Arikara Indians

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Arikara Indian Mandan, 1874

Alternate names: Arickaree, Arikara, Ricara
Ancestral Homeland: near the Loup River in "Nebraska"
Federally recognized as: The Three Affiliated Tribes (Arikara, Mandan and Hidatsa)

History

In the 1700's the Arikara tribe came into contact with non-Indians and interacted with them through trade.

During the mid 1790's conflict with the Sioux, resulted in the tribe migrating to the Grand River area South Dakota where the Lewis and Clark Expedition located them in 1804.

The Tribe migrated again in 1823 to northern Nebraska, where in 1825 at Ricara Village, a peace treaty was signed which encouraged trade.

Tribal conflict with the Sioux and Mandan continued and the tribe once again in 1835 migrated settling near the Platte River in Nebraska

A smallpox epidemic in 1833 caused depopulation, one ramification was the tribal band combined which mixed family lines.

In 1862 the tribe joined the Mandan and Hidatsa tribes at Like-a-Fishhook Village, North Dakota.

In 1870 the tribe is assigned to Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota, where in 1934 the Mandan and Hidatsa tribes joined them.

With the contruction of the Garrison Dam, 1951-54, utilizing some of the land of the Fort Berthold Reservation, some tribal members were again required to relocate.

The population of the Arikara Indians in 1780 was estimated at 3,800. In 1910, their popuation was 444, and in 1980 it was 1,536.


Brief Timeline

  • Early 1799: Le Seyer a Spanish  fur trader encountered the Arikara at present day-Fort Pierre, South Dakota
  • 1743 & 1770: the tribe came into contact with French fur traders - along the Missouri River in South Dakota
  • 1794: pressured by the Sioux the tribe moved north above the Grand River
  • 1804: Lews and Clark expedition encountered the tribe
  • 1823: migrated to Northern Nebraska
  • 1825: Treaty
  • 1830: Sioux defeated the Arikara
  • 1832: intertribal conflict with the Sioux and Mandan led the tribe to resettle near Skidi Pawnee at the forks of the Platte River in Nebraska
  • 1835: migrated back to North Dakota
  • 1837: Smallpox epidemic- forced them to combine clans and mix family lines.
  • 1851: Treaty
  • 1862: the tribe joins Mandan and Hidatsa at Like-A-Fishhook Village
  • 1866: Treaty at Fort Berthold,
  • 1870: assigned to Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota 
  • 1934: assigned to Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota; sharing with the Mandan and Hidatsa tribes
  • 1951-1954: the tribe was relocated for construction of Garrison Dam

Reservations

The Arikara Tribe is primarily associated with the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota.

Additional References to the History of the Tribe

Tribal Headquarters

Three Affiliated Tribes
404 Frontage Road
New Town, ND 58763

Phone Number: 701-627-4781
Fax Number: 701-627-3503

Records

Agency Records

Upper Missouri Agency 1824-1866

Fort Berthold Agency  1867-

Census Records

Agency

Location of

Original Records

Post-1885 Census

M595 RG 75 Rolls 693

Roll Number

FHL

Film

Number

Fort Berthold Agency, 1867-70 Washington D.C. 132-36 576487-576491

 

Correspondence Records

Agency

Location of

Original Records

Pre - 1880

Correspondence

M234 RG 75 Rolls 962

Roll Number

FHL

Film

Number

Upper Missouri Agency, 1824-66 Washington D.C. 883-88 -

 

Treaties

  • 1825 July 18,at Ricara Village, peace and trade
  • 1851 September 17,at Fort Laramie
  • 1866 July 27,at Fort Berthold (unratified) " we, the said Aricara tribe of Indians agree to do all in our power to prevent the introduction or use of spirituous liquors among our people, and to this end we agree that should any of the members of our tribe encourage the use of spirituous liquors, either by using it themselves, or buying and selling it, whosoever shall do so shall forfeit his claim to any annuities paid by the Government for the current year;"


Vital Records

  • Fort Berthold Agency, M959, births and deaths1924-1932, FHL Film: 576490 and deaths and marriages 1937-39, FHL Film: 576491

Important Web Sites

References


Bibliography

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published