Some occupations are more likely to have records about the people in those occupations than others. There are many records of people in trades, such as bootmakers, tailors, and so on.
To learn a trade, an individual had to be apprenticed. Records were usually created of the agreement between the master (the one doing the teaching) and the person (father, guardian) or the organization (parish) placing the apprentice.
A child could be apprenticed by his father or by the parish council if the child was an orphan or a pauper. A person was apprenticed between the ages of 7 and 18 years. An indenture was a legal agreement that bound the apprentice to serve a number of years, usually 7. Indentures usually contain the names of the apprentice and the master, the master’s trade and residence, the terms of apprenticeship, and sometimes the name, occupation, and residence of the apprentice’s father.
After learning the trade, the apprentice became a journeyman. A journeyman was an employee who received wages.
Master was the level after journeyman. A master was the most skilled craftsman.
Between 1710 and 1811 a tax was assessed on the masters of the many who were apprenticed. For more information about these tax records, see the Taxation topic page.
Apprenticeship books of Great Britain: Inland Revenue, town registers, Oct. 1711-Jan. 1811 and country registers, May 1710-Sept. 1808; and indexes to apprentices, 1710-1774 and indexes to masters, 1710-1762 See the following:
- Online index 1710-1774
British Origins has put up on their website the index to these apprenticeship records 1710-1774. [British Origins]
- The National Archives provides downloadable PDFs for these records for free. You do have to register, but once that is done, you can choose the files you want and download them to your own computer. Once that is done, you can search them page by page.
- The Family History Library
These records are on microfilm at The Family History Library at the following link ]
Often the craftsmen of the same trade banded together to regulate trade and protect their members’ interests. The organization they formed was a guild. Those belonging to the guild were given special privileges, such as voting, and were called freemen. In a city a freeman was also called a citizen. In a town or rural area, he was called a burgess.
The city livery companies developed from the craft guilds of the 12th to the 15th centuries. The word livery originally referred to the distinctive uniform granted to each company. It now also denotes a company’s collective membership.
Guild records contain lists of members, information on journeymen practicing in the town, and advancements from the rank of apprentice to journeyman and from journeyman to master. Contracts between masters and parents of apprentices may also be included.
Freemen records are more useful than apprenticeship records because they usually give ages, birthplaces, parentage, and occupations.
Records of Tradesmen
Guild records are usually among city or borough records or in the possession of the modern guild. Many are in London at the Guildhall Library. Chapter 14 in the following book explains guild records:
- A Guide to Genealogical Sources in Guildhall Library. Second Revised Edition. London, England: Corporation of London, 1981. (FHL book 942.1/L1 A3g 1981. BYU Harold B Lee Library book CS 414 .G84x 1988.)
Freemen and apprenticeship records are usually at the county record offices.
Many of the London Guild records have been indexed and are available:
London Guild Records Indexes Online
British Origins has an index of just under 500,000 names a this link for [London Apprentices 1442-1850]
The Family History Library Indexes and Records of London
The London Livery Company Apprenticeship Registers are in book form and indexes ]
The Family History Library has a good collection of books on the histories of occupations and guilds. The Family History Library has a very good collection of the London Guild Records on microfilm. ]
In early use, the term "profession" was limited to the law, the established Church, and medicine (these three often called the "learned professions") and sometimes extended to the military profession. Training was undertaken, not through apprenticeship, but at schools, colleges and universities, although the solicitors' branch of the law was subject to a special form of apprenticeship called 'articles' undertaken by articled clerks.
Members of the did not join guilds; they had their own associations, disciplinary bodies and publications. For details see:
- Doctors: Physicians, Surgeons, Dentists and Apothecaries in England
- Lawyers in England and Wales
- Clergy of Church of England (in England)
Definitions and Histories of Occupations
- General Register Office. Classification of Occupations, 1960. London, England: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1960. (Family History Library book Q 942 U2gr.)
- An online list is available on Rootsweb.ancestry.com
Definitions of occupations are given in Sir James A. H. Murray’s Oxford English Dictionary. (See England Language and Languages.)
Occupational histories, records, and related items are listed in the Place Search of the Family History Library Catalog under:
ENGLAND - OCCUPATIONS
ENGLAND, [COUNTY] - OCCUPATIONS
ENGLAND, [COUNTY], [PARISH or CITY] - OCCUPATIONS