Difference between revisions of "California Census"

From FamilySearch Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(16 intermediate revisions by 8 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
''[[United States|United States ]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[United States Census|U.S. Census ]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[California|California]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[California_Census|Census]]'' {{Adoption_CA_State_Genealogical_Alliance}}  
+
''[[United States|United States ]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png|go to]]  [[United States Census|U.S. Census ]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png|go to]]  [[California|California]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png|go to]]  [[California_Census|Census]]'' {{Adoption_CA_State_Genealogical_Alliance}}  
  
{| class="FCK__ShowTableBorders" border="0" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" width="100%"
+
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="0" width="100%" class="FCK__ShowTableBorders"
 
|-
 
|-
 
| width="44%" | __TOC__  
 
| width="44%" | __TOC__  
| valign="middle" | <center><font size="+1">'''Tips'''</font></center>
+
| valign="middle" | <center><font size="+1">'''Tips'''</font></center>  
 
*If at first you don't find a name, try again under [[Spelling Substitution Tables for the United States and Canada|another spelling]].  
 
*If at first you don't find a name, try again under [[Spelling Substitution Tables for the United States and Canada|another spelling]].  
 
*[[Copying Sources|Photocopy]] each ancestor's census. Identify where you found it.  
 
*[[Copying Sources|Photocopy]] each ancestor's census. Identify where you found it.  
Line 11: Line 11:
 
*Study&nbsp;others in the same household, neighbors, and anyone with the similar names nearby on the census in [[Research a Family in Community Context|community context]].
 
*Study&nbsp;others in the same household, neighbors, and anyone with the similar names nearby on the census in [[Research a Family in Community Context|community context]].
  
<br>
+
<br>  
  
 
*For a list of the exact date of each federal census, [[California Censuses Existing and Lost|click here]].
 
*For a list of the exact date of each federal census, [[California Censuses Existing and Lost|click here]].
Line 23: Line 23:
 
=== Federal population schedules  ===
 
=== Federal population schedules  ===
  
{| class="FCK__ShowTableBorders" border="0" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" width="745"
+
==== Microfilm Images  ====
 +
 
 +
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="0" width="745" class="FCK__ShowTableBorders"
 
|+ '''Federal Census Microfilms Available from the [[Family History Library|Family History Library]]'''  
 
|+ '''Federal Census Microfilms Available from the [[Family History Library|Family History Library]]'''  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1940 N/A  
 
| 1940 N/A  
| [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=646949&disp=California%2C+1910+federal+census+%3A+so%20%20&columns=*,0,0 1910 and Soundex]
+
| {{FHL|646949|title-id|disp=1910 and Soundex}}
| [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=698886&disp=California%2C+1870+federal+census+%3A+po%20%20&columns=*,0,0 1870&nbsp;]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
+
| {{FHL|698886|title-id|disp=1870&nbsp;}}&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
|-
 
| [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1034478&disp=California%2C+1930+federal+census%20%20&columns=*,0,0 1930]
 
| [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=647555&disp=California%2C+1900+federal+census+%3A+so%20%20&columns=*,0,0 1900 and Soundex]
 
| [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=704546&disp=California%2C+1860+federal+census+%3A+po%20%20&columns=*,0,0 1860]
 
|-
 
| [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=555684&disp=California%2C+1920+federal+census+%3A+so%20%20&columns=*,0,0 1920&nbsp;and Soundex]
 
| [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=670368&disp=California%2C+1880+federal+census+%3A+so%20%20&columns=*,0,0 1880 and Soundex]
 
| [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=744471&disp=California%2C+1850+federal+census+%3A+po%20%20&columns=*,0,0 1850]
 
|-
 
| [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=646949&disp=California%2C+1910+federal+census+%3A+so%20%20&columns=*,0,0]
 
| [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=704546&disp=California%2C+1860+federal+census+%3A+po%20%20&columns=*,0,0]
 
| &nbsp;
 
|}
 
 
 
<br>
 
 
 
{| class="FCK__ShowTableBorders" border="0" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" width="745"
 
|+ '''Federal Census Microfilms Available from the [[National Archives and Records Administration|National Archives]]'''
 
|-
 
| 1940 N/A
 
| [http://www.archives.gov/publications/microfilm-catalogs/census/1910/part-03.html#california 1910 T624]&nbsp;and [http://www.archives.gov/publications/microfilm-catalogs/census/1910/part-01.html#california Soundex T1261]
 
| [http://www.archives.gov/publications/microfilm-catalogs/census/1790-1890/part-05.html#california 1870 M593]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
 
 
|-
 
|-
| [http://1930census.archives.gov/stateSearch.asp 1930 T626]
+
| {{FHL|1034478|title-id|disp=1930}}
| [http://www.archives.gov/publications/microfilm-catalogs/census/1900/part-07.html#california 1900 T623]&nbsp;and [http://www.archives.gov/publications/microfilm-catalogs/census/1900/part-02.html#california Soundex T1034]
+
| {{FHL|647555|title-id|disp=1900 and Soundex}}
| [http://www.archives.gov/publications/microfilm-catalogs/census/1790-1890/part-04.html#california 1860 M653]
+
| {{FHL|704546|title-id|disp=1860}}
 
|-
 
|-
| [http://www.archives.gov/publications/microfilm-catalogs/census/1920/part-07.html#california 1920 T625]&nbsp;and [http://www.archives.gov/publications/microfilm-catalogs/census/1920/part-02.html#california Soundex M1551]
+
| {{FHL|555684|title-id|disp=1920&nbsp;and Soundex}}
| [http://www.archives.gov/publications/microfilm-catalogs/census/1790-1890/part-07.html#california 1880 T9] and [http://www.archives.gov/publications/microfilm-catalogs/census/1790-1890/part-06.html#california Soundex T737]
+
| {{FHL|670368|title-id|disp=1880 and Soundex}}
| [http://www.archives.gov/publications/microfilm-catalogs/census/1790-1890/part-03.html#california 1850 M432]
+
| {{FHL|744471|title-id|disp=1850}}
|-
 
| &nbsp;
 
|
 
| &nbsp;
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
<br>
+
<br>  
  
 
==== Indexes: fiche, film, or book  ====
 
==== Indexes: fiche, film, or book  ====
Line 75: Line 51:
 
==== Online indexes and images  ====
 
==== Online indexes and images  ====
  
{| border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" width="77%" align="center"
+
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1" width="77%" align="center"
 
|-
 
|-
| bgcolor="#ff9900" colspan="11" align="center" | <font size="+1">'''Online Federal Non-Population Schedules for California'''</font>
+
| bgcolor="#ff9900" align="center" colspan="11" | <font size="+1">'''Online Federal Non-Population Schedules for California'''</font>
 
|-
 
|-
| bgcolor="#ff9900" colspan="2" | <br>
+
| bgcolor="#ff9900" colspan="2" | <br>  
 
| bgcolor="#ff9966" align="center" | '''Free'''  
 
| bgcolor="#ff9966" align="center" | '''Free'''  
| bgcolor="#cccccc" colspan="3" align="center" | '''Free at Some Libraries'''(usually&nbsp;with&nbsp;library&nbsp;card)  
+
| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" colspan="3" | '''Free at Some Libraries'''(usually&nbsp;with&nbsp;library&nbsp;card)  
 
| bgcolor="#ff9900" align="center" | '''Pay'''
 
| bgcolor="#ff9900" align="center" | '''Pay'''
 
|-
 
|-
Line 94: Line 70:
 
| '''1880'''  
 
| '''1880'''  
 
| width="20%" | Defective  
 
| width="20%" | Defective  
| align="center" | -
+
| align="center" | [https://www.familysearch.org/search/collection/show#uri=http://www.familysearch.org/searchapi/search/collection/1417683 Link]
 
| align="center" | -  
 
| align="center" | -  
 
| align="center" | [http://search.ancestryinstitution.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1634 Link]  
 
| align="center" | [http://search.ancestryinstitution.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1634 Link]  
Line 102: Line 78:
 
| '''1880'''  
 
| '''1880'''  
 
| width="20%" | Mortality  
 
| width="20%" | Mortality  
| align="center" | -
+
| align="center" | [https://www.familysearch.org/search/collection/show#uri=http://www.familysearch.org/searchapi/search/collection/1417683 Link]
 
| align="center" | -  
 
| align="center" | -  
 
| align="center" | [http://search.ancestryinstitution.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]  
 
| align="center" | [http://search.ancestryinstitution.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]  
Line 110: Line 86:
 
| '''1870'''  
 
| '''1870'''  
 
| Mortality  
 
| Mortality  
| align="center" | -
+
| align="center" | [https://www.familysearch.org/search/collection/show#uri=http://www.familysearch.org/searchapi/search/collection/1438024 Link]
 
| align="center" | -  
 
| align="center" | -  
 
| align="center" | [http://search.ancestryinstitution.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]  
 
| align="center" | [http://search.ancestryinstitution.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]  
Line 118: Line 94:
 
| '''1860'''  
 
| '''1860'''  
 
| Mortality  
 
| Mortality  
| align="center" | -
+
| align="center" | [https://www.familysearch.org/search/collection/show#uri=http://www.familysearch.org/searchapi/search/collection/1473181 Link]
 
| align="center" | -  
 
| align="center" | -  
 
| align="center" | [http://search.ancestryinstitution.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]  
 
| align="center" | [http://search.ancestryinstitution.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]  
Line 126: Line 102:
 
| '''1850'''  
 
| '''1850'''  
 
| Mortality  
 
| Mortality  
| align="center" | [http://pilot.familysearch.org/recordsearch/start.html#p=collectionDetails;c=1420441 Link]  
+
| align="center" | [https://www.familysearch.org/search/collection/show#uri=http://www.familysearch.org/searchapi/search/collection/1401638 Link]  
 
| align="center" | -  
 
| align="center" | -  
 
| align="center" | [http://search.ancestryinstitution.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]  
 
| align="center" | [http://search.ancestryinstitution.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]  
Line 135: Line 111:
 
==== Microfilm images  ====
 
==== Microfilm images  ====
  
'''[[Family History Library|Family History Library]] Federal Census Non-Population Schedule Microfilms for California'''  
+
[[Family History Library|'''Family History Library''']]&nbsp;'''Federal Census Non-Population Schedule Microfilms for California'''  
  
*[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=321807&disp=Special+census+of+Indians%2C+1880%20%20&columns=*,0,0 1880 Special census of Indians]
+
*1880 Special census of Indians {{FHL|321807|item}}
  
<br>'''[[National Archives and Records Administration|National Archives]] Federal Census [http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/census/nonpopulation/california.html Non-Population Schedule ]Microfilms for California'''  
+
[[National Archives and Records Administration|'''National Archives''']]'''&nbsp;Federal Census '''[http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/census/nonpopulation/california.html '''Non-Population Schedule''']'''Microfilms for California'''  
  
 
*1935 Census of Business
 
*1935 Census of Business
 
:Schedules of Advertising Agencies
 
:Schedules of Banking and Financial Institutions
 
:Schedules of Miscellaneous Enterprises
 
:Schedules of Motor Trucking for Hire
 
:Schedules of Public Warehousing
 
:Schedules of Radio Broadcasting Stations
 
  
 
==== Indexes: fiche, film, or book  ====
 
==== Indexes: fiche, film, or book  ====
Line 156: Line 125:
 
=== State, territorial, and colonial censuses  ===
 
=== State, territorial, and colonial censuses  ===
  
{| border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" width="100%"
+
California often took censuses in the years between the federal censuses, the dates are listed below. State census records may have columns that were different or more unusual than those found on federal censuses. The responses and years of coverage may give additional information on the family.
 +
 
 +
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1" width="100%"
 
|+ '''California'''  
 
|+ '''California'''  
 
|-
 
|-
Line 187: Line 158:
  
 
*The California State Library and the Family History Library have copies of a state census of '''1852''' {{FHL|909229}}-909234. This census gives information on the entire household, including an individual's state or country of birth and last residence.
 
*The California State Library and the Family History Library have copies of a state census of '''1852''' {{FHL|909229}}-909234. This census gives information on the entire household, including an individual's state or country of birth and last residence.
 +
 +
'''A wiki article describing an online collection is found at:'''
 +
 +
[[California 1852 State Census (FamilySearch Historical Records)|California 1852 State Census (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
  
 
*Pre-statehood lists (called padrons) of Spanish, Mexican, and Indian residents have been published in The Quarterly (Historical Society of Southern California), Volumes 15, 18, 41-43, 54 {{FHL|979.4 B2s}}. Especially helpful are the Los Angeles censuses of '''1790, 1836, and 1844'''. The original records are scattered among various archives. The Family History Library has copies on microfilm.
 
*Pre-statehood lists (called padrons) of Spanish, Mexican, and Indian residents have been published in The Quarterly (Historical Society of Southern California), Volumes 15, 18, 41-43, 54 {{FHL|979.4 B2s}}. Especially helpful are the Los Angeles censuses of '''1790, 1836, and 1844'''. The original records are scattered among various archives. The Family History Library has copies on microfilm.
Line 192: Line 167:
 
=== Existing and lost censuses  ===
 
=== Existing and lost censuses  ===
  
For a list of available and missing California censuses, [[California Censuses Existing and Lost|click here]]. <br>
+
For a list of available and missing California censuses, [[California Censuses Existing and Lost|click here]]. <br>  
  
 
=== Why use a census?  ===
 
=== Why use a census?  ===
Line 212: Line 187:
 
{{reflist}}  
 
{{reflist}}  
  
{{Place|California}} {{USCensus}} {{California-stub}} {{California|California}}
+
{{Place|California}} {{USCensus}} {{California|California}}  
 
 
<br>rnia|California}}  
 
  
 
[[Category:California|Census]] [[Category:Census_by_State|{{PAGENAME}}]]
 
[[Category:California|Census]] [[Category:Census_by_State|{{PAGENAME}}]]

Revision as of 21:00, 7 May 2012

United States  go to  U.S. Census  go to  California  go to  Census
Adopt-a-wiki page
CA State Genealogical Alliance.jpg This page adopted by:
The California State Genealogical Alliance and its members
who welcome you to contribute.
Adopt a page today
Tips
  • If at first you don't find a name, try again under another spelling.
  • Photocopy each ancestor's census. Identify where you found it.
  • Look for an ancestor in every census during her or his lifetime.
  • On the family group record show each person's census listings.
  • Study others in the same household, neighbors, and anyone with the similar names nearby on the census in community context.


  • For a list of the exact date of each federal census, click here.

Online California indexes and images

1880-1940

Online Federal and State Population Schedules of California 
  Free Free at Some Libraries (usually with a library card)* Pay
Family
Search[1]
Internet Archive[2]  Misc.  Heritage Quest[3] Fold3[4] Ancestry FHL[5] Ancestry Library[5] Ancestry Home[5] Archives[6] Family Link[7]
1940 indexes Link - Link
Link
- - Link Link Link Link -
images Link - Link
Link
Link
- - Link Link Link -
Link
1930 indexes Link - - Link Link Link Link Link


Link
images - Link - Link Link Link Link Link - Link
1920 indexes Link - - Link - Link Link Link Link


-
images - Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
1910 indexes Link - - Link - Link Link Link Link


-
images - Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
1900 indexes Link Soundex - Link - Link Link Link Link


-
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
partial 1890 indexes - - - - - Link Link Link - -
images - - - - - - - - - -
1880 indexes Link Soundex - Link - Link Link Link Link


-
images - Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link

1790-1870

Online Federal and State Population Schedules of California 
  Free Free at Some Libraries (usually with a library card)* Pay
Family
Search[1]
Internet Archive[2]  Misc.  Heritage Quest[3] Fold3[4] Ancestry FHL[5] Ancestry Library[5] Ancestry Home[5] Archives[6] Family Link[7]
1870 indexes Link - - Link - Link Link Link Link


-
images - Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
1860 indexes Link - - Link Link Link Link Link Link


Link
images Link Link - Link Link Link Link Link - Link
partial 1850 indexes Link - - - - Link Link Link Link


-
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
partial 1834 Colonial indexes - - - - - Link Link Link - -
images - - - - - - - - - -
partial 1796-98 Colonial indexes - - - - - Link Link Link
images - - - - - - - - - -
partial 1790 Colonial indexes - - Link - - Link Link Link
images - - Tran-
script
- - Link Link Link
  Family Search Internet Archive Misc.  Heritage Quest Fold3 Ancestry FHL  Ancestry Library  Ancestry Home Archives Family Link
Free Free at Some Libraries (usually with a library card) Pay


Federal population schedules

Microfilm Images

Federal Census Microfilms Available from the Family History Library
1940 N/A 1910 and Soundex 1870    
1930 1900 and Soundex 1860
1920 and Soundex 1880 and Soundex 1850


Indexes: fiche, film, or book

For a list of microform and book indexes for the population schedules of California, click here

Federal non-population schedules

Online indexes and images

Online Federal Non-Population Schedules for California

Free Free at Some Libraries(usually with library card) Pay
Year Type Record Search Heritage Quest Ancestry FHL Ancestry Library Ancestry Home
1880 Defective Link - Link Link Link
1880 Mortality Link - Link Link Link
1870 Mortality Link - Link Link Link
1860 Mortality Link - Link Link Link
1850 Mortality Link - Link Link Link

Microfilm images

Family History Library Federal Census Non-Population Schedule Microfilms for California

National Archives Federal Census Non-Population ScheduleMicrofilms for California

  • 1935 Census of Business

Indexes: fiche, film, or book

For a list of microform and book indexes for the non-population schedules of California, click here.

State, territorial, and colonial censuses

California often took censuses in the years between the federal censuses, the dates are listed below. State census records may have columns that were different or more unusual than those found on federal censuses. The responses and years of coverage may give additional information on the family.

California
1852 State[8]
1844 Los Angeles[9]
1837 Santa Barbara[10]
1836 Los Angeles[11], Monterey[12]
1834 Santa Barbara[13]
1816 Los Angeles[14]
1808 Monterey[12]
1804 Monterey[12]
1798 San Antonio, and Soledad[8]
1797-1798 San Luis Obispo[8]
1796 San Carlos[8]
1790 Los Angeles, Monterey, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, Santa Barbara[10][15]
1788 Los Angeles, Monterey, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, Santa Barbara, and Villa Branciforte[8]
  • The California State Library and the Family History Library have copies of a state census of 1852 FHL 909229-909234. This census gives information on the entire household, including an individual's state or country of birth and last residence.

A wiki article describing an online collection is found at:

California 1852 State Census (FamilySearch Historical Records)

  • Pre-statehood lists (called padrons) of Spanish, Mexican, and Indian residents have been published in The Quarterly (Historical Society of Southern California), Volumes 15, 18, 41-43, 54 FHL 979.4 B2s. Especially helpful are the Los Angeles censuses of 1790, 1836, and 1844. The original records are scattered among various archives. The Family History Library has copies on microfilm.

Existing and lost censuses

For a list of available and missing California censuses, click here.

Why use a census?

A well-indexed census is one of the easiest ways to locate where an ancestor's family lived and when they lived there. You can also use censuses to follow the changes in a family over time, and identify neighbors. These and other clues provided by censuses are important because they help find additional kinds of records about the family.

More about censuses

Click here for additional details about how to use censuses, such as:

Sources and footnotes

  1. 1.0 1.1 FamilySearch, a free online service of the Family History Library, including free images of many federal censuses.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Internet Archive, a free online service includes free images of most of the federal censuses.
  3. 3.0 3.1 HeritageQuest has arranged with many subscribing public libraries in the United States to allow users free access on home computers by means of their personal library card numbers. HeritageQuest provides images of all surviving 1790 to 1930 federal censuses, and indexes to many but not all of them.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Fold3, formerly known as Footnote.com, a subscription site partnering with the National Archives and includes some federal censuses. Free access is available at many public libraries.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Ancestry.com, a subscription site that provides online indexes and images to all surviving federal and many state census records, among other sources. They have three online editions: (1) an FHL edition free only at the Family History Library and a few Family History Centers, (2) a slightly smaller Library edition free only at some public libraries, and (3) a Home edition subscription service for individuals.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Archives.com, a subscription site that provides online indexes and images to all surviving federal census records, among other sources.
  7. 7.0 7.1 FamilyLink.com, a subscription site that provides online images (and some indexes) to all surviving federal and many state census records, among other sources.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Ann S. Lainhart, State Census Records (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1992)[[FHL book 973 X2Lai]], 21-26.
  9. Ann S. Lainhart, State Census Records (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1992)[[FHL book 973 X2Lai]], 21-26, citing the Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly, 42 (1960).
  10. 10.0 10.1 Mrs. Joseph M. Northrop, California Collection (Typescript, Los Angeles, Calif.: Northrop, 1958)[FHL Book 979.4 D4n; Film 1421704 item 12].
  11. Ann S. Lainhart, State Census Records (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1992)[[FHL book 973 X2Lai]], 21-26, citing the Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly, 18 (1936).
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Catholic Church, Monterey (California), "Extracts of Monterey municipal censuses, 1804-1836" Microfilm of photocopy of original typescript. (Salt Lake City: Genealogical Society of Utah, 197-.)[FHL Film 944282 Item 12].
  13. Ancestry.com, "California Census, 1790-1890" at http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3535 (accessed 4 January 2010).
  14. Ann S. Lainhart, State Census Records (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1992)[[FHL book 973 X2Lai]], 21-26, citing the Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly, 43 (1961).
  15. "1790 Padron (census) of California" (Typescript [photocopy], copied from Las Familias de California section in Southern California Historical Society Quarterly.)[FHL Book 979.4 A1 no. 67; Film 1036747 Item 6].