England Probate Records

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Probate records are court records dealing with the distribution of a person’s estate after death. Information recorded may include the death date, names of heirs, family members, and guardians, relationships, residences, inventories of the estate (including trade and household goods), and names of witnesses.

Probate records are very useful for family historians because

  •  they are often the only record for the time period before census records where all members of a family might be listed
  •  they can give vital information such as localities that the individual is associated with
  •  they were recorded much earlier than birth, marriage, and death registration.

Probate records were not created for every person who died. Courts probated estates (with or without a will) for fewer than 10 percent of English heads of households before 1858. However, as much as one- fourth of the population either left a will or was mentioned in one.

While probate records are one of the most accurate sources of genealogical evidence, they must be used with caution. For example, they may:

  • Omit the name of the eldest son who received his inheritance according to law; the names of others who had previously received their inheritance; or any deceased family members.
  • Mention children from a spouse’s previous marriage.
  • Mention a spouse who is not the parent of the children named.
  • Give inaccurate relationships of people mentioned in the document

Types of Probate Records

Will. Technically, a will conveys real (immovable) property to heirs after an individual’s death. A registered will is an official copy made by a court clerk. 

Testament. A testament conveys personal (moveable) property to heirs. The term, will, since early times has commonly referred to both a will and a testament.

Codicil. A codicil is a signed, witnessed addition to a will.

Administration, Letters of Administration, or Admon. These refer to a document appointing someone to supervise the estate’s distribution for someone who died "intestate" (without a will). This document gives very little information but may contain some useful clues. The administrator is usually a relative of the deceased.  
Letter of Administration.png

Admon with Will. This record grants administration to someone else when the executor named in the will is deceased or is unwilling or unable to act as executor. A copy of the will is attached.

Inventory. An inventory lists belongings and their values, including such items as household goods, tools, and personal items. Occupations are often mentioned.

Act Book. An act book contains day-by-day accounts of court actions, usually giving brief details of the probate matters dealt with. In the absence of indexes, these books help locate desired documents.

Bond. A bond is a written guarantee that a person will faithfully perform the tasks assigned to him by a probate court. The executor posted a testamentary bond, the administrator posted an administration bond, and the guardian of a minor child posted a bond of tuition or curation.

General Historical Background

The keeping of wills and probate documents began as early as the eleventh century, but there are few records before 1400. Probates were handled by the ecclesiastical courts until 1858.

Some of the key events affecting probate record keeping are:

1642–1660:  The Civil War disrupted the probate process. Parliament abolished the ecclesiastical courts in 1653 but restored them in 1661. Wills proved during this interruption are filed at the Prerogative Court of Canterbury.

1796–1857:  A tax was placed on all estates valued over £10. This was called an estate duty.

1858:  The Principal Probate Registry, a civil government system, replaced all earlier probate courts.

Laws and Customs

The English system historically has allowed a portion of a person’s property to be divisible by will or testament. That portion changed over time according to circumstances, locality, and number of surviving heirs. For example, the unrestricted right to dispose of personal property by will was granted in the province of York in 1693, and widow’s third (a widow’s right to one-third of her husband’s estate) was barred in 1833.

With the exception of apostates, heretics, traitors, and suicides, any free male over 14, unmarried female over 12, or widow of sound mind could leave a last will and testament. If land was part of the estate, a person had to be at least 21.

Wills were made primarily by the middle and upper classes, the majority of whom were nobility, gentry, merchants, or tradesmen. Most wills were left by males with property. Before 1882 a wife who died before her husband could not make a will except with her husband’s consent or under a marriage settlement created before her marriage.

When a property owner died without leaving a valid will, the next-of-kin or creditors may have received Letters of Administration (see "Types of Probate Records" in this section of the outline).

Until 1660 when a landholder died, his heir, if of age, had to pay a fee called "livery" to the Crown before taking possession of the land. If underage, the heir became a ward of the Crown. Crown jurisdiction was determined by an "inquisition post mortem." Records of inquisitions may list heirs, their relationships to the deceased, and land holdings. (See the "Land and Property" section of this outline.) The practice of selling the Crown’s guardianship to a third party led to the Court of Wards and Liveries, which was a source of funds for the government.

Before 1750 heirs often did not prove wills in order to avoid court costs. The will was often kept in case someone later objected to the property’s distribution. As a result, wills were sometimes probated many years after the testator’s death (one was as late as 76 years later). Some archives have collections of unproved wills. Other wills may be among family papers.

Until 1833 real property could be "entailed." This specified how property would be inherited in the future. An entail prevented subsequent inheritors from bequeathing the property to anyone except the heirs specified in the original entail.


When a father or widow died leaving minor children, relatives usually took the children without court sanction. Sometimes the court appointed a guardian or curator to look after the children’s interests until they were 21. If a child was under marriageable age (12 for girls and 14 for boys), guardianship was called "tuition." If the child was of marriageable age but under 21, it was called "curation."

The cities of London, Bristol, and Exeter had special orphans courts. Records from these courts appear in the Place Search of the Family History Library Catalog under:



Probating a Will

Usually the location of the deceased’s property determined which court had jurisdiction (see "Determining the Court" in this section of the outline). The probate process began by presenting the will to the court. The court recorded a probate act authorizing executors to carry out the provisions of the will. The original will was endorsed and filed in the court’s records. A handwritten copy was given to the executors. (Before 1600 the executors may have received the original.) The clerk may also have copied the will in a book of registered wills.

The administrator, or executor, had one year to produce an inventory of personal property, which the court recorded. Inventories were less common after 1730. Many before that date have been lost or destroyed.

If a person did not agree with how the court handled the will, that person could appeal to a higher court. This led to additional documents in the court of appeal, including assignation books (calendars of petitions of appeal, annotated with action taken) and other documents. Unless a complaint was filed, there were usually no further court records. Probating a will could take years, but it was usually completed in a few weeks.

Pre-1858 Probate Courts

Prior to 1858 the Church of England probated the estates of deceased persons. There were over 300 church probate courts in a hierarchy of jurisdiction and importance. A higher court had jurisdiction when the testator owned property within the jurisdiction of two or more lower courts. Usually the court with primary jurisdiction probated the will, but wealth, status, and convenience could have affected which court was used. The hierarchy of jurisdictions is as follows:

Peculiar courts:  Peculiar courts, manor courts, or other special courts had limited jurisdiction over small areas (sometimes just one parish). Most of England was not within the jurisdiction of any peculiar court.

Archdeaconry courts:  Archdeaconries were divisions of a Church of England diocese, and Archdeaconry courts were common probate jurisdictions in most dioceses. However, the diocese of York was divided into rural deaneries.

Bishops’ courts:  Also called Episcopal, Commissary, Diocesan, or Consistory courts, bishops' courts were the highest court within each diocese.

Courts such as Court of the Dean and Chapter or Court of the Cathedral often acted on the bishop’s behalf. Records for these cases are often filed with their own court records.

Prerogative Courts:  The prerogative courts of York and Canterbury had jurisdiction when the deceased’s property was in more than one diocese.

The Prerogative Court of Canterbury, the highest court of all, was used for wills of testators who died or owned property outside of England, foreigners who owned property in England, military personnel, persons having property in more than one probate jurisdiction, and often for wealthier individuals.

If a court’s decision was disputed, additional records may be found among later records of the same court or in a court of higher jurisdiction.

Courts of appeal:  There were three general courts of appeal. Appeals from the Prerogative Court of Canterbury were to the Court of Arches (of Canterbury). Appeals from the Prerogative Court of York were to the Chancery Court of the Archbishop of York, then to the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. Final appeals from all courts were to the Pope until 1533 and then to the Court of Delegates until 1831. After 1831 final appeals were made to the Privy Council.

Records of the Court of Arches start in 1660. Many of this court’s records are available on microfiche and are indexed in The Index Library. (Family History Library book 942 B4b, v. 85.)

Locating Probate Records

There are three steps to locating probate records.

  • Determine when and where the will might have been proved.
  • Determine the court or courts that had jurisdiction.
  • Search the indexes and records of the court or courts.

What You Are Looking For

You are looking for a pre-1858 probate record for one of your ancestors, which could be a will or an administration with related documents. The information you will find varies from record to record. The records may provide: 

  • Names of heirs.
  • Other family members.
  • Witnesses.
  • Guardians.
  • Relationships.
  • Residences.
  • Property names.
  • An inventory of the deceased's personal property.

Determining the Court

To determine the court for pre-1858 records, the Family History Library has a series of probate keys, (FHL book 942 S2ha Volumes 1–40; films 599217–222; fiche 6026312, 90 fiche).

Each probate key has two parts. The first is a research paper containing a color-coded map showing courts having jurisdiction over each area. The maps on the film and fiche copy of the probate keys are black and white, so it is not possible to use them to determine a court. It is necessary to use the paper copy of the maps. Many Family History Centers have paper copies of the maps (if a paper copy is not available, use other sources as indicated in the paragraphs that follow). At the Family History Library, use the book copy of the probate keys.

The second part of the probate key is a list of library call numbers for that county’s records. Many of the probate keys do not list recently acquired material. For a current listing of probate records and indexes, look in the Place Search of the Family History Library Catalog under:


A court may also be determined by using the sources listed under the heading "Records Not at the Family History Library" in this section. From 1796 to 1858, Estate Duty Indexes can be used to determine the court (see the heading, "Indexes" that follows for more information).

Ecclesiastical jurisdictions, which help determine the court, are given in Samuel Lewis’s Topographical Dictionary of England (see the "Gazetteers" section of this outline) and Frank Smith’s A Genealogical Gazetteer of England.

For more information, see 'Indexes' and 'Finding Records in the Family History Library' below.

Post-1857 Probate Courts

Principal Probate Registry

On 12 January 1858, a network of civil courts called probate registries replaced ecclesiastical probate courts. All wills and administrations are probated in the district courts or in the Principal Registry, the central court in London. The Principal Registry received copies of all the probates from the district courts. The calendar for the wills and administrations includes:

  • Name of the deceased.
  • Address of last residence.
  • Name of the executor or executrix.
  • Amount of the estate.

Wills and administrations are easy to search for after 1857 because the calendar is in alphabetical order for the entire country.  To learn more, read Probate Records and Wills and Death Duty Records, after 1858.

Estate Duty Wills and Administrations

Starting in 1796, a tax or death duty was payable on many estates with a certain value. The amount levied varied according to the relationship of the beneficiary to the deceased. Very small estates and those who died serving their country were excluded from paying the required duty. Estate duty abstracts may add considerable information not found elsewhere. They can show the bame, address and last occupation of the deceased; and the names the beneficiaries and their relationship to the deceased. These records are especially helpful for counties Cornwall, Devon and Somerset, since many of the records for the probate courts in those areas were destroyed during World War II.

A register could be annotated for many years, possibly listing date of death of the spouse, marriage and death dates of beneficiaries, births of children or grandchildren born after the duty was paid, and cross references to other entries.

The estate duty registers were grouped into two sections, the Prerogative Court of Canterbury and a number of district courts, collectively referred to as country courts. The districts were:

Bath and Wells




Read more about these records in the research guides produced by The National Archives in England.
Death Duty Records, From 1796.
How to Interpret Death Duty Registers.

Locating Probate Records

There are three steps to locating probate records.

  • Determine when and where the will might have been proved.
  • Determine the court or courts that had jurisdiction.
  • Search the indexes and records of the court or courts.


Ecclesiastical Courts (pre 1858)

Some court records have published indexes. Others have handwritten indexes filmed with the records. The index is often a "calendar", a list organized by date with a separate section for each letter of the alphabet. Surnames with the same first letter are listed together but are not in alphabetical order.

An extensive collection of probate indexes are part of the following work:

The Index Library. London, England: British Record Society, 1888– (Family History Library book 942 B4b).

The records of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, for 1384-1858, are indexed online through the website of the National Archives of the United Kingdom and their feature DocumentsOnline.

Other repositories and organizations, including family history societies, have created and published indexes, some online and some as booklets or on microfiche. To view a partial list, go to Your Archives. For those available in the Family History Library, go to the library's catalog and do a Place search for your county of interest and the topic of Probate Records.


Prerogative Court of Canterbury Wills Index 1750-1800

Bank of England Will Extracts Index 1717-1845
For links to other online indexes, go to the GENUKI website and click on the links for your county of interest and the topic of Probate Records.

Principal Probate Registry (1857-1957)

National annual indexes to all wills and administrations of the Principal Probate Registry from 1858 to 1957 are on film at the Family History Library. They give the deceased’s full name and last address, death date, probate type and date, and estate value.

Index film numbers are found in the Library's catalog.  Do a Place search for England and the topic of Probate Records--Indexes.  The record title begins "Calendar of the grants..."

The films may be viewed at the library or ordered through a family history center.

Estate Duty Wills and Administrations

The indexes to these records are useful for locating wills and administrations probated between these dates, even if you do not know your ancestor’s residence. The registers from 1796 to 1903 have been indexed on DocumentsOnline. The indexes for the same time period can also be searched on FindMyPast.

Indexes are on microfilm in the Family History Library. Click on one of the following links to find the film numbers in the catalog. Death duty register for abstracts of administrations and probates of wills for country courts, 1796-1811.

Abstracts of administrations in the country courts, 1812-1857.

Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 1796-1811; and administrations, 1796-1857.

Index to death duty registers in the Estate Duty Office, 1812-1903

Films may be viewed at the library or ordered through a family history center.

Will Beneficiaries

Some estimate that only 5-10% of the population left a will. Those persons named in a will, a beneficiary, account for a much larger portion of the population. A few indexes are being made available that identify the persons mentioned in wills. For a list of know indexes to will beneficiaries read on...

Finding Probate Records at the Family History Library

Ecclesiastical Courts (pre-1858)

The Family History Library has a large collection of probate records. Follow these instructions to find them.

  1. Go to the Family History Library Catalog.
  2. Click on Place Search.
  3. Type the name of a county in the first box. Type England in the second box.
  4. Click Search.
  5. Click on the link for the locality you want.
  6. Scroll down the list of topics, and click Probate records.
  7. Click on an appropriate title.
  8. Click View Film Notes in the top right corner to see the film numbers.

Principal Probate Registry

The actual wills are on microfilm for 1858 through 1925 and are listed in the Family History Library Catalog. Do a Place search for England and the topic of Probate Records. The record titles begin "Record copy wills..." There are two catalog records for the district registry wills and one for the Principal Registry.

Estate Duty Wills and Administrations

Many probate records from the counties of Devon, Somerset, and Cornwall were destroyed during World War II. For these and others counties are available at the Family History Library. Click on one of the following links to find the film numbers in the catalog.

Death duty register for abstracts of administrations and probates of wills for country courts, 1796-1811.

Abstracts of administrations in the country courts, 1812-1857.

Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 1796-1811; and administrations, 1796-1857.

Index to death duty registers in the Estate Duty Office, 1812-1903

Films may be viewed at the library or ordered through a family history center.

Records Not at the Family History Library

For some courts not all documents or time periods have been microfilmed. For a few courts, the library has no records at all. Sometimes a particular record was omitted from the filming. To obtain a copy of a record not at the library, contact the archive that holds the original records. For copies of wills after 1925 or administrations after 1857, write to:

York Probate Sub-Registry
Castle Chambers
Clifford Street
York Y01 9RG
Email: york.psr@hmcourts-service.gsi.gov.uk
Telephone: 01904 666777
Internet: http://www.lawontheweb.co.uk/basics/probateoffices.htm

When visiting England the office location is:

Probate Search Rooms
First Avenue House
42–49 High Holborn


For pre-1858 probate records, the following sources list dates and repositories where you may write for records not available at the Library:

Camp, Anthony J. Wills and Their Whereabouts. Fourth Edition. London, England: Anthony J. Camp, 1974. (Family History Library book 942 S2wa.) This book describes jurisdictions and lists records, time periods covered, and availability of indexes by repository.

Gibson, J. S. W. A Simplified Guide to Probate Jurisdictions: Where to Look for Wills. Third Edition. Solihull, England: Federation of Family History Societies Publications, Limited, 1985, updated 1988. (Family History Library  book 942 P23g 1985.) This lists probate courts and records with the location of and dates covered by original records.

Gibson, J. S. W. Wills and Where to Find Them. Chichester, England: Phillimore and Company, Limited, 1974. (Family History Library book 942 S2gw.) This discusses probates by county with a list of courts, records, and records offices. Includes basic maps and glossary.

Difficulties in Locating a Pre-1858 Record

You may have difficulty locating a probate record for one of the following reasons:

  • In many courts there are separate indexes for administrations and wills. Search both indexes to find a possible probate record in that court.
  • When a higher church authority made an official visit, the lower court was "inhibited" (prevented from acting). This was called an "ecclesiastical visitation." Records of estates probated during an ecclesiastical visitation are often with the records of the higher court.
  • If the court presiding officer was not present, another court probated the will. For example, the Court of the Dean and Chapter usually acted when there was no bishop.

Other courts, such as the Court of Common Pleas or the county quarter sessions, may have probated or received a copy of the will.

Technically, church courts did not have jurisdiction over real property. Some wills and many disputes over real property were handled by the Chancery Court of England. Some of the wills in this and other national courts are listed in:

A List of Wills, Administrations, etc. in the Public Record Office, London, England: 12th–19th Century. Baltimore, Maryland, USA: Magna Carta Book Company, 1968. (Family History Library book 942 S2po.)

An entirely different court may have been used for the convenience of the executor.

To overcome these problems, search the records of all probate courts having jurisdiction over the areas where the individual had property. You may also need to extend your search several years after the individual’s death.