Difference between revisions of "Canada Census, 1881 (FamilySearch Historical Records)"

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{{FamilySearch_Collection
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{{breadcrumb
|CID=CID1804541
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| link1=[[Canada Genealogy|Canada]]
|title=Canadian Census 1881
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| link2=
|location=Canada}}<br>
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| link3=
 
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| link4=
== Record Description ==
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| link5=
 
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}}
The first national Canadian census was conducted on the day of April 4, 1881.  
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{{Canada HR Infobox
 
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| CID = CID1804541
Census schedules were taken on large sheets of paper with preprinted rows and columns. The schedules were organized by province and then by census districts and subdistricts.  
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| title = Canada Census, 1881
 
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| location = Canada  
The census contains the following nine schedules arranged within subdistricts:  
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| LOC_01 =
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| LOC_02 = 
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| loc_map =
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| record_type = Census
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| start_year = 1881
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| end_year = 1881
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| language = English
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| title_language = 
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| FS_URL_01 = [[Canada]]
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| FS_URL_02 = [https://familysearch.org/search/catalog/results?count=20&placeId=299&query=%2Bplace%3ACanada%20%2Bkeywords%3Acensus FamilySearch Catalog Keyword] 
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| FS_URL_03 = [[Canadian Censuses Online]] 
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| FS_URL_04 = [[Canada Census|Canada Census]]  
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| FS_URL_05 = [[How Canadian National Censuses Are Organized]]
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| FS_URL_06 = [[Canada Historic Maps]]
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| FS_URL_07 = [[Library and Archives Canada]]
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| FS_URL_08 = [[Canada History Links]]
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| FS_URL_09 = [[Find Ancestors in Canadian Census Records All Years|Find Ancestors in Canadian Census Records All Years]] 
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| FS_URL_10 =
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| RW_URL_01 = [http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/census/1851/Pages/about-census.aspx Canada Census, 1851]
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| RW_URL_02 = [http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/census/pages/census.aspx Library and Archives Canada]
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| RW_URL_03 = [http://globalgenealogy.com/countries/canada/searchable-data.htm Searchable Online Data Canadian Genealogy and History] 
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| RW_URL_04 =[http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/census/1881/Pages/about-census.aspx Library and Archives Canada] Free online images are available at this site. Use the information found in this FamilySearch index collection to search for the image online.
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| RW_URL_05 =
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| custodian = [http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/index.aspx Public Archives, Ontario]
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}}
  
 +
== What is in This Collection? ==
 +
The second national Canadian census was conducted on April 4, 1881.
 +
Census schedules were taken on large sheets of paper with pre-printed rows and columns. The census contains the following nine schedules arranged within sub-districts:
 
*Nominal return of the living  
 
*Nominal return of the living  
 
*Nominal return of the deaths within last twelve months  
 
*Nominal return of the deaths within last twelve months  
*Return of public institutions, real estate, vehicles, and implements *Return of cultivated land, field products, and&nbsp;plants and fruits  
+
*Return of public institutions, real estate, vehicles, and implements *Return of cultivated land, field products, plants and fruits  
 
*Livestock, animal products, home-made fabrics, and furs  
 
*Livestock, animal products, home-made fabrics, and furs  
 
*Return of industrial establishments  
 
*Return of industrial establishments  
Line 21: Line 48:
 
*Return of mineral products
 
*Return of mineral products
  
Following the Constitution Act in 1867, census taking became a federal mandate. The first census was set for 1871 and every ten years thereafter. Therefore, the second national Canadian census was conducted in 1881. Enumeration was by census district, except for Prince Edward Island, which was enumerated by lot number. Census districts were voting districts, not counties, although most have the same names as counties. For the most part, census districts were synonymous with cities and counties, while subdistricts were synonymous with towns, townships, and city wards. Villages, small towns, and parishes were generally enumerated as part of the township in which they were located. Census district and county boundaries were not always the same.
 
  
 
The national government of Canada has taken censuses every ten years since 1871 and every five years since 1971. The 1871 census covers the four original provinces: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario. The first coast-to-coast census was taken in 1881. Newfoundland was not part of Canada until 1949. For Newfoundland few 19th-century censuses that list names have been found. They mostly contain statistical summaries.  
 
The national government of Canada has taken censuses every ten years since 1871 and every five years since 1971. The 1871 census covers the four original provinces: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario. The first coast-to-coast census was taken in 1881. Newfoundland was not part of Canada until 1949. For Newfoundland few 19th-century censuses that list names have been found. They mostly contain statistical summaries.  
  
Since the boundaries varied from census to census, it is not easy to tell which census district an eastern Canadian township or western Canadian village was in. Contemporary maps of the census districts have been lost or destroyed.  
+
Since the boundaries varied from census to census, it is not easy to tell which census district an eastern Canadian township or western Canadian village was in. Contemporary maps of the census districts have been lost or destroyed.
 
 
Fifteen partial censuses of New France and nine of Acadia were taken between 1666 and 1754. Find microfilm numbers of Acadian censuses and book call numbers of published transcriptions in the Locality Search of the Family History Library Catalog under:
 
 
 
=== Citation for This Collection  ===
 
 
 
The following citation refers to the original source of the information published in FamilySearch.org Historical Records collections. Sources include the author, custodian, publisher, and archive for the original records.
 
 
 
{{Collection citation
 
| text= <!--bibdescbegin-->Canada Department of Agriculture. Canada Census, 1881. Public Archives Of Canada, Ottowa, Ontario.<!--bibdescend-->}}
 
 
 
== Record Content  ==
 
 
 
Key genealogical facts found in the index usually includes the following information:
 
  
 +
== What Can These Records Tell Me? ==
 +
'''Census records''' generally contain the following information:
 
*Full name  
 
*Full name  
*Age (can be used to calculate an approximate birth year)
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*Gender
*Sex
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*Age  
*Born within the last 12 months
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*Approximate birth year and birth place
*Birthplace
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*Marital status
 +
*Occupation
 +
*Head of Household
 
*Religion  
 
*Religion  
 
*Ethnic origin  
 
*Ethnic origin  
*Occupation
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*Town, village, township, or sub-district of residence
*Married or widowed
 
*Town, village, township, or subdistrict of residence
 
 
 
== How to Use the Records  ==
 
 
 
Since the census attempted to record all the people living in a household, it may identify individuals for whom other records do not exist.
 
 
 
==== Beginning Your Search  ====
 
 
 
To begin your search, it would be helpful if you knew the following information:
 
 
 
*Ancestor's name
 
*Birth place
 
*Approximate birth year
 
 
 
==== Searching the Index  ====
 
 
 
Fill in the requested information in the initial search page. This search will return a list of possible matches. Compare the information about the ancestors in the list to what you already know about your ancestors to determine if this is the correct family or person. You may need to compare the information about more than one person to find your ancestor.
 
  
==== Using the Information  ====
+
== How Do I Search This Collection? ==
 +
You can search the index or view the images or both. To begin your search it is helpful to know:
 +
*The name of your ancestor
 +
*The name of a relative or date of the event
  
Canadian census records are the best source for quickly identifying a family group and their residence. Use the residence, birthplace, and age given in the census for each person to search other record types.
+
=== Search the Index ===
 +
{{Search Collection Link
 +
| CID=CID1804541
 +
}}
  
==== Unable to Find Information? ====
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=== How Do I Analyze the Results? ===
 +
Compare each result from your search with what you know to determine if there is a match. This may require viewing multiple records or images.
  
If you haven't found any information about your ancestor, please consider the following tips to help further your research:
+
:{{Tip|More images are available in the FamilySearch Catalog at [https://familysearch.org/search/catalog/1804541 Canada Census, 1881]. Click on camera icon to see images.}}
  
*Search available indexes before using the census records. As indexes may be incomplete or incorrect, if you have reason to believe your ancestor should have been in the census, search the census even if your ancestor is not in the index.  
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== What Do I Do Next? ==
*Gazetteers published in the 1880s sometimes list the "electoral county" or census/voting district rather than the county where a city or village was located. If you still cannot determine the census district, you may need to search several neighboring census districts to find your ancestor.  
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=== I Found the Person I Was Looking For, What Now? ===
*These censuses list a large proportion of the population. Unfortunately, portions of some have been lost, and some geographical areas within the provinces were missed by the census takers.
+
*Use the information to find other records such as birth, christening, marriage, land and death records.  
 +
*Use the information to find additional family members.  
 +
*Repeat this process with additional family members found, to find more generations of the family.  
 +
*[[Canada Church Records| Church Records]] often were kept years before government records were required and are a good source for finding ancestors before 1900.
  
== Related Websites ==
+
=== I Can’t Find the Person I’m Looking For, What Now? === 
 +
*Try viewing the original record to see if there were errors in the transcription of the name, age, residence, etc.  Remember that there may be more than one person in the records with the same name.
 +
*Collect entries for every person who has the same surname.  This list can help you identify possible relations that can be verified by records.
 +
*If you cannot locate your ancestor in the locality in which you believe they lived, then try searching records of a nearby locality in an area search. 
 +
*Standard spelling of names typically did not exist during the periods our ancestors lived in. Try variations of your ancestor’s name, especially French versions.
 +
*Remember that sometimes individuals went by [http://usgenweb.org/research/nicknames.html nicknames] or alternated between using first and middle names. Try searching for [http://genealogy.about.com/od/first_names/fl/nickname-given-name-equivalents.htm these names] as well.  
 +
*Search in the [https://familysearch.org/search/catalog/results?count=20&placeId=299&query=%2Bplace%3ACanada%20%2Bkeywords%3Acensus FamilySearch Library Catalog]
  
[http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/databases/census-1881/index-e.html Library and Archives Canada]
+
== Known Issues With This Collection  ==
  
Free online images are available at this site. Use the information found in this FamilySearch index collection to search for the image online.  
+
{| width="320" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border=".5" style="float:right;font-size:8pt"
 +
|-
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| bgcolor="#fff3e7" | [[Image:Important.png|60x60px|Important.png]]
 +
| bgcolor="#fff3e7" style="vertical-align:top; line-height:125%; padding-top:8px" | '''Problems with this collection?'''<br>[https://familysearch.org/ask/salesforce/viewArticle?urlname=Canada-Census-1881-known-issues&lang=en See a list of known issues, workarounds, tips, restrictions, future fixes, news and other helpful information.]
 +
|}
  
== Related Wiki Articles  ==
+
For a full list of all known issues associated with this collection see the attached [https://familysearch.org/ask/salesforce/viewArticle?urlname=Canada-Census-1881-known-issues&lang=en article]. If you encounter additional problems, please email them to [mailto:support@familysearch.org support@familysearch.org]. Please include the full path to the link and a description of the problem in your e-mail. Your assistance will help ensure that future reworks will be considered.
  
*[[Canada|Canada]]
+
== Citing This Collection  ==
*[[Canada Census|Canada Census]]
 
  
== Contributions to This Article  ==
+
Citations help you keep track of places you have searched and sources you have found. Identifying your sources helps others find the records you used.
  
{{Contributor_invite}}
+
;Collection Citation:
 +
"Canada Census, 1881." Database. <i>FamilySearch</i>. <nowiki>http://FamilySearch.org</nowiki> : accessed 2017. Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
  
== Citing FamilySearch Historical Collections  ==
+
{{Record_Citation}}
  
When you copy information from a record, you should list where you found the information. This will help you or others to find the record again. It is also good to keep track of records where you did not find information, including the names of the people you looked for in the records.
+
'''[[#top|Top of Page]]'''
  
A suggested format for keeping track of records that you have searched is found in the wiki article [[Help:How to Cite FamilySearch Collections|Help:How to Cite FamilySearch Collections]].
+
== How Can I Contribute to the FamilySearch Wiki? ==
 +
{{Contributor_invite}}
  
[[Category:Canada_census]]
+
[[Category:Canada Census]]
 +
{{H-langs|en=Canada Census, 1881 (FamilySearch Historical Records)|pt=Canadá, Censo, 1881 (Registros Históricos do FamilySearch)}}

Latest revision as of 18:26, 7 December 2017

Canada
Access the Records
Canada Census, 1881 .
CID1804541
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This article describes a collection of records at FamilySearch.org.
Canada
Canada flag.png
Flag of Canada
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Record Description
Record Type Census
Collection years 1881-1881
Languages English
Title in the Language
FamilySearch Resources
Related Websites
  • Library and Archives Canada Free online images are available at this site. Use the information found in this FamilySearch index collection to search for the image online.
Archive
Public Archives, Ontario


What is in This Collection?

The second national Canadian census was conducted on April 4, 1881. Census schedules were taken on large sheets of paper with pre-printed rows and columns. The census contains the following nine schedules arranged within sub-districts:

  • Nominal return of the living
  • Nominal return of the deaths within last twelve months
  • Return of public institutions, real estate, vehicles, and implements *Return of cultivated land, field products, plants and fruits
  • Livestock, animal products, home-made fabrics, and furs
  • Return of industrial establishments
  • Return of products of the forest
  • Return of shipping and fisheries
  • Return of mineral products


The national government of Canada has taken censuses every ten years since 1871 and every five years since 1971. The 1871 census covers the four original provinces: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario. The first coast-to-coast census was taken in 1881. Newfoundland was not part of Canada until 1949. For Newfoundland few 19th-century censuses that list names have been found. They mostly contain statistical summaries.

Since the boundaries varied from census to census, it is not easy to tell which census district an eastern Canadian township or western Canadian village was in. Contemporary maps of the census districts have been lost or destroyed.

What Can These Records Tell Me?

Census records generally contain the following information:

  • Full name
  • Gender
  • Age
  • Approximate birth year and birth place
  • Marital status
  • Occupation
  • Head of Household
  • Religion
  • Ethnic origin
  • Town, village, township, or sub-district of residence

How Do I Search This Collection?

You can search the index or view the images or both. To begin your search it is helpful to know:

  • The name of your ancestor
  • The name of a relative or date of the event

Search the Index

Search by name by visiting the Collection Page.
  1. Fill in the search boxes on the Collection Page with the information you have
  2. Click Search to show possible matches


How Do I Analyze the Results?

Compare each result from your search with what you know to determine if there is a match. This may require viewing multiple records or images.

What Do I Do Next?

I Found the Person I Was Looking For, What Now?

  • Use the information to find other records such as birth, christening, marriage, land and death records.
  • Use the information to find additional family members.
  • Repeat this process with additional family members found, to find more generations of the family.
  • Church Records often were kept years before government records were required and are a good source for finding ancestors before 1900.

I Can’t Find the Person I’m Looking For, What Now?

  • Try viewing the original record to see if there were errors in the transcription of the name, age, residence, etc. Remember that there may be more than one person in the records with the same name.
  • Collect entries for every person who has the same surname. This list can help you identify possible relations that can be verified by records.
  • If you cannot locate your ancestor in the locality in which you believe they lived, then try searching records of a nearby locality in an area search.
  • Standard spelling of names typically did not exist during the periods our ancestors lived in. Try variations of your ancestor’s name, especially French versions.
  • Remember that sometimes individuals went by nicknames or alternated between using first and middle names. Try searching for these names as well.
  • Search in the FamilySearch Library Catalog

Known Issues With This Collection

Important.png Problems with this collection?
See a list of known issues, workarounds, tips, restrictions, future fixes, news and other helpful information.

For a full list of all known issues associated with this collection see the attached article. If you encounter additional problems, please email them to support@familysearch.org. Please include the full path to the link and a description of the problem in your e-mail. Your assistance will help ensure that future reworks will be considered.

Citing This Collection

Citations help you keep track of places you have searched and sources you have found. Identifying your sources helps others find the records you used.

Collection Citation

"Canada Census, 1881." Database. FamilySearch. http://FamilySearch.org : accessed 2017. Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

Record Citation:
When looking at a record, the citation is found below the record.

Top of Page

How Can I Contribute to the FamilySearch Wiki?

We welcome user additions to FamilySearch Historical Records wiki articles. We are looking for additional information that will help readers understand the topic and better use the available records. We also need translations for collection titles and images in articles about records written in languages other than English. For specific needs, please visit WikiProject FamilySearch Records.

Please follow these guidelines as you make changes. Thank you for any contributions you may provide.