Superintendency]]
 +
*'''1872:''' Ceded additional land
 +
*'''1890-1891:''' Removed from Bitter Root Valley to [[Jocko Indian Reservation (Montana)|Jocko Reservation]]
 +
 
 +
==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe and/or Band  ====
 +
 
 +
*Frederick Webb Hodge, in his [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/flathead_indian_tribe_history.htm Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico], gave a more complete history of the Flathead tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods.
 +
*The [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06097a.htm New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia] online also includes some history of the Flatheads.
 +
*An interesting T[http://mission.blackfoot.net/STUDENTS/Flathead%20Reservation/Adrianna's%20Website/Tribal%20History.htm imeline of tribal history] of the Flathead Tribe is also available online.
 +
*John Fahey. The Flathead Indians. Norman OK. University of Oklahoma Press. 1974. {{FHL|93059|item|disp= Book 970.3 Sa34f}}
 +
 
 +
The Flathead Tribe was under the jurisdiction of agencies, reservations, and superintendencies<br>
 +
 
 +
==== Reservations  ====
 +
 
 +
Reservations are tracts of land set aside for occupation and use by American Indians.
 +
 
 +
The principle reservation occupied by the Flathead Indians is currently called the [[Flathead Indian Reservation (Montana)|Flathead Reservation]], formerly known as the [[Jocko Indian Reservation (Montana)|Jocko Reservation]], because of its location on the Jocko River in northern Montana.
 +
 
 +
The reservation includes land in Flathead, Lake, Missoula, and Sanders Counties in Montana
 +
 
 +
==== Superintendencies  ====
  
==== Brief History  ====
+
[[Montana Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Montana Superintendency]]
  
The first recorded contact between the Flathead or Salish Tribe and non-Indian explorers occurred in 1806 when the Lewis and Clark Expedition passed through what was later to become Montana.
+
[[Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Oregon Superintendency]]
  
Although Victor, the head chief of the Flathead, signed the Hellgate Treaty in 1855, the Flathead Tribe was allowed to remain in Bitter Root Valley until further surveys toi determine if there was a better&nbsp;place&nbsp;for a reservation for the&nbsp;tribe, rather than assigning them to the Jocko Reservation.<ref>[http://www.cskt.org/documents/gov/helgatetreaty.pdf Treaty of Hellgate], Treaty of July 16, 1855, 12 Stat. 975, Ratified March 8, 1859.</ref>
+
[[Washington Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Washington Superintendency]]  
  
In 1890, members of the Flathead Tribe were removed from the Bitter Root Valley to the Jocko Reservation, now known as the Flathead Reservation.<ref>'''Flathead Indians of Bitter Root Valley'''</ref>&nbsp;
+
[[Idaho Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Idaho Superintendency]]
  
==== Reservations ====
+
=== Records ===
  
The principle reservation occupied by the Flathead Indians is currently called the [[Flathead_Indian_Reservation_(Montana)|Flathead Reservation]], formerly known as the [[Jocko_Indian_Reservation_(Montana)|Jocko Reservation]], because of its location on the Jocko River in northern Montana.
+
==== Agency Records  ====
  
==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe and/or Band  ====
+
The following [[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs]] had jurisdiction over the Flathead for the time periods indicated. BIA agencies were responsible to keep such records as census rolls, allotment (land) records, annuity rolls, school records, correspondence, and other records of individual Indians under their jurisdiction. For details, see the page for the respective agency.
  
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/flathead_indian_tribe_history.htm Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico], gave a more complete history of the Flathead tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods.
+
[[Flathead Indian Agency (Montana)|Flathead Agency]], 1854-1857, 1861-present<br>[[Washington East of the Cascades Indian Agency|Washington East of the Cascades Agency]], 1857-1861
  
== Tribal Headquarters ==
+
==== Census Records ====
  
== Records  ==
+
The Bureau of Indian Affairs compiled annual Indian Census Rolls on many of the reservations from 1885 to 1940. They list the names of individuals, their age, and other details about each person enumerated. For more information about these records, [[American Indian Census Rolls|click here]].
  
'''Correspondence and Census'''
+
The following table lists the census rolls for the Flathead Indians:
  
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
+
{| border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1"
 
|-
 
|-
! scope="col" | Tribe
 
 
! scope="col" | Agency  
 
! scope="col" | Agency  
 
! scope="col" | Location of Original Records  
 
! scope="col" | Location of Original Records  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
Pre-1880 Correspondence
+
Post-1885 Census M595 RG 75  
 
 
M234 RG 75 Rolls 962
 
  
 
Roll Number
 
Roll Number
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
FHL&nbsp;&nbsp;
+
FHL  
  
 
Film Number
 
Film Number
  
 +
|-
 +
| Flathead Agency, 1886-1939
 +
| Seattle
 +
| Rolls 107-16
 +
| FHL Film 575799-800, 576464-471
 +
 +
|}
 +
 +
<br>
 +
 +
==== Church Records  ====
 +
 +
Gregory Mengarind and Gloria Ricci Lothrop. Recollections of the Flathead Mission. Glendale, CA., Arthur H. Clark Co., 1977. {{FHL| 159222|item|disp=FHL Book 970.3 Sa34m }}
 +
 +
==== Correspondence Records  ====
 +
 +
There are several sets of correspondence between the supervising offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the local offices -- agencies, subagencies, etc. The correspondence is often historical in nature, including reports of the conditions among local groups of Indians, hostilities, plans for building facilities, activities of traders or missionaries, etc. Occasionally, there will be names of individuals but little detail about them. For more information about American Indian correspondence, [[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|click here]].
 +
 +
The following table lists some correspondence relating to the Flathead Indians:<br>
 +
 +
{| border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1"
 +
|-
 +
! scope="col" | Agency
 +
! scope="col" | Location of&nbsp; Original Records
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
Post-1885 Census M595 RG 75 Roll 693
+
Pre - 1880 Correspondence
  
&nbsp;Roll Number
+
M 234 RG 75 -- 962 Rolls
 +
 
 +
Roll Number  
 +
 
 +
<br>
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
FHL&nbsp;
+
FHL  
  
 
Film Number
 
Film Number
  
 
|-
 
|-
| Flathead
+
| Montana Superintendency, 1864-1880
| Montana Superintendency, 1864-1952
+
| Washington D. C.  
| Washington D.C.  
 
 
| Rolls 488-518  
 
| Rolls 488-518  
| -
 
| -
 
 
| -
 
| -
|-
 
| Flathead
 
| Flathead Agency, 1875-1952
 
| Seattle
 
| -
 
| -
 
| Rolls 107-16
 
| 575799-800, 576464-471
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
'''Removal Records'''
+
<br>
  
Those who signed consents to be removed from the Bitter Root Valley to the Jocko Reservation in 1890 are included in a list taken from the book entitled Flathead Indians of Bitter Root Valley, also [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/scripts/data/database.cgi?file=Data&report=SingleArticle&ArticleID=0020319 available online].
+
==== Enrollment Records  ====
  
'''Treaties'''
+
In 1905, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs assigned Special Agent Thomas Downs to investigate the enrollment of the Indians of the Flathead Reservation. The National Archives has microfilmed the resulting documents as their Microcopy M1350, consisting of 3 rolls of microfilm. These records are available at the National Archives and their Regional Archives, and at other research institutions, including the {{FHL|573254|title-id|disp=Family History Library}} in Salt Lake City. The records include census rolls for 1903, 1905, and 1908, as well as applications for enrollment and Agent Downs' field notes. It includes members of all tribes then living on the Flathead Reservation, including the Flathead, [[Kootenai Indians, Idaho|Kootenai,]] [[Pend d'Oreille Indians|Pend d'Oreille]], [[Kalispel Indians|Kalispel]], and Spokane tribes.
  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/bla0736.htm 1855]&nbsp; October 17, Territory of Nebraska, Treaty with the Blackfeet&nbsp;
+
==== Land Records  ====
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/fla0722.htm 1855]&nbsp; July 16, at Hell Gate in Bitter Root Valley,Treaty with Flatheads Etc.,&nbsp;
 
  
<br>'''Vital Records'''
+
[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/flathead/flathead_indian.htm Flathead Allotment Records, 1889] -- List of those signing consents for land transfer.
  
*Flathead Agency, M595, births and deaths, 1924-1934, FHL Film: 576469 and births and deaths, 1927-1937,&nbsp;FHL Film: 576471.&nbsp; FHL Film: 576468 also includes supplemental rolls of the Flathead (Montana) Agency
+
[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/patent/index.htm Montana Flathead Land Patents, 1908] -- Abstracts of names beginning A-D
  
== Important Web Sites  ==
+
Those who signed consents to be removed from the Bitter Root Valley to the Jocko Reservation in 1890 are included in a list taken from the book entitled Flathead Indians of Bitter Root Valley. An abstract of the list is also [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/scripts/data/database.cgi?file=Data&report=SingleArticle&ArticleID=0020319 available online].
  
*Flathead Indian Reservation [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flathead_Indian_Reservation Wikipedia]
+
==== Treaties  ====
  
== References  ==
+
During the latter part of the 18th Century and most of the 19th Century, treaties were negotiated between the federal government and individual Indian tribes. The treaties provide helpful information about the history of the tribe, but usually only include the names of those persons who signed the treaty. For more information about treaties, [[American Indian Treaties with the United States|click here]].
 +
 
 +
Treaties to which the Flathead Indians were a part were:
 +
 
 +
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/bla0736.htm 1855]October 17, Territory of Nebraska, Treaty with the Blackfeet&nbsp;
 +
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/fla0722.htm 1855] July 16, at Hell Gate in Bitter Root Valley,Treaty with Flatheads Etc.,
 +
 
 +
==== Tribal Office Records  ====
 +
 
 +
The Tribal Office is responsible for enrollment records, vital records, tribal police records, tribal court records, employment records and many others. They are an entirely different set of records from those kept by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Most of them remain in the Tribal Office. For details, contact that office at the address for the Tribal Headquarters listed above.
 +
 
 +
==== Vital Records  ====
 +
 
 +
Prior to the Indian Reorganization Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, through their agencies, may have recorded some vital events. Some were recorded on health forms, such as the "[[American Indian Sanitary Record of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc.|Sanitary Record]] of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc." Others were recorded as supplements to the "[[American Indian Census Rolls|Indian Census Rolls]]." Some were included in the unindexed reports and other correspondence of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
 +
 
 +
Some vital records for the Flathead Indians include:
 +
 
 +
*Flathead Agency, M595, births and deaths, 1924-1934, FHL  Film: 576469 and births and deaths, 1927-1937,FHL  Film: 576471. FHL Film: 576468 also includes supplemental rolls of the Flathead (Montana) Agency
 +
 
 +
=== Important Web Sites  ===
 +
 
 +
*Constitution and By-laws of the [http://www.narf.org/nill/Constitutions/salishconst/skconsttoc.htm Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation]
 +
*State Office of Indian Affairs website for the [http://www.tribalnations.mt.gov/cskt.asp Confederated Salish &amp; Kootenai Tribes]
 +
*Tribal website for the [http://www.cskt.org/ Confederated Salish &amp; Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation of Montana]
 +
*Wikipedia article for the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederated_Salish_and_Kootenai_Tribes_of_the_Flathead_Nation Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation]
 +
*Wikipedia article about the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flathead_Indian_Reservation Flathead Indian Reservation]
 +
 
 +
=== References  ===
  
 
<references />
 
<references />
  
==== Bibliography ====
+
=== Bibliography  ===
 +
 
 +
==== Flathead  ====
 +
 
 +
*Fahey, John. ''The Flathead Indians''. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1974. {{FHL |93059|item|disp= FHL book 970.3 Sa34f}}
 +
*Ronan, Peter. ''History of the Flathead Indians''. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Ross Haines, [1890]. {{FHL|93181|item|disp=FHL book 970.3 Sa34r also on microfiche 6093790}}.
 +
 
 +
==== General ====
  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view WorldCat 317923332]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1122745&disp=Reference+encyclopedia+of+the+American+I%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 R259e].  
+
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view WorldCat 317923332]; {{FHL|1122745|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 R259e}}.  
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=831087&disp=The+Gale+encyclopedia+of+Native+American%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 G131g].
+
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; {{FHL|831087|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 G131g}}.
  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
Line 121: Line 226:
 
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>
 
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>
 
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>
 
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4].<br>
+
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4}}.<br>
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5].<br>
+
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5}}.<br>
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6].<br>
+
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6}}.<br>
 
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>
 
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8].<br>
+
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8}}.<br>
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9].<br>
+
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9}}.<br>
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10].  
+
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10}}.  
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11].<br>
+
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11}}.<br>
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12].<br>
+
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12}}.<br>
 
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>
 
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15].<br>
+
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15}}.<br>
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>
 
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>
Line 140: Line 245:
  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1465222&disp=Encyclopedia+of+Native+American+tribes%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006].
+
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; {{FHL|1465222|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006}}.
  
[[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_North_America]] [[Category:Montana_Indian_Tribes]]
+
[[Category:Montana Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Idaho Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Wyoming Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Indians of Canada]]

Revision as of 12:44, 24 May 2012

To ge started in American Indian Research

Indians of Montana > Flathead Indians

Alternate Names: Bitter Root Salish

{{#if: Kootenai|
Flathead
Flathead chief's granddaughter-AngelicLaMoose-inbeaded dress-atFlathead-Reservation,MT-byH.T.CorySept1913-No.27a.jpg
Population
1980 3,771 

Regions with significant populations
Ancestral Homelands: Western Montana and parts of northern Idaho, British Columbia, and Wyoming

Descendants:
Flathead Reservation in Montana, formerly the Jocko Reservation

Status

Federally recognized

Linguistic Group

not yet researched

Cultural Group

not yet researched

Other Related Ethnic Groups

Kootenai

Tribal Headquarters

Confederated Salish & Kootenai Tribes
42487 Complex Blvd.
PO Box 278
Pablo, MT 59855
Ph. 1.406-675-2700
Toll free 1.888-835-8766
Fax 1.406-675-2806
Email - info@cskt.org

History

The first recorded contact between the Flathead or Salish Tribe and non-Indian explorers occurred in 1806 when the Lewis and Clark Expedition passed through what was later to become Montana.

After several requests were made delegations from the tribe, the Catholics established a mission among the Flatheads in the Bitter Root Valley in the 1840s. That mission, called St. Mary's, closed in 1849, but another mission known as St. Ignatius was established in 1854.[1]

Although Victor, the head chief of the Flathead, signed the Hellgate Treaty in 1855, the Flathead Tribe was allowed to remain in Bitter Root Valley until further surveys were made to determine if there was a better place for a reservation for the tribe, rather than assigning them to the Jocko Reservation.[2]

In 1890, members of the Flathead Tribe were removed from the Bitter Root Valley to the Jocko Reservation, now known as the Flathead Reservation.[3]

The allotment of land to members of the Flathead Tribe was begun in 1904. Following that allotment, nearly 1/2 million acres passed out of tribal ownership as surplus land.

Brief Timeline

  • 1806: Lewis and Clark Expedition made contact with the tribe
  • 1840-1846: Jesuit missionary - Father Pierre Jean de Smet - lived in the area
  • 1841: St. Mary's Mission established by Catholics in Bitter Root Valley
  • 1853: United States terminated its relationship with the sovereign nations of Flathead by the U.S. Congress under House Concurrent Resolution 108.
  • 1854: St. Ignatius Mission established on the Jocko River
  • 1855October 17, Territory of Nebraska, Treaty with the Blackfeet 
  • 1855 July 16, at Hell Gate in Bitter Root Valley,Treaty with Flatheads Etc.,land in Montana and Idaho was ceded.
  • 1864-80: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Montana Superintendency
  • 1872: Ceded additional land
  • 1890-1891: Removed from Bitter Root Valley to Jocko Reservation

Additional References to the History of the Tribe and/or Band

The Flathead Tribe was under the jurisdiction of agencies, reservations, and superintendencies

Reservations

Reservations are tracts of land set aside for occupation and use by American Indians.

The principle reservation occupied by the Flathead Indians is currently called the Flathead Reservation, formerly known as the Jocko Reservation, because of its location on the Jocko River in northern Montana.

The reservation includes land in Flathead, Lake, Missoula, and Sanders Counties in Montana

Superintendencies

Montana Superintendency

Oregon Superintendency

Washington Superintendency

Idaho Superintendency

Records

Agency Records

The following agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs had jurisdiction over the Flathead for the time periods indicated. BIA agencies were responsible to keep such records as census rolls, allotment (land) records, annuity rolls, school records, correspondence, and other records of individual Indians under their jurisdiction. For details, see the page for the respective agency.

Flathead Agency, 1854-1857, 1861-present
Washington East of the Cascades Agency, 1857-1861

Census Records

The Bureau of Indian Affairs compiled annual Indian Census Rolls on many of the reservations from 1885 to 1940. They list the names of individuals, their age, and other details about each person enumerated. For more information about these records, click here.

The following table lists the census rolls for the Flathead Indians:

Agency Location of Original Records

Post-1885 Census M595 RG 75

Roll Number

FHL

Film Number

Flathead Agency, 1886-1939 Seattle Rolls 107-16 FHL Film 575799-800, 576464-471


Church Records

Gregory Mengarind and Gloria Ricci Lothrop. Recollections of the Flathead Mission. Glendale, CA., Arthur H. Clark Co., 1977. FHL Book 970.3 Sa34m

Correspondence Records

There are several sets of correspondence between the supervising offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the local offices -- agencies, subagencies, etc. The correspondence is often historical in nature, including reports of the conditions among local groups of Indians, hostilities, plans for building facilities, activities of traders or missionaries, etc. Occasionally, there will be names of individuals but little detail about them. For more information about American Indian correspondence, click here.

The following table lists some correspondence relating to the Flathead Indians:

Agency Location of  Original Records

Pre - 1880 Correspondence

M 234 RG 75 -- 962 Rolls

Roll Number


FHL

Film Number

Montana Superintendency, 1864-1880 Washington D. C. Rolls 488-518 -


Enrollment Records

In 1905, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs assigned Special Agent Thomas Downs to investigate the enrollment of the Indians of the Flathead Reservation. The National Archives has microfilmed the resulting documents as their Microcopy M1350, consisting of 3 rolls of microfilm. These records are available at the National Archives and their Regional Archives, and at other research institutions, including the Family History Library in Salt Lake City. The records include census rolls for 1903, 1905, and 1908, as well as applications for enrollment and Agent Downs' field notes. It includes members of all tribes then living on the Flathead Reservation, including the Flathead, Kootenai, Pend d'Oreille, Kalispel, and Spokane tribes.

Land Records

Flathead Allotment Records, 1889 -- List of those signing consents for land transfer.

Montana Flathead Land Patents, 1908 -- Abstracts of names beginning A-D

Those who signed consents to be removed from the Bitter Root Valley to the Jocko Reservation in 1890 are included in a list taken from the book entitled Flathead Indians of Bitter Root Valley. An abstract of the list is also available online.

Treaties

During the latter part of the 18th Century and most of the 19th Century, treaties were negotiated between the federal government and individual Indian tribes. The treaties provide helpful information about the history of the tribe, but usually only include the names of those persons who signed the treaty. For more information about treaties, click here.

Treaties to which the Flathead Indians were a part were:

  • 1855October 17, Territory of Nebraska, Treaty with the Blackfeet 
  • 1855 July 16, at Hell Gate in Bitter Root Valley,Treaty with Flatheads Etc.,

Tribal Office Records

The Tribal Office is responsible for enrollment records, vital records, tribal police records, tribal court records, employment records and many others. They are an entirely different set of records from those kept by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Most of them remain in the Tribal Office. For details, contact that office at the address for the Tribal Headquarters listed above.

Vital Records

Prior to the Indian Reorganization Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, through their agencies, may have recorded some vital events. Some were recorded on health forms, such as the "Sanitary Record of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc." Others were recorded as supplements to the "Indian Census Rolls." Some were included in the unindexed reports and other correspondence of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Some vital records for the Flathead Indians include:

  • Flathead Agency, M595, births and deaths, 1924-1934, FHL Film: 576469 and births and deaths, 1927-1937,FHL Film: 576471. FHL Film: 576468 also includes supplemental rolls of the Flathead (Montana) Agency

Important Web Sites

References

  1. Catholic Encyclopedia
  2. Treaty of Hellgate, Treaty of July 16, 1855, 12 Stat. 975, Ratified March 8, 1859.
  3. Flathead Indians of Bitter Root Valley

Bibliography

Flathead

General

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published