Difference between revisions of "Arikara Indians"

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{{stub}}
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To get started in [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]]
  
== History  ==
+
''[[Indians of Montana|Indians of Montana]] &gt; Arikara Indians''<br>''[[Indians of North Dakota|Indians of North Dakota]] &gt; Arikara Indians''
 +
 
 +
'''Alternate names:''' Arickaree, Arikara, Ricara<br>
 +
 
 +
To learn how to get started with American Indian research, find research facilities, and American Indian websites [[American Indian Genealogy|click here]].<br>
 +
 
 +
=== Tribal Headquarters  ===
 +
 
 +
Three Affiliated Tribes<br>404 Frontage Road <br>New Town, ND 58763
 +
 
 +
Phone Number: 1-701-627-4781<br>Fax Number: 1.701-627-3503
 +
 
 +
*[http://www.mhanation.com/main/main.html Three Affiliated Tribes] Official Website of Arikara, [[Hidatsa Indians|Hidatsa]] and [[Mandan Indians|Mandan]] tribes
 +
 
 +
To learn how to get started with American Indian research, find research facilities, and American Indian websites [[American Indian Genealogy|click here]].
 +
 
 +
<br>{{infobox ethnic group
 +
|group = Arikara
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|image = [[Image:Arikara Indian Mandan 1874.jpg|232x231px]]
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|poptime =
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<table style="background: none; width: 100%;" rules="rows">
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<tr>
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<td>1909</td>
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<td style="text-align: right;">4,635</td><td style="width: 2px;">{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}<REF>Frederick Webb Hodge. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'']. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.</REF></td>
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</tr>
 +
<tr>
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<td>1858</td>
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<td style="text-align: right;">abt. 7,000</td><td>{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}<REF>Frederick Webb Hodge. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'']. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.</REF></td>
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</tr>
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<tr>
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<td>1790</td>
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<td style="text-align: right;">abt. 9,000</td><td>{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}<REF>Frederick Webb Hodge. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'']. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.</REF></td>
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</tr>
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<tr>
 +
</table>
 +
<small></small>
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|popplace = '''Ancestral Homelands''': near the Loup River in "Nebraska"<br>
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'''Descendants''':<br>
 +
[[Blackfeet Indian Reservation (Montana)|Blackfeet Reservation]] in Montana.<br>
 +
Portions of the tribe also reside on three reserves in the Province of Alberta in Canada.
 +
|status = Federally recognized as:''' The Three Affiliated Tribes (Arikara, Mandan and Hidatsa)
 +
|linguistic = Algonquian
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|cultural = not yet researched
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|related-c = Siksika or North Blackfeet; Kainah or Bloods; Piegan
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
=== History  ===
 +
 
 +
In the 1700's the Arikara tribe came into contact with non-Indians and interacted with them through trade.
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 +
During the mid 1790's conflict with the [[Sioux Indians|Sioux,]] resulted in the tribe migrating to the Grand River area South Dakota where the Lewis and Clark Expedition located them in 1804.
 +
 
 +
The Tribe migrated again in 1823 to northern Nebraska, where in 1825 at Ricara Village, a peace treaty was signed which encouraged trade.
 +
 
 +
Tribal conflict with the [[Sioux Indians|Sioux]] and [[Mandan Indians|Mandan]] continued and the tribe once again in 1835 migrated settling near the Platte River in Nebraska
 +
 
 +
A smallpox epidemic in 1833 caused depopulation, one ramification was the tribal band combined which mixed family lines.
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 +
In 1862 the tribe joined the [[Mandan Indians|Mandan]] and [[Hidatsa Indians|Hidatsa]] tribes at Like-a-Fishhook Village, North Dakota.
 +
 
 +
In 1870 the tribe is assigned to [[Fort Berthold Indian Reservation (North Dakota)|Fort Berthold Reservation]] in North Dakota, where in 1934 the Mandan and Hidatsa tribes joined them.
 +
 
 +
With the contruction of the Garrison Dam, 1951-54, utilizing some of the land of the Fort Berthold Reservation, some tribal members were again required to relocate.
 +
 
 +
The population of the Arikara Indians in 1780 was estimated at 3,800. In 1910, their popuation was 444, and in 1980 it was 1,536.
  
 
==== Brief Timeline  ====
 
==== Brief Timeline  ====
  
==== Brief History  ====
+
*'''Early 1799:''' Le&nbsp;Seyer a Spanish &nbsp;fur trader encountered the Arikara at present day-Fort Pierre, South Dakota
 +
*'''1743 &amp; 1770:''' the tribe came into contact with French fur traders - along the Missouri River in South Dakota
 +
*'''1794:''' pressured by the Sioux the tribe moved north above the Grand River
 +
*'''1804:''' Lews and Clark expedition encountered the tribe
 +
*'''1823:''' migrated to Northern Nebraska
 +
*1824-66: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the [[Upper Missouri Indian Agency|Upper Missouri Agency]].
 +
*[[Media:Http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/ari0237.htm|1825]] July 18,at Ricara Village, peace and trade
 +
*'''1830: '''Sioux defeated the Arikara
 +
*'''1832: '''intertribal conflict&nbsp;with the Sioux and Mandan&nbsp;led the tribe to resettle near Skidi Pawnee at the forks of the Platte River in Nebraska
 +
*'''1835:''' migrated back to North Dakota
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*'''1837:''' Smallpox epidemic- forced them to combine clans and mix family lines.
 +
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sio0594.htm 1851] September 17,at Fort Laramie
 +
*'''1862:''' the tribe joins Mandan and Hidatsa at Like-A-Fishhook Village
 +
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/for1052.htm 1866] July 27,at Fort Berthold (unratified)
 +
*1867-80: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the [[Fort Berthold Indian Agency (North Dakota)|Fort Berthold Agency]].
 +
*'''1870:''' assigned to Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota&nbsp;
 +
*'''1934:''' assigned to Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota; sharing with the Mandan and Hidatsa tribes
 +
*'''1951-1954:''' the tribe was relocated for construction of Garrison Dam
  
==== Reservations ====
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==== Reservation ====
 +
 
 +
A reservation is a tract of land set aside forthe occupation and use by American Indians.
 +
 
 +
The Arikara Tribe is primarily associated with the [[Fort Berthold Indian Reservation (North Dakota)|Fort Berthold Reservation]] in North Dakota.
  
 
==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe<br> ====
 
==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe<br> ====
  
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'', gave a more complete [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/caddo/arikarahist.htm history of the&nbsp;Arikara tribe], with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's ''[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/northdakota/index.htm#Arikara The Indian Tribes of North America]'' and in David Bushnell's ''[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/scripts/data/database.cgi?file=Data&report=SingleArticle&ArticleID=0017344 Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi]''.  
+
*Frederick Webb Hodge, in his ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'', gave a more complete [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/caddo/arikarahist.htm history of the&nbsp;Arikara tribe], with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods.  
 +
*John Swanton's ''[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/northdakota/index.htm#Arikara The Indian Tribes of North America]''  
 +
*David Bushnell's ''[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/scripts/data/database.cgi?file=Data&report=SingleArticle&ArticleID=0017344 Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi]''.  
 +
*For additional history of the tribe, [http://www.mhanation.com/main/history.html read more....]
 +
 
 +
=== Tribal Headquarters  ===
 +
 
 +
Three Affiliated Tribes<br>404 Frontage Road <br>New Town, ND 58763
 +
 
 +
Phone Number: 1-701-627-4781<br>Fax Number: 1.701-627-3503
 +
 
 +
=== Records  ===
  
For additional history of the tribe, [http://www.mhanation.com/main/history.html read more....]
+
==== Agency Records  ====
  
== Tribal Headquarters  ==
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The following [[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs]] had jurisdiction over the Arikara for the time periods indicated. BIA agencies were responsible to keep such records as census rolls, allotment (land) records, annuity rolls, school records, correspondence, and other records of individual Indians under their jurisdiction. For details, see the page for the respective agency.
  
Three Affiliated Tribes<br>404 Frontage Road <br>New Town, ND 58763
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*[[Upper Missouri Indian Agency|Upper Missouri Agency]] 1824-1866
 +
*[[Fort Berthold Indian Agency (North Dakota)|Fort Berthold Agency]]1867-80
  
Phone Number: 701-627-4781<br>Fax Number: 701-627-3503
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The Tribe was also under the jurisdiction of the following Sperintendenies
  
== Records  ==
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[[St. Louis Superintendency of Indian Affairs|St. Louis Superintendency]]
  
'''Agency Records'''
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[[Central Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Central Superintendency]]
  
'''Corrrespondence and Census'''
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[[Dakota Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Dakota Superintendency]]
  
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
+
==== Census Records  ====
 +
 
 +
The Bureau of Indian Affairs compiled annual Indian Census Rolls on many of the reservations from 1885 to 1940. They list the names of individuals, their age, and other details about each person enumerated. For more information about these records, [[American Indian Census Rolls|click here]].
 +
 
 +
The following table lists the census rolls for the Arikara Indians:
 +
 
 +
{| border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1"
 
|-
 
|-
| Tribe
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! scope="col" | Agency  
| Agency
+
! scope="col" |  
|  
 
 
Location of  
 
Location of  
  
 
Original Records
 
Original Records
  
|  
+
! scope="col" |  
Pre-1880 Correspondence
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Post-1885 Census
  
M 234 RG 75 Rolls 962
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M595 RG 75 -- 692 Rolls  
  
 
Roll Number
 
Roll Number
  
|  
+
! scope="col" |  
 
FHL  
 
FHL  
  
Line 50: Line 152:
 
Number
 
Number
  
|  
+
|-
Post-1885 Census
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| Fort Berthold Agency, 1867-70
 +
| Washington D.C.
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| 132-36
 +
| {{ FHL |576487-576491}}
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
<br>
 +
 
 +
==== Correspondence  ====
 +
 
 +
There are several sets of correspondence between the supervising offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the local offices -- agencies, subagencies, etc. The correspondence is often historical in nature, including reports of the conditions among local groups of Indians, hostilities, plans for building facilities, activities of traders or missionaries, etc. Occasionally, there will be names of individuals but little detail about them. For more information about American Indian correspondence, [[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|click here]].
 +
 
 +
The following table lists some correspondence relating to the Arikara Indians:<br>
 +
 
 +
{| border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1"
 +
|-
 +
! scope="col" | Agency
 +
! scope="col" |
 +
Location of
 +
 
 +
Original Records
  
M595 RG 75 Rolls 693
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! scope="col" |
 +
Pre - 1880
 +
 
 +
Correspondence
 +
 
 +
M234 RG 75 -- 962 Rolls  
  
 
Roll Number
 
Roll Number
  
|  
+
! scope="col" |  
FHL
+
FHL  
  
Film
+
Film  
  
 
Number
 
Number
  
 
|-
 
|-
| Arikara
+
| Upper Missouri Agency, 1824-66  
| Fort Berthold Agency, 1867-70
+
| Washington D.C.  
| Washington D.C.
+
| 883-88  
| 292-99
 
|
 
| 132-36
 
| 576487-576491
 
|-
 
| Arikara
 
| Upper Missouri Agency, 1824-66
 
| Washington D.C.
 
| 883-88
 
|
 
 
| -
 
| -
|
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
'''&nbsp;Vital Records'''
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<br>
 +
 
 +
==== Treaties  ====
 +
 
 +
During the latter part of the 18th Century and most of the 19th Century, treaties were negotiated between the federal government and individual Indian tribes. The treaties provide helpful information about the history of the tribe, but usually only include the names of those persons who signed the treaty. For more information about treaties, [[American Indian Treaties with the United States|click here]].
  
*Fort Berthold Agency, M959, births and deaths1924-1932 FHL Film: 576490 and deaths and marriages 1937-39 FHL Film: 576491
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Treaties to which the Arikara Indians were a part were:  
  
== Important Web Sites  ==
+
*[[Media:Http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/ari0237.htm|1825]] July 18,at Ricara Village, peace and trade
 +
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sio0594.htm 1851] September 17,at Fort Laramie
 +
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/for1052.htm 1866] July 27,at Fort Berthold (unratified) " we, the said Aricara tribe of Indians agree to do all in our power to prevent the introduction or use of spirituous liquors among our people, and to this end we agree that should any of the members of our tribe encourage the use of spirituous liquors, either by using it themselves, or buying and selling it, whosoever shall do so shall forfeit his claim to any annuities paid by the Government for the current year;"
 +
 
 +
==== Tribal Office Records  ====
 +
 
 +
The Tribal Office is responsible for enrollment records, vital records, tribal police records, tribal court records, employment records and many others. They are an entirely different set of records from those kept by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Most of them remain in the Tribal Office. For details, contact that office at the address for the Tribal Headquarters listed above.
 +
 
 +
==== Vital Records  ====
 +
 
 +
Prior to the Indian Reorganization Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, through their agencies, may have recorded some vital events. Some were recorded on health forms, such as the "[[American Indian Sanitary Record of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc.|Sanitary Record]] of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc." Others were recorded as supplements to the "[[American Indian Census Rolls|Indian Census Rolls]]." Some were included in the unindexed reports and other correspondence of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
 +
 
 +
Some vital records for the Arikara Indians include:
 +
 
 +
*Fort Berthold Agency, M959, births and deaths 1924-1932, {{FHL | Film: 576490}} and deaths and marriages 1937-39, {{FHL | Film: 576491}}
 +
 
 +
=== Important Web Sites  ===
  
 
*[http://www.mhanation.com/main/main.html Three Affiliated Tribes] Official Website  
 
*[http://www.mhanation.com/main/main.html Three Affiliated Tribes] Official Website  
*Arikara Indians [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arikara WikipediA]  
+
*Arikara Indians [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arikara Wikipedia]  
 
*[http://lib.fbcc.bia.edu/FortBerthold/TATbylaws.asp By-Laws] of the Three Affiliated Tribes
 
*[http://lib.fbcc.bia.edu/FortBerthold/TATbylaws.asp By-Laws] of the Three Affiliated Tribes
  
== References  ==
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=== References  ===
 +
 
 +
<references />
 +
 
 +
=== Bibliography  ===
 +
 
 +
==== Arikara  ====
  
<references />
+
*Carlson, Paul H. ''The Plains Indians''. College Station, Texas: Texas A&amp;M University Press, c1998. {{FHL | book 970.1 C197p}}
  
==== Bibliography ====
+
==== General ====
  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view WorldCat 317923332]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1122745&disp=Reference+encyclopedia+of+the+American+I%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 R259e].  
+
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view WorldCat 317923332]; {{FHL|1122745|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 R259e}}.  
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=831087&disp=The+Gale+encyclopedia+of+Native+American%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 G131g].
+
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; {{FHL|831087|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 G131g}}.
  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
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:Volume 1 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 1 -- Not yet published  
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>  
+
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>  
+
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4].<br>  
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:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4}}.<br>
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5].<br>  
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:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5}}.<br>
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6].<br>  
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:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6}}.<br>
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>  
+
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8].<br>  
+
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8}}.<br>
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9].<br>  
+
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9}}.<br>
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10].  
+
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10}}.  
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11].<br>  
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:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11}}.<br>
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12].<br>  
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:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12}}.<br>
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>  
+
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15].<br>  
+
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15}}.<br>
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>  
+
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>
 
:Volume 18 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 18 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 19 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 19 -- Not yet published  
Line 132: Line 274:
  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1465222&disp=Encyclopedia+of+Native+American+tribes%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006].
+
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; {{FHL|1465222|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006}}.
  
[[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_North_America]]
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[[Category:Montana Indian Tribes]] [[Category:North Dakota Indian Tribes]] [[Category:South Dakota Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Nebraska Indian Tribes]]

Revision as of 10:54, 7 May 2012

To get started in American Indian Research

Indians of Montana > Arikara Indians
Indians of North Dakota > Arikara Indians

Alternate names: Arickaree, Arikara, Ricara

To learn how to get started with American Indian research, find research facilities, and American Indian websites click here.

Tribal Headquarters

Three Affiliated Tribes
404 Frontage Road
New Town, ND 58763

Phone Number: 1-701-627-4781
Fax Number: 1.701-627-3503

To learn how to get started with American Indian research, find research facilities, and American Indian websites click here.


{{#if: Siksika or North Blackfeet; Kainah or Bloods; Piegan|
Arikara
Arikara Indian Mandan 1874.jpg
Population
1909 4,635 [1]
1858 abt. 7,000 [2]
1790 abt. 9,000 [3]

Regions with significant populations
Ancestral Homelands: near the Loup River in "Nebraska"

Descendants:
Blackfeet Reservation in Montana.
Portions of the tribe also reside on three reserves in the Province of Alberta in Canada.

Status

Federally recognized as: The Three Affiliated Tribes (Arikara, Mandan and Hidatsa)

Linguistic Group

Algonquian

Cultural Group

not yet researched

Other Related Ethnic Groups

Siksika or North Blackfeet; Kainah or Bloods; Piegan

History

In the 1700's the Arikara tribe came into contact with non-Indians and interacted with them through trade.

During the mid 1790's conflict with the Sioux, resulted in the tribe migrating to the Grand River area South Dakota where the Lewis and Clark Expedition located them in 1804.

The Tribe migrated again in 1823 to northern Nebraska, where in 1825 at Ricara Village, a peace treaty was signed which encouraged trade.

Tribal conflict with the Sioux and Mandan continued and the tribe once again in 1835 migrated settling near the Platte River in Nebraska

A smallpox epidemic in 1833 caused depopulation, one ramification was the tribal band combined which mixed family lines.

In 1862 the tribe joined the Mandan and Hidatsa tribes at Like-a-Fishhook Village, North Dakota.

In 1870 the tribe is assigned to Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota, where in 1934 the Mandan and Hidatsa tribes joined them.

With the contruction of the Garrison Dam, 1951-54, utilizing some of the land of the Fort Berthold Reservation, some tribal members were again required to relocate.

The population of the Arikara Indians in 1780 was estimated at 3,800. In 1910, their popuation was 444, and in 1980 it was 1,536.

Brief Timeline

  • Early 1799: Le Seyer a Spanish  fur trader encountered the Arikara at present day-Fort Pierre, South Dakota
  • 1743 & 1770: the tribe came into contact with French fur traders - along the Missouri River in South Dakota
  • 1794: pressured by the Sioux the tribe moved north above the Grand River
  • 1804: Lews and Clark expedition encountered the tribe
  • 1823: migrated to Northern Nebraska
  • 1824-66: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Upper Missouri Agency.
  • 1825 July 18,at Ricara Village, peace and trade
  • 1830: Sioux defeated the Arikara
  • 1832: intertribal conflict with the Sioux and Mandan led the tribe to resettle near Skidi Pawnee at the forks of the Platte River in Nebraska
  • 1835: migrated back to North Dakota
  • 1837: Smallpox epidemic- forced them to combine clans and mix family lines.
  • 1851 September 17,at Fort Laramie
  • 1862: the tribe joins Mandan and Hidatsa at Like-A-Fishhook Village
  • 1866 July 27,at Fort Berthold (unratified)
  • 1867-80: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Fort Berthold Agency.
  • 1870: assigned to Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota 
  • 1934: assigned to Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota; sharing with the Mandan and Hidatsa tribes
  • 1951-1954: the tribe was relocated for construction of Garrison Dam

Reservation

A reservation is a tract of land set aside forthe occupation and use by American Indians.

The Arikara Tribe is primarily associated with the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota.

Additional References to the History of the Tribe

Tribal Headquarters

Three Affiliated Tribes
404 Frontage Road
New Town, ND 58763

Phone Number: 1-701-627-4781
Fax Number: 1.701-627-3503

Records

Agency Records

The following agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs had jurisdiction over the Arikara for the time periods indicated. BIA agencies were responsible to keep such records as census rolls, allotment (land) records, annuity rolls, school records, correspondence, and other records of individual Indians under their jurisdiction. For details, see the page for the respective agency.

The Tribe was also under the jurisdiction of the following Sperintendenies

St. Louis Superintendency

Central Superintendency

Dakota Superintendency

Census Records

The Bureau of Indian Affairs compiled annual Indian Census Rolls on many of the reservations from 1885 to 1940. They list the names of individuals, their age, and other details about each person enumerated. For more information about these records, click here.

The following table lists the census rolls for the Arikara Indians:

Agency

Location of

Original Records

Post-1885 Census

M595 RG 75 -- 692 Rolls

Roll Number

FHL

Film

Number

Fort Berthold Agency, 1867-70 Washington D.C. 132-36 FHL 576487-576491


Correspondence

There are several sets of correspondence between the supervising offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the local offices -- agencies, subagencies, etc. The correspondence is often historical in nature, including reports of the conditions among local groups of Indians, hostilities, plans for building facilities, activities of traders or missionaries, etc. Occasionally, there will be names of individuals but little detail about them. For more information about American Indian correspondence, click here.

The following table lists some correspondence relating to the Arikara Indians:

Agency

Location of

Original Records

Pre - 1880

Correspondence

M234 RG 75 -- 962 Rolls

Roll Number

FHL

Film

Number

Upper Missouri Agency, 1824-66 Washington D.C. 883-88 -


Treaties

During the latter part of the 18th Century and most of the 19th Century, treaties were negotiated between the federal government and individual Indian tribes. The treaties provide helpful information about the history of the tribe, but usually only include the names of those persons who signed the treaty. For more information about treaties, click here.

Treaties to which the Arikara Indians were a part were:

  • 1825 July 18,at Ricara Village, peace and trade
  • 1851 September 17,at Fort Laramie
  • 1866 July 27,at Fort Berthold (unratified) " we, the said Aricara tribe of Indians agree to do all in our power to prevent the introduction or use of spirituous liquors among our people, and to this end we agree that should any of the members of our tribe encourage the use of spirituous liquors, either by using it themselves, or buying and selling it, whosoever shall do so shall forfeit his claim to any annuities paid by the Government for the current year;"

Tribal Office Records

The Tribal Office is responsible for enrollment records, vital records, tribal police records, tribal court records, employment records and many others. They are an entirely different set of records from those kept by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Most of them remain in the Tribal Office. For details, contact that office at the address for the Tribal Headquarters listed above.

Vital Records

Prior to the Indian Reorganization Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, through their agencies, may have recorded some vital events. Some were recorded on health forms, such as the "Sanitary Record of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc." Others were recorded as supplements to the "Indian Census Rolls." Some were included in the unindexed reports and other correspondence of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Some vital records for the Arikara Indians include:

Important Web Sites

References

  1. Frederick Webb Hodge. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.
  2. Frederick Webb Hodge. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.
  3. Frederick Webb Hodge. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.

Bibliography

Arikara

  • Carlson, Paul H. The Plains Indians. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, c1998. FHL book 970.1 C197p

General

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published