Chippewa-Cree Indians

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Indians of Montana > Chippewa-Cree Indians

{{#if: Chippewa, Cree|
Rocky-Boy Sundance.jpg
2009 6,177 tribal members, 3400 on res.[1] 
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Regions with significant populations
Ancestral Homelands:

Rocky Boy's Reservation in Montana


Federally recognized since the 1890s as the Chippewa-Cree Tribe

Linguistic Group

not yet researched

Cultural Group

not yet researched

Other Related Ethnic Groups

Chippewa, Cree

Alternate names: Ne Hiyawak


The Chippewa-Cree Indian Tribe is a single entity in today's world, but is a combination of portions of the Chippewa Tribe and the Cree Tribe.

The Chippewa or Ojibway Indians are one of the largest groups of American Indians in North America. There are nearly 150 different bands of Chippewa in the northern part of the United States and in southern Canada (especially in Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan). The ancestors of the Chippewa portion of the Chippewa-Cree migrated from the Turtle Mountain area of North Dakota in the late 1800s[2].

The Cree nation is the largest group in Canada. That tribe had two divisions; Woodland Cree and Plains Cree. A small portion of this very large First Nation in Canada migrated south out of Canada, also in the late 1800s[3].

These two groups of the Chippewa and the Cree united in the 1890's and looked for a permanent home. At various times, all or part of them lived placed under the jurisdiction of the Blackfeet, Flathead, and Fort Belknap Indian Agencies[4].

During the early 1900's the tribes petitioned the government for a reservation, and in 1916 the Rocky Boy Reservation was established for the Chippewa-Cree Indians[5].

Under the Indian Reorganization Act, the Chippewa-Cree organized themselves under their Constitution and Bylaws as the Chippewa-Cree Indians of the Rocky Boy's Reservation, Montana. Their Constitution was adopted in 1935 and amended in 1973[6].

Brief Time Line

  • 1916: assigned to Rocky Boy's Reservation in Montana with the Plains Cree
  • 1935: organized under the Indian Reorganization Act
  • 1953: United States terminated its relationship with the sovereign nation of Chippewa, mandated by House Concurrent Resolution 108.
  • 1968: the American Indian Movement (AIM) was founded by three Ojibwa (Chippewa): Dennis Banks, George Mitchell, and Clyde Bellecourt
  • 1973: Constitution and By-Laws of the tribe was amended.

Additional References to the History of the Tribes

For pre-1916 history and record of the Chippewa see: Chippewa Indians
For pre-1916 history and records of the Cree see: Cree Indians

Tribal Headquarters

Chippewa Cree Tribe
RR1 Box 544
Box Elder, Mt. 59521
Phone: 406.395.4478 fax: 406.395.4497
Phone: 406.395.5705 fax: 406.395.5702



The following agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs had jurisdiction over the Chippewa-Cree for the time periods indicated. BIA agencies were responsible to keep such records as census rolls, allotment (land) records, annuity rolls, school records, correspondence, and other records of individual Indians under their jurisdiction. For details, see the page for the respective agency.

The agencies which had jurisdiction over a major portion of the Chippewa-Cree in the United States were:

Fort Belknap Agency, abt. 1890-1916
Rocky Boy's Agency, 1916-present

The following agencies may have had some records of Chippewa-Cree living among the Indians under their jurisdiction for the years indicated, until the Rocky Boy's Reservation was established..

Blackfeet Agency, abt. 1890-1916
Flathead Agency, abt 1890-1916


The Bureau of Indian Affairs compiled annual Indian Census Rolls on many of the reservations from 1885 to 1940. They list the names of individuals, their age, and other details about each person enumerated. For more information about these records, click here.

The following table lists the census rolls for the Chippewa-Cree Indians:

Rocky Boy Agency; M595, 1919-1939, FHL film: 581420


There are several sets of correspondence between the supervising offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the local offices -- agencies, subagencies, etc. The correspondence is often historical in nature, including reports of the conditions among local groups of Indians, hostilities, plans for building facilities, activities of traders or missionaries, etc. Occasionally, there will be names of individuals but little detail about them. For more information about American Indian correspondence, click here.


During the latter part of the 18th Century and most of the 19th Century, treaties were negotiated between the federal government and individual Indian tribes. The treaties provide helpful information about the history of the tribe, but usually only include the names of those persons who signed the treaty. For more information about treaties, click here.

Treaties relating to the combined Chippew-Cree Tribe would have been negotiated with the Chippewa Tribe or the Cree Tribe separately.

Tribal Office Records

The Tribal Office is responsible for enrollment records, vital records, tribal police records, tribal court records, employment records and many others. They are an entirely different set of records from those kept by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Most of them remain in the Tribal Office. For details, contact that office at the address for the Tribal Headquarters listed above.

Vital Records

Prior to the Indian Reorganization Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, through their agencies, may have recorded some vital events. Some were recorded on health forms, such as the "Sanitary Record of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc." Others were recorded as supplements to the "Indian Census Rolls." Some were included in the unindexed reports and other correspondence of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Some vital records for the Chippewa-Cree Indians include:

Rocky Boy's Agency, births and deaths, 1924-1939, M595, Roll 426, FHL film 581420

Important Web Sites


  1. Tribal Web Site for the Chippewa Cree Tribe
  2. Wikipedia article on the Chippewa-Cree Tribe
  3. Wikipedia article on the Chippewa-Cree Tribe
  4. Tribal Web Site for the Chippewa Cree Tribe
  5. Tribal Web Site for the Chippewa Cree Tribe
  6. Tribal Web Site for the Chippewa Cree Tribe




  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published