Five Civilized Tribes
They became commonly referred to as the Five Civilized Tribes......
These tribes had Freedmen who were former African American slaves of tribal members or descendants of former slaves living among them.
In 1893 Congress established a commission to exchange Indian tribal lands in the southeastern United States for new land allotments to individuals in Oklahoma. The Commission to the Five Civilized tribes was called the Dawes Commission after its chairman, Senator Dawes. More than 250,000 people applied to this commission for enrollment and land. Just over 100,000 were approved.
The Dawes Rolls are very important for Native American Research for anyone who has native american ancestors who were from the five civilized tribes. The Dawes Rolls were and still are used to determine if people were native american or not.
The following is a description of the Dawes Rolls from the website:
The census card may provide additional genealogical information, and may also contain references to earlier rolls, such as the 1880 Cherokee census. A census card was generally accompanied by an "application jacket". The jackets then sometimes contain valuable supporting documentation, such as birth and death affidavits, marriage licenses, and correspondence. Today these five tribes continue to use the Dawes Rolls as the basis for determining tribal membership. They usually require applicants to provide proof of descent from a person who is listed on these rolls.
The following site will give you a step-by-step example of what you can find using the Dawes Rolls at the Family History Library. In this example, the name of the person is George Guess and he is from the Cherokee tribe.
To go to this site, click on Dawes Rolls.
Content of the Records
Enrollment Cards (also called census cards) include residence, roll numbers, names of family members, relationships, ages, sex, degree of Indian, enrollment date, place and number, parents and their enrollment date or plane, spouses, divorces, children or grandchildren. This is one page of information.
Applications for enrollmentinclude name, address, date of letter, file number, date received, subject, and action taken. Letters are with the applications. Applications are usually the most valuable. Sometimes they can contain a hundred pages.
Letter Logsinclude affidavits, vital records, letters, questionnaires, and decisions mentioning relatives, dates, and places.
Eastern Cherokee or Guion Miller Roll This is a list of Eastern Cherokees who applied for money awarded in 1905 because of a law suit.
The Indian Removal Act was signed May 26, 1830 by President Andrew Jackson. The Act instiated a policy of removal of American Indians tribes living east of the Mississippi River to land west of the river.
|Years of Emigration||
stayed in Sourtheast
|Information of Interest|
|Choctaw||Dancing Rabbit Creek Sep. 27, 1830||1831-1836||
19,554 including and 6,000 Black Slaves
|Seminole||Payne's Landing 1832||1832-1842||5,000 and Fugitive Slaves||2,833||250-500|
|Creek||Cusseta 1832||1834-1837||22,700 +900 Black Slaves||19,600||3,500 (disease after removal)||100s|
|Cherokee||New Echota Dec. 29,1835||1836-1838||21,500 + 2,000 Black Slaves||20,000 + 2,000 Slaves||2,000-8,000||1,000||
Jeremiah Evarts (Missionary)
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 1831
|Chickawaw||Pontotoc Creek 1832||1837-1847||4,914 +1,156 Black Slaves||4,000||500-800||100s||Tribe requested financial compensation of $3 million for their land:|
References (information in the above chart rearranged from a chart at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_removal )
1. Anderson, William L., ed. Cherokee Removal: Before and After. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1991. ISBN 0-8203-1482-X.
2. Ehle, John. Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation. New York: Doubleday, 1988. ISBN 0-385-23953-X
3. Foreman, Grant. Indian Removal: the Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1932, 11th printing 1989. ISBN 0-8061-1172-0
4.Prucha, Francis Paul. The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians. Voulme I. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1984. ISBN 0-8032-3668-9.